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Current Nutrition Reports

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30762204/a-systematic-review-of-the-evaluation-of-interventions-to-tackle-children-s-food-insecurity
#1
REVIEW
Clare E Holley, Carolynne Mason
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To synthesise the research which has sought to evaluate interventions aiming to tackle children's food insecurity and the contribution of this research to evidencing the effectiveness of such interventions. RECENT FINDINGS: The majority of studies in this review were quantitative, non-randomised studies, including cohort studies. Issues with non-complete outcome data, measurement of duration of participation in interventions, and accounting for confounds are common in these evaluation studies...
February 14, 2019: Current Nutrition Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30758778/the-role-of-the-microbiome-in-cancer-initiation-and-progression-how-microbes-and-cancer-cells-utilize-excess-energy-and-promote-one-another-s-growth
#2
REVIEW
Corrie M Whisner, C Athena Aktipis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We use an ecological lens to understand how microbes and cancer cells coevolve inside the ecosystems of our bodies. We describe how microbe-cancer cell interactions contribute to cancer progression, including cooperation between microbes and cancer cells. We discuss the role of the immune system in preventing this apparent 'collusion' and describe how microbe-cancer cell interactions lead to opportunities and challenges in treating cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: Microbiota influence many aspects of our health including our cancer risk...
February 13, 2019: Current Nutrition Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30729427/infant-growth-and-long-term-cardiometabolic-health-a-review-of-recent-findings
#3
REVIEW
Jessica G Woo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Infant weight gain is recognized to increase obesity risk across the lifespan. This review evaluates recent evidence relating growth in infancy to childhood, adolescent and adult body composition, and cardiometabolic risk factors. RECENT FINDINGS: Greater weight or BMI gains in infancy increase both fat mass and fat-free mass in later life, but may preferentially contribute to central adiposity. Impacts of infant growth on cardiometabolic health are mixed, and most findings are attenuated after adjusting for current body size...
February 7, 2019: Current Nutrition Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30649714/multi-etiological-perspective-on-child-obesity-prevention
#4
REVIEW
Tom Baranowski, Kathleen J Motil, Jennette P Moreno
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The simple energy balance model of obesity is inconsistent with the available findings on obesity etiology, prevention, and treatment. Yet, the most commonly stated causes of pediatric obesity are predicated on this model. A more comprehensive biological model is needed upon which to base behavioral interventions aimed at obesity prevention. In this light, alternative etiologies are little investigated and thereby poorly understood. RECENT FINDINGS: Three candidate alternate etiologies are briefly presented: infectobesity, the gut microbiome, and circadian rhythms...
January 16, 2019: Current Nutrition Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30413973/dietary-patterns-physical-activity-sleep-and-risk-for-dementia-and-cognitive-decline
#5
REVIEW
Chen Zhao, James M Noble, Karen Marder, Jacob S Hartman, Yian Gu, Nikolaos Scarmeas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Diet, physical activity, and sleep are three major modifiable lifestyle factors. This selective review examines the evidence for strong and reliable associations between these three lifestyle factors and risk of dementia and cognitive decline, in an effort to assist clinicians with providing more informed answers to the common questions they face from patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Certain aspects of nutrition can decrease risk for dementia. Physical activity has also been associated with delayed or slower age-related cognitive decline...
December 2018: Current Nutrition Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30406514/dairy-consumption-and-cardiometabolic-diseases-systematic-review-and-updated-meta-analyses-of-prospective-cohort-studies
#6
REVIEW
Sabita S Soedamah-Muthu, Janette de Goede
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dairy products contain both beneficial and harmful nutrients in relation to cardiometabolic diseases. Here, we provide the latest scientific evidence regarding the relationship between dairy products and cardiometabolic diseases by reviewing the literature and updating meta-analyses of observational studies. RECENT FINDINGS: We updated our previous meta-analyses of cohort studies on type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease (CHD), and stroke with nine studies and confirmed previous results...
December 2018: Current Nutrition Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30374755/gene-environment-interplay-in-child-eating-behaviors-what-the-role-of-nature-means-for-the-effects-of-nurture
#7
REVIEW
Alexis C Wood
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This narrative review describes the evidence for both genetic and environmental influences on child appetitive traits and suggests ways of thinking about how these interact and correlate to influence how a child eats. RECENT FINDINGS: Emerging evidence from social network analysis, and from longitudinal studies questioning the direction of association between parent feeding behaviors and child obesity risk, suggest that children's genes may shape the environmental risk for obesity that they are exposed to...
December 2018: Current Nutrition Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30362023/trimethylamine-n-oxide-and-risk-of-cardiovascular-disease-and-mortality
#8
REVIEW
Chanavuth Kanitsoraphan, Pattara Rattanawong, Suranut Charoensri, Vichai Senthong
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is a gut microbiota-dependent metabolite produced from choline and phosphatidylcholine. Trimethylamine N-oxide was found associated with enhanced atherosclerosis and thrombosis in vitro and in vivo. We summarized available clinical studies which investigated TMAO's role in predicting prognostic outcomes, including mortality, in patients with cardiovascular diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: In chronic kidney disease cohorts, higher TMAO levels were significantly associated with higher mortality from 1...
December 2018: Current Nutrition Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30353367/child-caregiver-family-and-social-contextual-factors-to-consider-when-implementing-parent-focused-child-feeding-interventions
#9
REVIEW
Alison L Miller, Sara E Miller, Katy M Clark
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Interventions that aim to alter child eating behaviors often focus on parents as a proximal influence. Yet, parents can be difficult to engage. Therefore, intervention recommendations are often not implemented as designed. The goal of this review is to highlight factors at multiple contextual levels that are important to consider when developing interventions to address child eating, due to their implications for overcoming parent engagement challenges. RECENT FINDINGS: Intervention studies suggest that parents are often the key to successfully changing child eating behaviors, and many interventions focus on feeding...
December 2018: Current Nutrition Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30350172/maternal-predictors-of-child-dietary-behaviors-and-weight-status
#10
REVIEW
Sheryl O Hughes, Maria A Papaioannou
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide scientific evidence showing links between parenting/feeding, child eating, and weight status and recommend best practices for creating a feeding environment protective against childhood obesity. RECENT FINDINGS: Current research shows that authoritative styles in both feeding and general parenting contexts has been consistently associated with better child health outcomes. Authoritative feeding styles have been associated with better child dietary quality and weight...
December 2018: Current Nutrition Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30324333/an-intergenerational-approach-to-break-the-cycle-of-malnutrition
#11
REVIEW
Katherine R Arlinghaus, Chelsea Truong, Craig A Johnston, Daphne C Hernandez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article examines how nutritional status is treated throughout the lifecycle. In doing so, the review identifies promising life stages during which intervention may improve nutritional status of future generations. RECENT FINDINGS: A life course perspective suggests that nutritional changes are most likely to be sustained when they occur during times of developmental transition, such as pregnancy or adolescence. Adolescence is a unique period in which malnutrition in future generations may be addressed because it is the first life stage at which pregnancy becomes feasible and individuals seek independence from parents...
December 2018: Current Nutrition Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30284177/sugar-sweetened-beverages-and-child-health-implications-for-policy
#12
REVIEW
Shabnam R Momin, Alexis C Wood
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Various policies to reduce sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) consumption in children have been implemented. Here, we review the evidence on whether these policies are effective in reducing SSB intake and whether a reduction in SSB intake results in a concomitant reduction in child obesity. We also highlight ethical concerns with such efforts. RECENT FINDINGS: The evidence supporting relationship between SSB consumption and child body mass index (BMI) is consistently small and lacks causality...
December 2018: Current Nutrition Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30264354/role-of-gut-microbiota-generated-short-chain-fatty-acids-in-metabolic-and-cardiovascular-health
#13
REVIEW
Edward S Chambers, Tom Preston, Gary Frost, Douglas J Morrison
PURPOSE OF THIS REVIEW: This review assesses the latest evidence linking short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) with host metabolic health and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and presents the latest evidence on possible biological mechanisms. RECENT FINDINGS: SCFA have a range of effects locally in the gut and at both splanchnic and peripheral tissues which together appear to induce improved metabolic regulation and have direct and indirect effects on markers of CVD risk...
December 2018: Current Nutrition Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30264353/to-pull-or-not-to-pull-salvaging-central-line-catheters-in-home-parenteral-nutrition
#14
REVIEW
Sara L Bonnes, Manpreet S Mundi, Ryan T Hurt, Bradley R Salonen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Catheter-related blood stream infections (CRBSI) pose a significant risk to patients on home parenteral nutrition (HPN). Recurrent loss of catheters can lead to scarring and eventual loss of central access, a potentially fatal situation for patients dependent on HPN. RECENT FINDINGS: In the past, the standard of care to treat these infections required catheter removal. More recently, several studies have indicated that many CRBSI can be treated without removal of the catheter...
December 2018: Current Nutrition Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30259413/intergenerational-effects-of-health-issues-among-women-of-childbearing-age-a-review-of-the-recent-literature
#15
REVIEW
Lydi-Anne Vézina-Im, Theresa A Nicklas, Tom Baranowski
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the latest scientific evidence, primarily from systematic reviews/meta-analyses and large cohort studies, on the impact of health issues among women of childbearing age and their effect on their offspring during pregnancy and from birth to adulthood. RECENT FINDINGS: Women of childbearing age with overweight/obesity, diabetes, and hypertension prior to pregnancy are at increased risk for adverse outcomes during pregnancy, such as excessive gestational weight gain, gestational diabetes mellitus, and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy...
December 2018: Current Nutrition Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30242725/dietary-fat-and-risk-for-type-2-diabetes-a-review-of-recent-research
#16
REVIEW
Beth H Rice Bradley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It is estimated that over 400 million people worldwide are living with diabetes. Excess adiposity is the strongest risk factor for non-insulin-dependent diabetes, type 2. Lifestyle interventions have demonstrated that diet plays a critical role in preventing the onset of type 2 diabetes. Dietary fat is not only a source of energy and nutrients, but also bioactive fatty acids. The purpose of this review was to examine data from recent prospective cohort studies and dietary interventions to determine if there are benefits to fat consumption on diabetes risk...
December 2018: Current Nutrition Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30187293/sleep-diet-and-cardiometabolic-health-investigations-a-systematic-review-of-analytic-strategies
#17
REVIEW
Erica C Jansen, Galit Levi Dunietz, Maria-Efstratia Tsimpanouli, Heidi M Guyer, Carol Shannon, Shelley D Hershner, Louise M O'Brien, Ana Baylin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Poor sleep is a risk factor for cardiometabolic morbidity. The relationship of sleep and cardiometabolic health could be confounded, mediated, or modified by diet, yet the incorporation of diet in sleep-cardiometabolic health studies is inconsistent. This rapid systematic literature review evaluates the conceptualization of diet as a confounder, mediator, or effect modifier within sleep-cardiometabolic health investigations, and the statistical approaches utilized. RECENT FINDINGS: Of 4692 studies identified, 60 were retained (28 adult, 32 pediatric)...
December 2018: Current Nutrition Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30178309/knowledge-attitudes-and-behaviours-related-to-dietary-salt-intake-in-high-income-countries-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Neela Bhana, Jennifer Utter, Helen Eyles
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review was to examine the knowledge, attitudes and behaviours (KAB) related to dietary salt intake among adults in high-income countries. RECENT FINDINGS: Overall (n = 24 studies across 12 countries), KAB related to dietary salt intake are low. While consumers are aware of the health implications of a high salt intake, fundamental knowledge regarding recommended dietary intake, primary food sources, and the relationship between salt and sodium is lacking...
December 2018: Current Nutrition Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30168044/fad-diets-hype-or-hope
#19
REVIEW
Aravind R Kuchkuntla, Berkeley Limketkai, Sanjeev Nanda, Ryan T Hurt, Manpreet S Mundi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity continues to be a growing concern globally due to association with a number of comorbidities and contributing significantly to increase in health care expenditures. Despite availability of a number of treatment modalities, lifestyle modification with dietary modification and exercise continues to be the foundation. However, the standard model of lifestyle modification is not efficacious or sustainable for many patients leading them to seek alternative approaches...
December 2018: Current Nutrition Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30168043/weight-regain-after-bariatric-surgery-prevalence-etiology-and-treatment
#20
REVIEW
Saketh R Velapati, Meera Shah, Aravind R Kuchkuntla, Barham Abu-Dayyeh, Karen Grothe, Ryan T Hurt, Manpreet S Mundi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity is a life-limiting disease that is associated with a number of co-morbidities. Bariatric surgery remains the most efficacious and durable weight loss method available to patients. However, a significant percentage of patients can regain weight resulting in frustration, depression, and return of obesity-related co-morbidities. The present review provides an overview of the most common therapeutic modalities available to combat weigh regain after weight loss surgery...
December 2018: Current Nutrition Reports
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