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Gary E Harman, Norman Uphoff
Plants should not be regarded as entities unto themselves, but as the visible part of plant-microbe complexes which are best understood as "holobiomes." Some microorganisms when given the opportunity to inhabit plant roots become root symbionts. Such root colonization by symbiotic microbes can raise crop yields by promoting the growth of both shoots and roots, by enhancing uptake, fixation, and/or more efficient use of nutrients, by improving plants' resistance to pests, diseases, and abiotic stresses that include drought, salt, and other environmental conditions, and by enhancing plants' capacity for photosynthesis...
2019: Scientifica
Marie Lydell, Cathrine Hildingh, Arne Söderbom, Kristina Ziegert
Background: Health is important in workplaces. A good organisational climate in a workplace plays a major role in the employees' well-being at work and is also associated with increased productivity. Today, employees are expected to work into older age and it is a challenge for companies to promote health and well-being for this growing group. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore how to promote workplace health at present time and for the end of working life in the perspective of employees...
2019: Scientifica
Edson Gandiwa, Never Muboko, John F Mupangwa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2019: Scientifica
Olga Laiza Kupika, Edson Gandiwa, Godwell Nhamo, Shakkie Kativu
Understanding local community perceptions on impacts, causes, and responses to climate change is vital for promotion of community resilience towards climate change. This study explored local ecological knowledge (LEK) held by local communities on climate change trends and impacts in the Middle Zambezi Biosphere Reserve (MZBR), Zimbabwe. The objectives of the study were to (i) investigate local community perceptions on trends and causes of climate change, (ii) identify biophysical impacts of climate change at the local level, and (iii) explore the ecosystem-based adaptation strategies towards climate change...
2019: Scientifica
Carmen García-Peña, Luis Miguel Gutiérrez-Robledo, Augusto Cabrera-Becerril, David Fajardo-Ortiz
Mexico's National Institute of Geriatrics (INGER) is the national research center of reference for matters related to human aging. INGER scientists perform basic, clinical, and demographic research which may imply different scientific cultures working together in the same specialized institution. In this paper, by a combination of text mining, coauthorship network analysis, and agent-based modeling, we analyzed and modeled the team assembly practices and the structure of the knowledge produced by scientists from INGER...
2019: Scientifica
Given Matseketsa, Billy B Mukamuri, Never Muboko, Edson Gandiwa
The long-term survival of a protected area (PA) may depend to a greater extent on the goodwill and support of the people residing around it. This study assessed local people's support for private sector driven wildlife conservation in Zimbabwe, using the Save Valley Conservancy (SVC) as a case. Specifically, the objectives of the assessment were threefold: (i) to establish perceptions on the current nature of the relationship between SVC and people living on its edge, (ii) to ascertain the proximate and underlying causes of local resistance to SVC, and (iii) to identify strategies local people employ to resist SVC conservation efforts...
2019: Scientifica
Gale E Ridge, Wade Elmer, Stephanie Gaines, Xiaolin Li, Danie Schlatzer, Kim McClure-Brinton, Johnathan M Sheele
Human bed bug infestations have undergone a recent global resurgence. The human antiparasitic drug ivermectin has been proposed as a strategy to help control bed bug infestations, but in vivo data are lacking. We allowed separate populations of the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L., to feed once on a rabbit before and after it was injected subcutaneously with 0.3 mg/kg of ivermectin, and bed bug morbidity and mortality were recorded. Ivermectin levels in the rabbit were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectroscopy...
2019: Scientifica
Dyness Kejo, Pammla Petrucka, Haikael Martin, Theobald C E Mosha, Martin E Kimanya
In Tanzania's Arusha District, anaemia is a significant public health problem. Recently, home fortification with multiple micronutrient powder was recommended, and daily use of one sachet has shown to be effective. However, it is a challenge for deprived families with low income to afford the daily sachet. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of different administration frequencies of micronutrient powder in reducing anaemia in children aged 6-59 months. This research used a community-based, randomized longitudinal trial design with the intent to treat anaemia...
2019: Scientifica
Edy Setiti Wida Utami, Sucipto Hariyanto
Phalaenopsis amboinensis , an epiphytic orchid, has a great potential for commercial exploitation in the cut-flower industry. It is difficult to propagate vegetatively as it naturally grows slowly. Therefore, there is a need to improve the propagation methods to avoid endangering its natural populations. The objective of this study was to identify the best medium and organic supplements for seed germination and plantlets development of P. amboinensis . Seeds from 4-month-old hand-pollinated orchids were sown on different strengths of MS and VW culture media: Murashige and Skoog (MS), 1/2 MS, Vacin and Went (VW), and 1/2 VW...
2019: Scientifica
Maria Pia Fuggetta, Maria Rita Migliorino, Serena Ricciardi, Giorgia Osman, Daniela Iacono, Alvaro Leone, Alessandra Lombardi, Giampietro Ravagnan, Stefania Greco, Daniele Remotti, Maria Concetta Pucci Romano
Background: Severe skin rash is listed among important side effects of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Polydatin (PD), a glycosylated polyphenol, is endowed with anti-inflammatory activity in human epidermal keratinocytes. Objective: This study evaluated the effect of topical application of a moisturizer containing PD to prevent skin rash in patients with mutated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with afatinib. Materials and Methods: Eligible NSCLC patients with metastatic disease were treated with first-line afatinib 40 mg/die...
2019: Scientifica
Małgorzata Margas, Agnieszka I Piotrowicz-Cieślak, Dariusz J Michalczyk, Katarzyna Głowacka
Antibiotics are a new type of contaminants found in the environment. They are increasingly used in farm animal production systems and may accumulate in crops, limiting the plant growth rate and nutritive value. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of tetracycline (TC) on physiological and biochemical properties of pea seedlings. The presence of TC in the soil during 24 hours did not result in any distinct changes of the seedlings. However, after five days (120 h) of soil TC action, the seedling appearance and metabolic activities were significantly affected...
2019: Scientifica
Grigorios P Panotopoulos, Ziyad S Haidar
Predicting pharmacokinetics, based on the theory of dynamic systems, for an administered drug (whether intravenously, orally, intramuscularly, etc.), is an industrial and clinical challenge. Often, mathematical modeling of pharmacokinetics is preformed using only a measured concentration time profile of a drug administered in plasma and/or in blood. Yet, in dynamic systems, mathematical modeling (linear) uses both a mathematically described drug administration and a mathematically described body response to the administered drug...
2019: Scientifica
Irene Russo, Ludovica Zorzetto, Vanna Chiarion Sileni, Mauro Alaibac
Melanoma is one of the most fatal cancers, and its incidence is increasing worldwide. Thanks to the better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of melanoma, recently new targeted agents have been developed. In this article, we review the current state of knowledge of clinical presentation, mechanisms, and management of the most common cutaneous side effects observed during treatment with targeted and immunological therapies approved for advanced melanoma. We include discussion of BRAF/MEK inhibitors and immune-checkpoint inhibitors, notably CTLA-4 and PD-1 inhibitors...
2018: Scientifica
Geetha Kannan, Emese Prandovszky, Emily Severance, Robert H Yolken, Mikhail V Pletnikov
Infection with the protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii ( T. gondii ), was linked to several psychiatric disorders. The exact mechanisms of a hypothesized contribution of T. gondii infection are poorly understood, and it appears that only a subset of seropositive individuals go on to develop a mental illness, suggesting genetic vulnerability. In order to stimulate mechanistic studies of how exposure to T. gondii could interact with genetic predisposition to psychiatric disorders, we have generated and characterized a mouse model of chronic T...
2018: Scientifica
Casper Mutengu, Wilson Mhlanga
Mashoko Dam is in Ago-ecological Region 4 in Zimbabwe. Five sampling sites were randomly selected and each site was sampled twice per month, for six months. A total of 180 Oreochromis mossambicus fish (101 females and 79 males) were caught. The fish were examined for Clinostomum metacercariae by cutting the ventral side from the anal opening to the lower jaw. The gill chambers were examined and inspected visually to detect macroscopic parasites. Of the 180 fish collected during the study, 113 (62.8%) were infected by 284 Clinostomum larvae in the cranial cavity while 67 fish were not infected...
2018: Scientifica
Alfred Maroyi
Vangueria madagascariensis J. F. Gmel. is a plant species regarded as an important fruit tree and medicinal plant in sub-Saharan Africa. This study critically reviewed the nutritional value, phytochemistry, medicinal uses, and pharmacological properties of V. madagascariensis . Relevant information on food and medicinal uses of the species was collected from electronic databases such as ISI Web of Knowledge, ProQuest, ScienceDirect, OATD, Scopus, OpenThesis, PubMed, and Google Scholar, and preelectronic literatures were obtained from the university library covering the period 1966 to 2018...
2018: Scientifica
Emese Prandovszky, Ye Li, Sarven Sabunciyan, Curtis B Steinfeldt, Lauro Nathaniel Avalos, Kristin L Gressitt, James R White, Emily G Severance, Mikhail V Pletnikov, Jianchun Xiao, Robert H Yolken
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite with worldwide distribution. Felines are the definitive hosts supporting the complete life cycle of T. gondii. However, other warm-blooded animals such as rodents and humans can also be infected. Infection of such secondary hosts results in long-term infection characterized by the presence of tissue cysts in the brain and other organs. While it is known that T. gondii infection in rodents is associated with behavioral changes, the mechanisms behind these changes remain unclear...
2018: Scientifica
Edward Mufandaedza, Doreen Z Moyo, Paul Makoni
The aims of this study were to find out whether soil parameters (i.e., soil texture, soil pH, and available nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P)) and level of tannins in the bark of tree as measured by total amount of N & P in the droppings significantly influenced Imbrasia belina distribution in the Southeastern Lowveld of Zimbabwe. The samples were collected in February-March 2013. Standard methods were employed on 80 samples across the four tenure regimes studied. Soil pH, percentage clay, silt, and sand were randomly measured across the four tenure regimes...
2018: Scientifica
Lawrence Duffy, La'Ona De Wilde, Katie Spellman, Kriya Dunlap, Bonita Dainowski, Susan McCullough, Bret Luick, Mary van Muelken
River watersheds are among the most complex terrestrial features in Alaska, performing valuable ecosystem functions and providing services for human society. Rivers are vital to both estuarine and aquatic biota and play important roles in biogeochemical cycles and physical processes. The functions of watersheds have been used as vulnerability indicators for ecosystem and socioeconomic resilience. Despite a long history of human activity, the Yukon River has not received the holistic and interdisciplinary attention given to the other great American river systems...
2018: Scientifica
Hoang-Yen Thi Nguyen, Gia-Buu Tran
Glucose isomerase is an enzyme widely used in food industry for producing high-fructose corn syrup. Many microbes, including Bacillus megaterium , have been found to be able to produce glucose isomerase. However, the number of studies of glucose isomerase production from Bacillus megaterium is limited. In this study, we establish the optimal medium components and culture conditions for Bacillus megaterium glucose isomerase production by evaluating the combined influence of multiple factors and different parameters via Plackett-Burman design and response surface methodology in Modde 5...
2018: Scientifica
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