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BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology

Wan Xu, Hongyan Wu, Lixin Shang
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to identify potential zinc status indicators and to clarify the mechanisms underlying zinc deficiency-induced organ damage and mortality in mice. METHODS: The dataset GSE97112, including placental tissues of mice fed diets containing normal and low concentrations of zinc, was downloaded and preprocessed. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were calculated and identified for zinc deficiency-related gene clusters by using the weighed gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) algorithm...
February 15, 2019: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Kamelia Saremi, Sima Kianpour Rad, Faezeh Tayeby, Mahmood A Abdulla, Hamed Karimian, Nazia Abdul Majid
BACKGROUND: Basic function of bromine in body is to activate pepsin production in gastritis with low acidity. The present study encompasses a broad in vivo study to evaluate gastroprotective activity of a novel dibromo substituted Schiff base complex against Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. METHODS: 2, 2'-[1, 2-cyclohexanediylbis (nitriloethylidyne)]bis(4-bromophenol) (CNBP) is synthesized via a Schiff base reaction, using the related ketone and diamine as the starting materials...
February 15, 2019: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Jefferson Antonio Buendía, Gabriel Jaime Restrepo Chavarriaga, Andrés F Zuluaga
BACKGROUND: Paraquat (PQ) poisoning is a public health problem in many regions of Colombia. This study aimed to estimate the burden of PQ poisoning in the Department of Antioquia, Colombia. METHODS: Disability-adjusted life year (DALYs) were calculated as the sum of years of life lost (YLL) and years of life lived with disability (YLD) due to paraquat poisoning in Antioquia; a bootstrapped method with 1000 iterations was used to estimate each statistical parameter using the package DALY calculator in R...
February 15, 2019: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Peifan Li, Yiming Wang, Xingde Liu, Zhen Zhou, Jun Wang, Haiyan Zhou, Lei Zheng, Lixia Yang
BACKGROUND: There is evidence that atypical antipsychotics (APs) increase risk of osteoporosis in schizophrenia patients, however the mechanism is unclear. The aim of the study was to explore the molecular mechanisms about Wnt/β-catenin signal pathway underlying the osteal side effects of APs. METHODS: We cultured human osteoblast cell line hFob1. 19 (OB) treatments with olanzapine, risperidone, amisulpride, aripiprazole or resveratrol in vitro. OB cells viability was detected by cell viability assay...
February 12, 2019: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Lisa Brockhaus, Yasmin Schmid, Anna C Rast, Alexandra E Rätz Bravo, Kathrin Scherer Hofmeier, Anne B Leuppi-Taegtmeyer
BACKGROUND: True hypersensitivity reactions to rifampicin are relatively rare, nonetheless severe manifestations mostly involving a single organ have been documented. We report a case of acute multi-organ failure occurring after a medication error with re-exposure to rifampicin. CASE PRESENTATION: A 68-year old patient developed acute hypersensitivity pneumonitis, acute renal failure, acute liver failure and haemolytic anemia within hours after a second re-exposure to Rifampicin for the treatment of a hip prosthesis infection with Staphylococcus epidermidis...
February 12, 2019: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Ai Yin Sow, Ahmad Ismail, Syaizwan Zahmir Zulkifli, Mohammad Noor Amal, Kamarul Hambali
BACKGROUND: Levels of toxic metal exposure in indigenous inhabitants are key bioindicators of the severity of environmental contamination. This study measured the seasonal variation of heavy metals and metallothionein (MT) contents in Asian swamp eels (Monopterus albus) from a paddy field situated in Tumpat, Kelantan, Malaysia, to identify prevalence, patterns and associations and togain insight on the suitability of MT as a biomarker for metal exposure. METHODS: Gill, muscle and liver tissues of M...
January 29, 2019: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Yanru Du, Jiahe Lin, Jingzan Shen, Siqi Ding, Mengqian Ye, Li Wang, Yi Wang, Xinshi Wang, Niange Xia, Rongyuan Zheng, Hong Chen, Huiqin Xu
BACKGROUND: This active, open observational study aimed to investigate adverse drug reactions (ADRs) associated with six commonly used antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in southern Chinese outpatients with epilepsy from 2003 to 2015. METHODS: The Wenzhou Epilepsy Follow-Up Registry Database (WEFURD) was established by a single epilepsy center in China in January 2003 to record AED efficacy and the associated ADRs by registered outpatients diagnosed with epilepsy. We reviewed the data of outpatients who had only taken one or more of six commonly used AEDs, namely, carbamazepine (CBZ), valproate (VPA), lamotrigine (LTG), oxcarbazepine (OXC), topiramate (TPM) and levetiracetam (LEV), and were registered in the WEFURD between 2003 and 2015...
January 14, 2019: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Naohisa Yoshida, Tetsuya Taguchi, Masayoshi Nakanishi, Ken Inoue, Tetsuya Okayama, Takeshi Ishikawa, Eigo Otsuji, Koichi Takayama, Haruo Kuroboshi, Motohiro Kanazawa, Yoshito Itoh
BACKGROUND: Nausea is more difficult to control than vomiting in chemotherapy. We therefore analyzed the efficacy of a strong supportive treatment with aprepitant, palonosetron, and dexamethasone against nausea for various moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC). METHODS: A total of 312 cases treated by palonosetron with or without aprepitant receiving MEC regimens using oxaliplatin, carboplatin, and irinotecan from 2014 to 2016 in our outpatient center for digestive organ cancers, lung cancers, and gynecological cancers were analyzed...
January 14, 2019: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Méndez-Sánchez Nahum, Dibildox-Martinez Miguel, Sosa-Noguera Jahir, Sánchez-Medal Ramón, J Francisco Flores-Murrieta
BACKGROUND: Fibrosis is a response to chronic liver disease that results in excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins and formation of scar tissue. Fibrosis represents a clinical challenge of worldwide significance. Several studies have demonstrated that many natural products and herbal medicines have activity against liver fibrosis, and extracts of milk thistle such as silymarin and silybin are the natural compounds most commonly prescribed for liver diseases. Therefore, we sought to assess and compare the pharmacokinetic properties and bioavailability of silybin-phosphatidylcholine complex in oily-medium soft-gel capsules and conventional silymarin tablets in healthy Mexican volunteers...
January 11, 2019: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Xiaojuan Wang, Charlotte Caroline Decker, Laura Zechner, Sonja Krstin, Michael Wink
BACKGROUND: Cell migration is involved in several pathological processes such as tumor invasion, neoangiogenesis and metastasis. Microtubules are needed in directional migration. METHODS: To investigate the effects of microtubule-binding agents (paclitaxel, vinblastine, colchicine, podophyllotoxin), benzophenanthridine alkaloids (sanguinarine, chelerythrine, chelidonine) and other anti-tumor drugs (homoharringtonine, doxorubicin) on cell migration, we performed the in vitro wound healing assay...
January 9, 2019: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Xiaoping Shi, Hui Gao, Zhong Li, Jinghua Li, Yang Liu, Lujuan Li, Qi Zhang
BACKGROUND: Methotrexate is an important component in many chemotherapy protocols. The blood concentration of Methotrexate is used to determine the regimen of folinic acid. However, the lower limit of Siemens assay kit is 0.30 μmol/L in China. This study extended the limit from 0.3 to 0.05 μmol/L and reduced the test cost by optimizing the parameters of Enzyme Multiplied Immunoassay Technique assay. METHODS: Parameters of Enzyme Multiplied Immunoassay Technique assay were modified to decrease the volume of reagents A and B...
January 9, 2019: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Limeng Pu, Misagh Naderi, Tairan Liu, Hsiao-Chun Wu, Supratik Mukhopadhyay, Michal Brylinski
BACKGROUND: The efficiency of drug development defined as a number of successfully launched new pharmaceuticals normalized by financial investments has significantly declined. Nonetheless, recent advances in high-throughput experimental techniques and computational modeling promise reductions in the costs and development times required to bring new drugs to market. The prediction of toxicity of drug candidates is one of the important components of modern drug discovery. RESULTS: In this work, we describe eToxPred, a new approach to reliably estimate the toxicity and synthetic accessibility of small organic compounds...
January 8, 2019: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Lisa M Pitchford, John A Rathmacher, John C Fuller, J Scott Daniels, Ryan D Morrison, Wendall S Akers, Naji N Abumrad, Venkataraman Amarnath, Patricia M Currey, L Jackson Roberts, John A Oates, Olivier Boutaud
BACKGROUND: 2-Hydroxybenzylamine (2-HOBA) is a selective scavenger of dicarbonyl electrophiles that protects proteins and lipids from being modified by these electrophiles. It is currently being developed for use as a nutritional supplement to help maintain good health and protect against the development of conditions associated with dicarbonyl electrophile formation, such as the cognitive decline associated with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's disease. METHODS: In this first-in-human study, the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of six ascending single oral doses of 2-HOBA acetate were tested in eighteen healthy human volunteers...
January 5, 2019: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Egle Karinauske, Silvijus Abramavicius, Greta Musteikiene, Edgaras Stankevicius, Jurgita Zaveckiene, Vidas Pilvinis, Edmundas Kadusevicius
BACKGROUND: Amiodarone is an antiarrhythmic drug which is used to treat and prevent several dysrhythmias. This includes ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation, wide complex tachycardia, as well as atrial fibrillation (AF) and paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia. Amiodarone may prove to be the agent of choice where the patient is hemodynamically unstable and unsuitable for direct current (DC) cardioversion. Although, it is not recommended for long-term use. The physician might encounter issues when differentiating amiodarone-induced lung toxicity with suspicion of interstitial lung disease, cancer or vasculitis...
December 29, 2018: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Tomomi Kogiso, Takaomi Sagawa, Kazuhisa Kodama, Makiko Taniai, Katsutoshi Tokushige
BACKGROUND: The vasopressin V2-receptor antagonist tolvaptan is used to treat cirrhotic patients with ascites. We investigated the outcome of long-term treatment. METHODS: This was a single-center retrospective study. Overall, 170 cirrhotic patients (95 males, median age 63 years) were enrolled and received tolvaptan orally after hospitalization for ascites, which included treatment with conventional diuretics. We compared patients who withdrew tolvaptan treatment after < 1 year (n = 90) with patients who continued treatment for ≥1 year (n = 37)...
December 18, 2018: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Mekonnen Sisay, Fitsum Weldegebreal, Tewodros Tesfa, Zerihun Ataro, Dadi Marami, Habtamu Mitiku, Birhanu Motbaynor, Zelalem Teklemariam
BACKGROUND: Fluoroquinolones are among the most frequently utilized antibacterial agents in developing countries like Ethiopia. Ciprofloxacin has become the most prescribed drug within this class and remains as one of the top three antibacterial agents prescribed in Ethiopia. However, several studies indicated that there is a gradual increase of antibacterial resistance. Therefore, this meta-analysis aimed to quantitatively estimate the prevalence of ciprofloxacin resistance bacterial isolates in Ethiopia...
December 12, 2018: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Faisal Shakeel, Muhammad Aamir, Ahmad Farooq Khan, Tayyiba Nader Khan, Samiullah Khan
BACKGROUND: Aging population, is a reality in many countries because of improvement in the health care, patient safety and other supplemental factors. Pharmacotherapy in this population must be evaluated due to their higher susceptibility to adverse drug outcomes, like potential drug-drug interactions (PDDIs). Research in this regard is limited particularly in developing countries. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence and associated factors in this population. METHODS: The multicentered study evaluated the prevalence of potential drug-drug interactions and associated factors in elderly population at critical care units in Peshawar, Pakistan...
December 10, 2018: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Yuji Yamada, Harumasa Takano, Maki Yamada, Naoko Satake, Naotsugu Hirabayashi, Mitsutoshi Okazaki, Kazuyuki Nakagome
BACKGROUND: Mirtazapine is a noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant; its pharmacological profile indicates a low risk for dopaminergic adverse effects. To date, there has been only a single case report of Pisa syndrome associated with mirtazapine. CASE PRESENTATION: The authors report a case involving a 79-year-old woman with bipolar disorder, in whom Pisa syndrome occurred after introduction of mirtazapine, and completely disappeared 3 days after suspension of the drug...
December 6, 2018: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Ademola O Ayeleso, Jitcy S Joseph, Oluwafemi O Oguntibeju, Emmanuel Mukwevho
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease in which the body is unable to produce insulin or respond to insulin production, consequently leading to abnormal metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins causing elevation of glucose in the blood. Oxidative stress, an imbalance between the production of free radicals and body antioxidant system has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetes. Free radicals attack important macromolecules leading to cell damage. Antioxidants are intimately involved in the prevention of damage caused by free radicals...
December 6, 2018: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Ramon Weyler Leopoldino, Haline Tereza Costa, Tatiana Xavier Costa, Rand Randall Martins, António Gouveia Oliveira
BACKGROUND: There is little information on the frequency of drug incompatibilities in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) and the agents most commonly involved in them. The objective of the study was to characterize potential Drug Incompatibilities (DI) in the NICU by frequency, type and combination of drugs. METHODS: Between August 2015 and December 2016, all neonates admitted for more than 24 h and who received any drug treatment were included in this cohort study conducted in the NICU of a teaching maternity hospital in Brazil...
December 6, 2018: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
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