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Clinical and Translational Medicine

Hanan Polansky, Edan Itzkovitz, Adrian Javaherian
The Editor of this journal has published this Expression of Concern to alert readers that, following publication of the article [1], it came to light that there were undeclared competing interests that have a direct impact on the article and the strength of its findings. In addition, post publication peer review has indicated that the conclusions may not be supported by the results due to methodological flaws in the study. Pending further investigation of these concerns, further editorial action may be taken...
February 6, 2019: Clinical and Translational Medicine
Thang Thanh Phan, Bich-Thu Tran, Son Truong Nguyen, Toan Trong Ho, Hang Thuy Nguyen, Vu Thuong Le, Anh Tuan Le
BACKGROUND: This study aims to clarify the prognostic role of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in plasma of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) for resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), in correlation with clinical characteristics. A total of 94 Adenocarcinoma, clinical stage IV NSCLC patients with either E19del or L858R mutation were admitted to the prospective study from Jan-2016 to Jul-2018. EGFR mutations in plasma were detected by scorpions ARMS method. The Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression methods were used to estimate and test the difference of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) between groups...
January 19, 2019: Clinical and Translational Medicine
Shaghayegh Omrani, Mohammad Taheri, Mir Davood Omrani, Shahram Arsang-Jang, Soudeh Ghafouri-Fard
Long chain omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3 FAs) supplements have been shown to exert beneficial effects in patients with epilepsy through elevation of seizure thresholds and dampening of inflammatory responses. In this triple blind randomized, placebo-controlled parallel group trial of omega-3 FA supplementation, 180 mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 120 mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as well as placebo capsules were administered twice a day in 50 patients with refractory seizure during a 16-week period respectively...
January 16, 2019: Clinical and Translational Medicine
Burak Uzunparmak, Ibrahim Halil Sahin
Pancreatic cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in the United States and survival outcomes remain dismal despite significant advances in molecular diagnostics and therapeutics in clinical practice. The microenvironment of pancreatic cancer carries unique features with increased desmoplastic reaction and is infiltrated by regulatory T cells and myeloid-derived suppressor cells which negatively impact the effector immune cells. Current evidence suggests that stellate cell-induced hypovascular stroma may have direct effects on aggressive behavior of pancreatic cancer...
January 15, 2019: Clinical and Translational Medicine
Peter D Burbelo, Sarah Browne, Steve M Holland, Michael J Iadarola, Ilias Alevizos
BACKGROUND: Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by immune attack on the salivary and lacrimal glands. Given the known cytokine activation and type I interferon gene expression signature found in SS, we hypothesized that anticytokine autoantibodies might be detectable by Luciferase immunoprecipitation systems in some SS patients and correlate with clinical symptoms. RESULTS: Luciferase immunoprecipitation systems was used to screen for serum anti-cytokine autoantibodies in 57 primary SS patients and 25 healthy volunteers...
January 3, 2019: Clinical and Translational Medicine
Rajendra Kc, Shakti D Shukla, Sanjay S Gautam, Philip M Hansbro, Ronan F O'Toole
Chronic exposure to household indoor smoke and outdoor air pollution is a major contributor to global morbidity and mortality. The majority of these deaths occur in low and middle-income countries. Children, women, the elderly and people with underlying chronic conditions are most affected. In addition to reduced lung function, children exposed to biomass smoke have an increased risk of developing lower respiratory tract infections and asthma-related symptoms. In adults, chronic exposure to biomass smoke, ambient air pollution, and opportunistic exposure to fumes and dust are associated with an increased risk of developing chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer and respiratory infections, including tuberculosis...
December 5, 2018: Clinical and Translational Medicine
Mehrdokht Mazdeh, Shno Hosseini, Mohammad Taheri, Soudeh Ghafouri-Fard
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a progressive immune-related disorder of the central nervous system leading to destruction of myelin sheaths. Natalizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody against the cell adhesion molecule α4-integrin which has been approved for treatment of relapsing forms of MS. This study aims at determining the effect of natalizumab on expanded disability status scale (EDSS) score and relapse rate of MS patients. Fifty MS patients participated in the present prospective cohort study. Twenty patients (Mean age ± SD: 33 ± 6...
November 30, 2018: Clinical and Translational Medicine
Santul Bapat, Daniel Hubbard, Akul Munjal, Monte Hunter, Sadanand Fulzele
Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most common chronic conditions in the world today. It results in breakdown of cartilage in joints and causes the patient to experience intense pain and even disability. The pathophysiology of OA is not fully understood; therefore, there is currently no cure for OA. Many researchers are investigating the pathophysiology of the disease and attempting to develop methods to alleviate the symptoms or cure the OA entirely using animal models. Most studies on OA use animal models; this is necessary as the disease develops very slowly in humans and presents differently in each patient...
November 21, 2018: Clinical and Translational Medicine
Christopher J LaRocca, Susanne G Warner
Advances in the understanding of cancer immunotherapy and the development of multiple checkpoint inhibitors have dramatically changed the current landscape of cancer treatment. Recent large-scale phase III trials (e.g. PHOCUS, OPTiM) are establishing use of oncolytic viruses as another tool in the cancer therapeutics armamentarium. These viruses do not simply lyse cells to achieve their cancer-killing effects, but also cause dramatic changes in the tumor immune microenvironment. This review will highlight the major vector platforms that are currently in development (including adenoviruses, reoviruses, vaccinia viruses, herpesviruses, and coxsackieviruses) and how they are combined with checkpoint inhibitors...
November 14, 2018: Clinical and Translational Medicine
Terry A Jacot, Meredith R Clark, Oluwatosin E Adedipe, Susan Godbout, Abby G Peele, Susan Ju, Jill L Schwartz, Andrea R Thurman, Gustavo F Doncel
BACKGROUND: Adherence is critical for successful topical, vaginally delivered anti-retroviral (ARV)-based HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Quantitating systemic or tissue ARV levels through LC-MS/MS is currently viewed as the most reliable measure of adherence. However, for placebo-controlled trials, this is a high cost analysis that measures adherence only in the drug treatment group. A desirable marker of adherence is one that is measured in both placebo and drug treatment groups using a simple on-site clinical laboratory test, which allows necessary interventions for supporting participant adherence...
November 7, 2018: Clinical and Translational Medicine
Yong Zhang
Cell toxicity may result in organ dysfunction and cause severe health problem. Recent studies revealed many toxicants may induced the over production of Nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species and the subsequent oxidative stress, cause cell toxicity. Mitochondrion dysfunction maybe the subsequent consequence of oxidative stress and has been recognized as another contributing factor in cell toxicity. Besides, oxidative products induced by some toxicants may also produce the compounds that damage cell DNA, leading to toxicity...
October 29, 2018: Clinical and Translational Medicine
Debarati Ghosh, Saikat Nandi, Sonali Bhattacharjee
Combination therapy is increasingly becoming the cornerstone of current day antitumor therapy. Glioblastoma multiforme is an aggressive brain tumor with a dismal median survival post diagnosis and a high rate of disease recurrence. The poor prognosis can be attributed to unique treatment limitations, which include the infiltrative nature of tumor cells, failure of anti-glioma drugs to cross the blood-brain barrier, tumor heterogeneity and the highly metastatic and angiogenic nature of the tumor making cells resistant to chemotherapy...
October 16, 2018: Clinical and Translational Medicine
Jun Gong, Andrew Hendifar, Richard Tuli, Jeremy Chuang, May Cho, Vincent Chung, Daneng Li, Ravi Salgia
Immune checkpoint inhibitors have demonstrated broad single-agent antitumor activity and a favorable safety profile that render them attractive agents to combine with other systemic anticancer therapies. Pancreatic cancer has been fairly resistant to monotherapy blockade of programmed cell death protein 1 receptor, programmed death ligand 1, and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated protein 4. However, there is a growing body of preclinical evidence to support the rational combination of checkpoint inhibitors and various systemic therapies in pancreatic cancer...
October 8, 2018: Clinical and Translational Medicine
Naasson Tuyiringire, Deusdedit Tusubira, Jean-Pierre Munyampundu, Casim Umba Tolo, Claude M Muvunyi, Patrick Engeu Ogwang
Human tuberculosis (TB) is amongst the oldest and deadliest human bacterial diseases that pose major health, social and economic burden at a global level. Current regimens for TB treatment are lengthy, expensive and ineffective to emerging drug resistant strains. Thus, there is an urgent need for identification and development of novel TB drugs and drug regimens with comprehensive and specific mechanisms of action. Many medicinal plants are traditionally used for TB treatment. While some of their phytochemical composition has been elucidated, their mechanisms of action are not well understood...
October 1, 2018: Clinical and Translational Medicine
Hans Raskov, Kasper Nørskov Kragh, Thomas Bjarnsholt, Mahdi Alamili, Ismail Gögenur
BACKGROUND: Research in the field of relation between microbes and colorectal carcinogenesis has gained increasing interest in past years. Recently, link between microbial biofilm and carcinogenesis in colon was demonstrated by several authors indicating that biofilm not only is a key player in carcinogenesis, but also may contribute to the understanding of side-specific colon cancer-right sided colon cancer versus left sided. In this article, we briefly highlight the major findings of the research of biofilm and carcinogenesis and demonstrate our findings of colonic cancer tissue and colonic polyp examined for biofilm...
September 17, 2018: Clinical and Translational Medicine
Christopher D Phillips, Pornpatcharin Wongsaisri, Thein Htut, Terry Grossman
The Editor-in-Chief is retracting this article because the authors have not obtained consent to publish from the patient whose details are described in this case report. The article has been removed to protect the patient's privacy. Terry Grossman has stated that he was not an author on this article. Christopher Phillips, Pornpatcharin Wongsaisri and Thein Htut did not reply to correspondence about this retraction.
September 14, 2018: Clinical and Translational Medicine
Barbara Lohman-Payne, Benjamin Gabriel, Sangshin Park, Dalton Wamalwa, Elizabeth Maleche-Obimbo, Carey Farquhar, Rose Kerubo Bosire, Grace John-Stewart
BACKGROUND: In low and middle income countries, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) exposed, uninfected (HEU) infants demonstrate higher morbidity and mortality than their unexposed counterparts. To determine possible immune correlates of this effect, we investigated the impact of in utero HIV exposure on the uninfected neonatal immune milieu and maternal factors mediating these abnormalities in a cohort of vaginally delivered mother-infants. Samples of delivery and cord blood plasma were selected from 22 Kenyan HIV-infected women and their HIV exposed uninfected (HEU) infants drawn from the pre-ARV era, while 19 Kenyan HIV-uninfected (HU) women and their infants were selected from a control cohort...
September 10, 2018: Clinical and Translational Medicine
Weilong Chen, Yuanyuan Qin, Suling Liu
Chemotherapy resistance of breast cancer poses a great challenge to the survival of patients. During breast cancer treatment, the development of intrinsic and acquired drug resistance tends to further induce adverse prognosis, such as metastasis. In recent years, the progress of research on cytokine-modulated tumor microenvironment and breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) has shed light on defining the mechanisms of drug resistance gradually. In this review, we have discussed cytokine regulation on breast cancer chemoresistance...
September 3, 2018: Clinical and Translational Medicine
Monique R Anderson, Michelle L Pleet, Yoshimi Enose-Akahata, James Erickson, Maria Chiara Monaco, Yao Akpamagbo, Ashley Velluci, Yuetsu Tanaka, Shila Azodi, Ben Lepene, Jennifer Jones, Fatah Kashanchi, Steven Jacobson
BACKGROUND: HTLV-1 infects over 20 million people worldwide and causes a progressive neuroinflammatory disorder in a subset of infected individuals called HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). The detection of HTLV-1 specific T cells in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) suggests this disease is immunopathologically mediated and that it may be driven by viral antigens. Exosomes are microvesicles originating from the endosomal compartment that are shed into the extracellular space by various cell types...
August 27, 2018: Clinical and Translational Medicine
Johan Malm, Yutaka Sugihara, Marcell Szasz, Ho Jeong Kwon, Henrik Lindberg, Roger Appelqvist, György Marko-Varga
We present the Cancer Moonshot clinical project located at the European center in Lund. Here, tissue and blood samples have been collected and stored in a large-scale biobank. Multiple clinical centers around the world are participating and tissue and blood samples are sent to the European Cancer Moonshot Lund Center that acts as the clinical hub. Our center has been developed to generate and build large-scale biostorage archives of patient melanoma samples, which is then combined with a histopathological capability to characterize the patient tumours...
August 20, 2018: Clinical and Translational Medicine
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