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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30759876/the-importance-of-peripheral-nerves-in-adipose-tissue-for-the-regulation-of-energy-balance
#1
REVIEW
Magdalena Blaszkiewicz, Jake W Willows, Cory P Johnson, Kristy L Townsend
Brown and white adipose tissues are essential for maintenance of proper energy balance and metabolic health. In order to function efficiently, these tissues require both endocrine and neural communication with the brain. Brown adipose tissue (BAT), as well as the inducible brown adipocytes that appear in white adipose tissue (WAT) after simulation, are thermogenic and energy expending. This uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-mediated process requires input from sympathetic nerves releasing norepinephrine. In addition to sympathetic noradrenergic signaling, adipose tissue contains sensory nerves that may be important for relaying fuel status to the brain...
February 12, 2019: Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30759802/cold-and-exercise-therapeutic-tools-to-activate-brown-adipose-tissue-and-combat-obesity
#2
REVIEW
Carmem Peres Valgas da Silva, Diego Hernández-Saavedra, Joseph D White, Kristin I Stanford
The rise in obesity over the last several decades has reached pandemic proportions. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a thermogenic organ that is involved in energy expenditure and represents an attractive target to combat both obesity and type 2 diabetes. Cold exposure and exercise training are two stimuli that have been investigated with respect to BAT activation, metabolism, and the contribution of BAT to metabolic health. These two stimuli are of great interest because they have both disparate and converging effects on BAT activation and metabolism...
February 12, 2019: Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30736459/immunometabolic-links-between-estrogen-adipose-tissue-and-female-reproductive-metabolism
#3
REVIEW
Sally A Eaton, Jaswinder K Sethi
The current knowledge of sex-dependent differences in adipose tissue biology remains in its infancy and is motivated in part by the desire to understand why menopause is linked to an increased risk of metabolic disease. However, the development and characterization of targeted genetically-modified rodent models are shedding new light on the physiological actions of sex hormones in healthy reproductive metabolism. In this review we consider the need for differentially regulating metabolic flexibility, energy balance, and immunity in a sex-dependent manner...
February 7, 2019: Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30634679/role-of-rhodopsins-as-circadian-photoreceptors-in-the-drosophila-melanogaster
#4
REVIEW
Pingkalai R Senthilan, Rudi Grebler, Nils Reinhard, Dirk Rieger, Charlotte Helfrich-Förster
Light profoundly affects the circadian clock and the activity levels of animals. Along with the systematic changes in intensity and spectral composition, over the 24-h day, light shows considerable irregular fluctuations (noise). Using light as the Zeitgeber for the circadian clock is, therefore, a complex task and this might explain why animals utilize multiple photoreceptors to entrain their circadian clock. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster possesses light-sensitive Cryptochrome and seven Rhodopsins that all contribute to light detection...
January 10, 2019: Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30626148/lipid-production-in-nannochloropsis-gaditana-during-nitrogen-starvation
#5
Jorijn H Janssen, René H Wijffels, Maria J Barbosa
The microalga Nannochloropsis gaditana is a natural producer of triacylglycerol (TAG) and the omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). TAG accumulation is induced by nitrogen starvation. The biomass-specific photon supply rate used had an effect on EPA and TAG accumulation during nitrogen starvation as well as on the localization of EPA accumulation. Clear differences in TAG yield on light were found for different biomass-specific photon supply rates and light regimes during nitrogen starvation. De novo EPA synthesis or the translocation of EPA between lipid fractions might be limiting for EPA accumulation in TAG...
January 8, 2019: Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30621183/formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine-induces-apoptosis-in-murine-neurons-evidence-for-no-dependent-caspase-9-activation
#6
Chiara Porro, Antonia Cianciulli, Teresa Trotta, Dario Domenico Lofrumento, Rosa Calvello, Maria Antonietta Panaro
Formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) may be present in the brain in the course of some infectious diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), although little is known about its role. This investigation was performed to study the effect of fMLP on neuron apoptosis. Our results showed that fMLP treatment of primary cultures of neurons was able to induce morphological features of apoptosis in cell cultures, as well as activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway, through the upregulation of caspase-9 and caspase-3...
January 4, 2019: Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30621145/cyclin-c-the-story-of-a-non-cycling-cyclin
#7
REVIEW
Jan Ježek, Daniel G J Smethurst, David C Stieg, Z A C Kiss, Sara E Hanley, Vidyaramanan Ganesan, Kai-Ti Chang, Katrina F Cooper, Randy Strich
The class I cyclin family is a well-studied group of structurally conserved proteins that interact with their associated cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) to regulate different stages of cell cycle progression depending on their oscillating expression levels. However, the role of class II cyclins, which primarily act as transcription factors and whose expression remains constant throughout the cell cycle, is less well understood. As a classic example of a transcriptional cyclin, cyclin C forms a regulatory sub-complex with its partner kinase Cdk8 and two accessory subunits Med12 and Med13 called the Cdk8-dependent kinase module (CKM)...
January 4, 2019: Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30577627/issr-analysis-of-genetic-diversity-and-structure-of-plum-varieties-cultivated-in-southern-china
#8
Weifeng Wu, Faxing Chen, Kaiwun Yeh, Jianjun Chen
Plums ( Prunus spp.) are important deciduous fruit crops in the world. China is a major producer of P. salicina Lindl., but the genetic relationship of Chinese plums in key production regions remain unclear. In this study, 14 University of British Columbia (UBC) inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) primers were used to analyze 33 plum varieties cultivated in Fujian Province to determine their genetic diversity and population structure. A total of 146 bands were generated, of which 130 were polymorphic. Mean percentage of polymorphic bands was 89...
December 21, 2018: Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30577491/guide-snornas-drivers-or-passengers-in-human-disease
#9
REVIEW
Manisha Deogharia, Mrinmoyee Majumder
In every domain of life, RNA-protein interactions play a significant role in co- and post-transcriptional modifications and mRNA translation. RNA performs diverse roles inside the cell, and therefore any aberrancy in their function can cause various diseases. During maturation from its primary transcript, RNA undergoes several functionally important post-transcriptional modifications including pseudouridylation and ribose 2'- O -methylation. These modifications play a critical role in the stability of the RNA...
December 20, 2018: Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30551676/does-plant-size-influence-leaf-elements-in-an-arborescent-cycad
#10
Thomas E Marler, Murukesan V Krishnapillai
Plant size influences the leaf nutrient relations of many species, but no cycad species has been studied in this regard. We used the arborescent Cycas micronesica K.D. Hill to quantify leaf nutrient concentrations of trees with stems up to 5.5-m in height to determine if height influenced leaf nutrients. Green leaves were sampled in a karst, alkaline habitat in Rota and a schist, acid habitat in Yap. Additionally, senesced leaves were collected from the trees in Yap. Minerals and metals were quantified in the leaf samples and regressed onto stem height...
December 13, 2018: Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30486337/meta-omics-tools-in-the-world-of-insect-microorganism-interactions
#11
REVIEW
Antonino Malacrinò
Microorganisms are able to influence several aspects of insects' life, and this statement is gaining increasing strength, as research demonstrates it daily. At the same time, new sequencing technologies are now available at a lower cost per base, and bioinformatic procedures are becoming more user-friendly. This is triggering a huge effort in studying the microbial diversity associated to insects, and especially to economically important insect pests. The importance of the microbiome has been widely acknowledged for a wide range of animals, and also for insects this topic is gaining considerable importance...
November 27, 2018: Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30453474/therapeutic-approaches-targeting-inflammation-in-cardiovascular-disorders
#12
REVIEW
Daniel P Jones, Jyoti Patel
Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the Western world and represents an enormous global health burden. Significant advances have been made in the conservative, medical and surgical management across the range of cardiovascular diseases however the inflammatory components of these diseases have traditionally been neglected. Inflammation is certainly a key component of atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory condition, but it is at least correlative and predictive of risk in many other aspects of cardiovascular medicine ranging from heart failure to outcomes following reperfusion strategies...
November 16, 2018: Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30445750/cell-death-patterns-due-to-warm-ischemia-or-reperfusion-in-renal-tubular-epithelial-cells-originating-from-human-mouse-or-the-native-hibernator-hamster
#13
Theodoros Eleftheriadis, Georgios Pissas, Georgia Antoniadi, Vassilios Liakopoulos, Ioannis Stefanidis
Ischemia⁻reperfusion injury contributes to the pathogenesis of many diseases, with acute kidney injury included. Hibernating mammals survive prolonged bouts of deep torpor with a dramatic drop in blood pressure, heart, and breathing rates, interspersed with short periods of arousal and, consequently, ischemia⁻reperfusion injury. Clarifying the differences under warm anoxia or reoxygenation between human cells and cells from a native hibernator may reveal interventions for rendering human cells resistant to ischemia⁻reperfusion injury...
November 15, 2018: Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30336646/a-zebrafish-acromegaly-model-elevates-dna-damage-and-impairs-dna-repair-pathways
#14
Abdalla Elbialy, Shuichi Asakawa, Shugo Watabe, Shigeharu Kinoshita
Acromegaly is a pathological condition due to excess growth hormone (GH) secretion. Acromegaly patients exhibit a deterioration of health and many associated complications, such as cardiovascular issues, arthritis, kidney diseases, muscular weakness, and colon cancer. Since these complications are generalized throughout the body, we investigated the effect of GH excess on cellular integrity. Here, we established stable acromegaly model zebrafish lines that overexpress tilapia GH and the red fluorescence protein (RFP) reporter gene for tracking GH gene expression throughout generations, and performed RNA-Seq data analysis from different organs...
October 17, 2018: Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30309004/selectable-markers-and-reporter-genes-for-engineering-the-chloroplast-of-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#15
REVIEW
Lola Esland, Marco Larrea-Alvarez, Saul Purton
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a model alga of increasing interest as a cell factory for the production of valuable compounds, including therapeutic proteins and bioactive metabolites. Expression of foreign genes in the chloroplast is particularly advantageous as: (i) accumulation of product in this sub-cellular compartment minimises potential toxicity to the rest of the cell; (ii) genes can integrate at specific loci of the chloroplast genome (plastome) by homologous recombination; (iii) the high ploidy of the plastome and the high-level expression of chloroplast genes can be exploited to achieve levels of recombinant protein as high as 5% total cell protein; (iv) the lack of any gene silencing mechanisms in the chloroplast ensures stable expression of transgenes...
October 10, 2018: Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30274250/the-benefit-of-anti-inflammatory-and-renal-protective-dietary-ingredients-on-the-biological-processes-of-aging-in-the-kidney
#16
REVIEW
Kiran S Panickar, Dennis E Jewell
One of the significant organ systems which decline in aging is the kidney. While the causes of age-associated decline in renal function are likely multifactorial, oxidative stress and inflammation are hypothesized to play important roles in the structural and functional changes of the kidney. During aging there is a general decline in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), a primary measurement used to assess kidney function. Inflammation and oxidative stress have been hypothesized to have a significant detrimental effect on renal function in aging and this may be attenuated by renal protective dietary ingredients...
September 29, 2018: Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30208603/ascovirus-p64-homologs-a-novel-family-of-large-cationic-proteins-that-condense-viral-genomic-dna-for-encapsidation
#17
Dennis K Bideshi, Tatsinda Spears, Heba A H Zaghloul, Yeping Tan, Yves Bigot, Brian A Federici
Eukaryotic dsDNA viruses use small basic protamine-like proteins or histones, typically <15 kDa, to condense and encapsidate their genomic (g)DNAs during virogenesis. Ascoviruses are large dsDNA (~100⁻200 kbp) viruses that are pathogenic to lepidopteran larvae. Little is known about the molecular basis for condensation and encapsidation of their gDNAs. Previous proteomic analysis showed that Spodoptera frugiperda ascovirus (SfAV-1a) virions contain a large unique DNA-binding protein (P64; 64 kDa, pI = 12...
September 11, 2018: Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30103413/characterization-of-plastidial-and-nuclear-ssr-markers-for-understanding-invasion-histories-and-genetic-diversity-of-schinus-molle-l
#18
Rafael Plá Matielo Lemos, Cristiane Barbosa D'Oliveira Matielo, Dalvan Carlos Beise, Vanessa Gonçalves da Rosa, Deise Schröder Sarzi, Luiz Fernando Würdig Roesch, Valdir Marcos Stefenon
Invasive plant species are expected to display high dispersal capacity but low levels of genetic diversity due to the founder effect occurring at each invasion episode. Understanding the history of invasions and the levels of genetic diversity of such species is an important task for planning management and monitoring strategy for these events. Peruvian Peppertree ( Schinus molle L.) is a pioneer tree species native from South America which was introduced in North America, Europe and Africa, becoming a threat to these non-native habitats...
August 10, 2018: Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30072664/two-component-fad-dependent-monooxygenases-current-knowledge-and-biotechnological-opportunities
#19
REVIEW
Thomas Heine, Willem J H van Berkel, George Gassner, Karl-Heinz van Pée, Dirk Tischler
Flavoprotein monooxygenases create valuable compounds that are of high interest for the chemical, pharmaceutical, and agrochemical industries, among others. Monooxygenases that use flavin as cofactor are either single- or two-component systems. Here we summarize the current knowledge about two-component flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent monooxygenases and describe their biotechnological relevance. Two-component FAD-dependent monooxygenases catalyze hydroxylation, epoxidation, and halogenation reactions and are physiologically involved in amino acid metabolism, mineralization of aromatic compounds, and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites...
August 2, 2018: Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30041494/building-principles-for-constructing-a-mammalian-blastocyst-embryo
#20
REVIEW
Peter L Pfeffer
The self-organisation of a fertilised egg to form a blastocyst structure, which consists of three distinct cell lineages (trophoblast, epiblast and hypoblast) arranged around an off-centre cavity, is unique to mammals. While the starting point (the zygote) and endpoint (the blastocyst) are similar in all mammals, the intervening events have diverged. This review examines and compares the descriptive and functional data surrounding embryonic gene activation, symmetry-breaking, first and second lineage establishment, and fate commitment in a wide range of mammalian orders...
July 23, 2018: Biology
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