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Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy

Nikolaos Panagiotis Mandalos, Loannis Karampelas, Marannia Saridaki, Ronald D G McKay, Mark L Cohen, Eumorphia Remboutsika
The cerebellum, a derivative of the hindbrain, plays a crucial role in balance and posture as well as in higher cognitive and locomotive processes. Cerebellar development is initiated during the segmental phase of hindbrain formation. Here, we describe the phenotype, of a single surviving adult conditional mouse mutant mouse, in which Sox2 function is ablated in embryonic radial glial cells by means of hGFAP-CRE. The single Sox2RGINV/mosaic adult mutant mouse displays motor disability, microsomia, reduced Central Nervous System (CNS) size and cerebellar defects associated with human genetically related congenital abnormalities...
2018: Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Chuan Li, Satoshi Matsushita, Zhengqing Li, Jianjun Guan, Atsushi Amano
Objective: Resident cardiac stem cells are expected to be a therapeutic option for patients who suffer from severe heart failure. However, uncertainty remains over whether sorting cells for c-kit, a stem cell marker, improves therapeutic outcomes. Materials and methods: Cardiac outgrowth cells cultured from explants of rat heart atrium were sorted according to their positivity (+) or negativity (-) for c-kit. These cells were exposed to hypoxia for 3 d, and subsequently harvested for mRNA expression measurement...
October 2017: Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Si Chen, Bing Bai, Dong Joon Lee, Shannon Diachina, Yina Li, Sing Wai Wong, Zhengyan Wang, Henry C Tseng, Ching-Chang Ko
Dopamine (DA) is a well-known neurotransmitter and critical element in the mussel adhesive protein that has gained increasing attention for its role in cellular growth enhancement in biomaterials, including cellular adhesion improvement. As the mechanism underlying this remains unclear, the objective of this study was to explore the effects of DA on the adhesion properties of bone marrow derived rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) using an hydroxyapatite gelatin nanocomposite biomaterial and to test whether the effects are mediated through various endogenously expressed DA receptors...
August 2017: Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Morgan T Sutton, David Fletcher, Nicole Episalla, Lauren Auster, Sukhmani Kaur, Mary Chandler Gwin, Michael Folz, Dante Velasquez, Varun Roy, Rolf van Heeckeren, Donald P Lennon, Arnold I Caplan, Tracey L Bonfield
Human Mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) secrete products (supernatants) that are anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial. We have previously shown that hMSCs decrease inflammation and Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in the in vivo murine model of Cystic Fibrosis (CF). Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disease in which pulmonary infection and inflammation becomes the major cause of morbidity and mortality. Our studies focus on determining how MSCs contribute to improved outcomes in the CF mouse model centering on how the MSCs impact the inflammatory response to pathogenic organisms...
August 2017: Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy
J Tsao, I Kovanecz, N Awadalla, R Gelfand, I Sinha-Hikim, R A White, N F Gonzalez-Cadavid
BACKGROUND: Critical Limb Ischemia (CLI) affects patients with Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) and obesity, with high risk of amputation and post-surgical mortality, and no effective medical treatment. Stem cell therapy, mainly with bone marrow mesenchymal, adipose derived, endothelial, hematopoietic, and umbilical cord stem cells, is promising in CLI mouse and rat models and is in clinical trials. Their general focus is on angiogenic repair, with no reports on the alleviation of necrosis, lipofibrosis, and myofiber regeneration in the ischemic muscle, or the use of Muscle Derived Stem Cells (MDSC) alone or in combination with pharmacological adjuvants, in the context of CLI in T2D...
December 2016: Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Siddaraju V Boregowda, Donald G Phinney
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Gina Lee, Robert R Hall, Atique U Ahmed
Cancer handles an estimated 7.6 million deaths worldwide per annum. A recent theory focuses on the role Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs) in driving tumorigenesis and disease progression. This theory hypothesizes that a population of the tumor cell with similar functional and phenotypic characteristics as normal tissue stem cells are responsible for formation and advancement of many human cancers. The CSCs subpopulation can differentiate into non-CSC tumor cells and promote phenotypic and functional heterogeneity within the tumor...
October 2016: Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Christine Robinson, Matthew Lowe, Amanda Schwartz, Nobuaki Kikyo
RNA polymerase II (Pol II) temporarily stops transcription after synthesizing 30-50 bases, and resumes elongation only after stimulations by various signaling molecules and developmental cues. This phenomenon, called promoter-proximal pausing, is observed in 10-50% of the entire genes from Drosophila embryos to human cells. Release of paused Pol II is primarily mediated by the activated form of positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) initially sequestered in the inhibitory 7SK small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (7SK snRNP) complex...
March 2016: Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Wen-Feng Cai, Wei Huang, Lei Wang, Jia-Peng Wang, Lu Zhang, Muhammad Ashraf, Shizheng Wu, Yigang Wang
BACKGROUND: Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a recessive form of muscular disorder, resulting from the dystrophin gene mutations in X-chromosome. Application of embryonic stem cells or adult stem cells has demonstrated the therapeutic effects on DMD through both cell-based and non-cell based mechanisms. In this study, we proposed that Myogenic Progenitor Cells from Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSC-MPCs) would be more effective in repairing muscle damage caused by muscular dystrophy...
2016: Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Hyun D Yun, Tehseen Dossul, Leon Bernal-Mizrachi, Jeffrey Switchenko, Chukwuma Ndibe, Abiola Ibraheem, Margie D Dixon, Amelia A Langston, Ajay K Nooka, Christopher R Flowers, Rebecca D Pentz, Edmund K Waller
Disparities in clinical care have been described for patients with limited insurance coverage or social support. We hypothesized that patients with relapsed Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), or multiple myeloma (MM) treated at an urban county hospital serving indigent and under-insured patients would face barriers for referral to a private academic transplant center for autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). Charts of patients with HL, NHL, or MM treated at Grady Memorial Hospital between 2007 and 2013 were reviewed, and 215 patients with diagnosis of HD (n=40), NHL (n=96), and MM (n=79)...
2016: Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Zongdong Yu, Philippe Gauthier, Quynh T Tran, Ikbale El-Ayachi, Fazal-Ur-Rehman Bhatti, Rayan Bahabri, Mey Al-Habib, George Tj Huang
Characterizing subpopulations of stem cells is important to understand stem cell properties. Tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is associated with mineral tissue forming cells as well as stem cells. Information regarding ALP subpopulation of human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) is limited. In the present study, we examined ALP+ and ALP- hPDLSC subpopulations, their surface markers STRO-1 and CD146, and the expression of stemness genes at various cell passages. We found that ALP+ subpopulation had higher levels of STRO-1 (30...
July 2015: Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Lu-Guang Luo, John Zq Luo
Apoptosis is one of the major factors contributing to the failure of human islet transplantation. Contributors to islet apoptosis exist in both the pre-transplantation and post transplantation stages. Factors include the islet isolation process, deterioration in vitro prior to transplantation, and immune rejection post transplantation. Previous studies have demonstrated that co-cultured bone marrow cells with human islets not only significantly enhanced the longevity of human islets but also maintained function...
April 2015: Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Jennifer Rutering, Matthias Ilmer, Alejandro Recio, Michael Coleman, Jody Vykoukal, Eckhard Alt
Cell therapy represents a promising new paradigm for treatment of heart disease, a major cause of death in the industrialized world. The recent discovery of tissue resident c-Kit+ cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) has fueled scientific efforts to exploit these cells therapeutically for regenerative interventions, and primary culture of cardiomyocytes is a common in-vitro model to investigate basic molecular mechanisms underlying cardiac degeneration and regeneration. Current protocols for cardiomyocyte isolation frequently result in low cell yield and insufficient depletion of fibroblasts, which then overgrow the cardiomyocytes in culture...
2015: Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Yajuan Li, Wei Li, Chu Liu, Mei Yan, Indu Raman, Yong Du, Xiangdong Fang, Xin J Zhou, Chandra Mohan, Quan-Zhen Li
OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the role of oxidation resistance 1 (OXR1) gene. Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in pathogenesis of immune-mediated nephritis. Recently we identified oxidation resistance 1 (OXR1) is conventionally expressed in eukaryotes and has an ability to prevent oxidative damage caused by various oxidative stresses. However the protective effect of OXR1 in immune-associated inflammatory response and oxidative damage is not clear and will be investigated in this study...
September 10, 2014: Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Jay T Myers, Agne Petrosiute, Alex Y Huang
The clinical application of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) for the treatment of a variety of diseases is the focus of intense research. Despite large research efforts many questions regarding MSC biology in vivo remain unanswered. For instance, we do not know for certain whether MSCs exert their therapeutic effects directly within the target tissue or indirectly by influencing the polarization of other cell types, such as macrophages, which can then home to the target tissue microenvironment. To help address this issue, the application of intravital multiphoton microscopy allows for the determination of the dynamic action of intact MSCs versus endogenous host cells at the target tissue site in real time...
July 2014: Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Francisco Nualart, Lauren Mack, Andrea García, Pedro Cisternas, Ernesto R Bongarzone, Marjet Heitzer, Nery Jara, Fernando Martínez, Luciano Ferrada, Francisca Espinoza, Victor Baeza, Katterine Salazar
Vitamin C is an essential micronutrient in the human diet; its deficiency leads to a number of symptoms and ultimately death. After entry into cells within the central nervous system (CNS) through sodium vitamin C transporters (SVCTs) and facilitative glucose transporters (GLUTs), vitamin C functions as a neuromodulator, enzymatic cofactor, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger; it also stimulates differentiation. In this review, we will compare the molecular and structural aspects of vitamin C and glucose transporters and their expression in endothelial or choroid plexus cells, which form part of the blood-brain barrier and blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier, respectively...
May 19, 2014: Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Xin Shi, Chia-Cheng Chang, Marc D Basson, Brad L Upham, Lixin Wei, Ping Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Excessive alcohol consumption injures the liver resulting in various liver diseases including liver cirrhosis. Advanced liver disease continues to be a major challenge to human health. Liver stem/progenitor cells (LSPCs) are tissue specific precursors with a distinct capacity of multi-lineage differentiation. These precursor cells may play an important role in the process of tissue injury repair and pathological transition of liver structures. At the present time, knowledge about the effect of alcohol on LSPC function during the development of alcoholic liver disease remains absent...
May 2014: Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Raji Padmanabhan, Kevin G Chen, Michael M Gottesman
The expression and function of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter ABCG2 have been studied for two decades in both adult and cancer stem cells. However, this important ABC transporter has not been well characterized in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Studies designed to understand the role of ABCG2 in hESCs are still in their initial stages. Several recent reports on expression patterns of the ABCG2 gene in hESCs contain contradictory results at both the mRNA and protein levels. In this review, we provide possible explanations for these discrepancies in ABCG2 expression patterns...
March 17, 2014: Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Karina Oyarce, Ernesto R Bongarzone, Francisco Nualart
Although the generation of new neurons occurs in adult mammals, it has been classically described in two defined regions of the brain denominated neurogenic niches: the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. In these regions, neural stem cells give rise to new neurons and glia, which functionally integrate into the existing circuits under physiological conditions. However, accumulating evidence indicates the presence of neurogenic potential in other brain regions, from which multipotent precursors can be isolated and differentiated in vitro ...
March 2014: Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Heike E Daldrup-Link, Hossein Nejadnik
About 43 million individuals in the US currently suffer from disabilities due to arthritis. Cartilage defects are the major source of pain in the affected joints. Current treatments, whilst alleviating some of the clinical symptoms, prove insufficient to cure the underlying irreversible cartilage loss. Stem cells represent a unique source for restoration of cartilage defects. Pre-clinical and clinical trials are currently pursued to investigate the potential of various types of stem cells and stem cell derived chondrocytes to repair arthritic joints...
February 7, 2014: Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy
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