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Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30774945/neonatal-sepsis-due-to-glycopeptide-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-from-colonized-maternal-gut-rare-case-evidence
#1
Supram Hosuru Subramanya, Rajesh Amberpet, Dinesh Chaudhary, Niranjan Nayak, Shashiraja Padukone, Indira Bairy, Shishir Gokhale
Background: Vancomycin-resistant enterococcal infections in the neonatal ICU are growing global problems. We report a case of neonatal septicemia by multidrug-resistant vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE), the source of infection being the mother's gut. Case presentation: A newborn male child admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) was diagnosed to have mild meconium aspiration syndrome, early onset neonatal septicemia, and bacteremia by multidrug and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium ...
2019: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30740221/use-of-microbiology-tests-in-the-era-of-increasing-amr-rates-a-multicentre-hospital-cohort-study
#2
Brita Skodvin, Jannicke S Wathne, P Christoffer Lindemann, Stig Harthug, Roy M Nilsen, Esmita Charani, Heidi Syre, Baard R Kittang, Lars K S Kleppe, Ingrid Smith
Background: Effective use of microbiology test results may positively influence patient outcomes and limit the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. However, studies indicate that their potential is not fully utilized. We investigated microbiology test ordering practices and the use of test results for antibiotic decision-making in hospitals. Methods: A multicentre cohort study was conducted during five months in 2014 in Medical departments across three hospitals in Western Norway...
2019: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30740220/relationship-between-tetracycline-antibiotic-susceptibility-and-genotype-in-oral-cavity-lactobacilli-clinical-isolates
#3
Yifei Zhang, Qian Zhang
Background: Antibiotic resistance, is often conferred by the presence of antibiotic resistance genes. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between tetracycline resistance (Tet-R) and genotype in 31 Lactobacillus isolates from caries-active patients. Methods: The tetracycline susceptibility of Lactobacillus isolates was determined using the agar spot test and the genetic characteristics associated with tetracycline resistance using whole-genome sequencing (WGS)...
2019: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30733860/using-the-best-available-data-to-estimate-the-cost-of-antimicrobial-resistance-a-systematic-review
#4
Teresa M Wozniak, Louise Barnsbee, Xing J Lee, Rosana E Pacella
Background: Valuation of the economic cost of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is important for decision making and should be estimated accurately. Highly variable or erroneous estimates may alarm policy makers and hospital administrators to act, but they also create confusion as to what the most reliable estimates are and how these should be assessed. This study aimed to assess the quality of methods used in studies that quantify the costs of AMR and to determine the best available evidence of the incremental cost of these infections...
2019: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30733859/pneumonia-in-hospitalized-neurologic-patients-trends-in-pathogen-distribution-and-antibiotic-susceptibility
#5
Han Sang Lee, Jangsup Moon, Hye-Rim Shin, Seon Jae Ahn, Tae-Joon Kim, Jin-Sun Jun, Soon-Tae Lee, Keun-Hwa Jung, Kyung-Il Park, Ki-Young Jung, Manho Kim, Sang Kun Lee, Kon Chu
Background: Bed-ridden state, dysphagia, altered mental state, or respiratory muscle weakness are common in neurologic patients and increase the risk of pneumonia. The major causes of pneumonia in neurologic patients may differ from those in the general population, resulting in a different pathogen distribution. We investigated the trends of pathogen distribution in culture-positive pneumonia in hospitalized neurologic patients and the related antibiotic resistance in those with hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP)...
2019: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30733858/assessment-of-early-onset-surface-damage-from-accelerated-disinfection-protocol
#6
Hyungyung Jo, Alyssa M West, Peter J Teska, Haley F Oliver, John A Howarter
Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate the extent and potential mechanisms of early onset surface damage from simulated wiping typical of six-months of routine disinfection and to assess the subsequent microbial risk of surfaces damaged by disinfectants. Methods: Eight common material surfaces were exposed to three disinfectants and a neutral cleaner (neutral cleaner, quaternary ammonium, hydrogen peroxide, sodium hypochlorite) in accelerated aging tests to simulate a long-term disinfection routine...
2019: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30733857/determinants-of-antibiotic-prescribing-behaviors-of-primary-care-physicians-in-hubei-of-china-a-structural-equation-model-based-on-the-theory-of-planned-behavior
#7
Chenxi Liu, Chaojie Liu, Dan Wang, Zhaohua Deng, Yuqing Tang, Xinping Zhang
Background: Over-prescription of antibiotics is prevalent all over the world, contributing to the development of antibiotic resistance. The importance of understanding how physicians prescribe antibiotics is increasingly highlighted for the purpose of promoting good practice. This study aimed to identify factors that shape the antibiotic prescribing behaviors of physicians in primary care based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Methods: Data were collected from 503 prescribers within 65 primary care facilities in Hubei, tapping into four behavioral aspects leading to antibiotic prescribing based on TPB, namely, attitudes (the degree to which a prescriber is in favor of the use of antibiotics), subjective norms (perceived social pressure to which a prescriber is subject in relation to antibiotic prescriptions), perceived control of behaviors (how easy a prescriber feels in making a rational decision on antibiotic prescriptions) and intentions (the degree to which a prescriber is willing to prescribe antibiotics)...
2019: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30728954/the-impact-of-the-national-action-plan-on-the-epidemiology-of-antibiotic-resistance-among-352-238-isolates-in-a-teaching-hospital-in-china-from-2015-to-2018
#8
Shanjuan Wang, Yanhong Jessika Hu, Paul Little, Yifei Wang, Qing Chang, Xudong Zhou, Michael Moore, Joseph Irvin Harwell
Background: We sought to understand the epidemiology and characteristics of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and the impact of the National Action Plan (NAP) on AMR. This information will be critical to develop interventions and strengthen antibiotic stewardship in hospital settings in China. Methods: Cross-sectional data collection from the hospital information management system from 1 January 2015 to 30 August 2018. Variables included patient age, sex, diagnosis, hospital department and antibiotic sensitivity test...
2019: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30719282/catheter-related-bloodstream-infections-with-coagulase-negative-staphylococci-are-antibiotics-necessary-if-the-catheter-is-removed
#9
Ursula Patricia Hebeisen, Andrew Atkinson, Jonas Marschall, Niccolò Buetti
Background: Catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) with coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CoNS) are a common source of hospital-acquired bloodstream infections. The main objective of this study was to elucidate the role of systemic antibiotic therapy in the setting of catheter removal in adult patients with CoNS-CRBSI. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study on patients with CoNS-CRBSI diagnosed between 2008 and 2016 with follow-up for up to 12 months...
2019: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30705754/infection-control-link-nurses-in-acute-care-hospitals-a-scoping-review
#10
REVIEW
Mireille Dekker, Irene P Jongerden, Rosa van Mansfeld, Johannes C F Ket, Suzanne D van der Werff, Christina M J E Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Martine C de Bruijne
Background: Involving link nurses in infection prevention and control is a strategy to improve clinical practice that has been implemented in hospitals worldwide. However, little is known about the use, the range and benefits of this strategy. We aimed to identify key concepts of infection control link nurses (ICLN) and ICLN programs, to evaluate the effect of such programs, and to identify gaps in the evidence base. Methods: In a scoping review, we searched PubMed, CINAHL, Google and Google Scholar for manuscripts on ICLN in acute care hospitals...
2019: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30701071/using-local-clinical-and-microbiological-data-to-develop-an-institution-specific-carbapenem-sparing-strategy-in-sepsis-a-nested-case-control-study
#11
Merel M C Lambregts, Bart J C Hendriks, Leo G Visser, Sandra T Bernards, Mark G J de Boer
Background: From a stewardship perspective it is recommended that antibiotic guidelines are adjusted to the local setting, accounting for the local epidemiology of pathogens. In many settings the prevalence of Gram-negative pathogens with resistance to empiric sepsis therapy is increasing. How and when to escalate standard sepsis therapy to a reserve antimicrobial agent, is a recurrent dilemma. The study objective was to develop decision strategies for empiric sepsis therapy based on local microbiological and clinical data, and estimate the number needed to treat with a carbapenem to avoid mismatch of empiric therapy in one patient (NNTC)...
2019: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30697421/antimicrobial-susceptibility-and-genotyping-of-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-isolates-in-beijing-china-from-2014-to-2016
#12
Fei Zhao, Jinrong Liu, Weixian Shi, Fang Huang, Liyong Liu, Shunying Zhao, Jianzhong Zhang
Background: The presence of macrolide-resistant Myocplasma pneumoniae has been frequently reported in recent years, especially in China. In this study, we investigated the antimicrobial susceptibility and genotype against M. pneumoniae isolates from 2014 to 2016, Beijing. Methods: We investigated the activities of four antibiotics against 81  M. pneumoniae isolates in vitro . All isolates were amplification of domains II and V of the 23S rRNA gene and the L4 and L22 ribosomal protein fragments...
2019: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30680153/assessing-the-social-cost-and-benefits-of-a-national-requirement-establishing-antibiotic-stewardship-programs-to-prevent-clostridioides-difficile-infection-in-us-hospitals
#13
R Douglas Scott, Rachel B Slayton, Fernanda C Lessa, James Baggs, Steven D Culler, L Clifford McDonald, John A Jernigan
Backgound: Economic evaluations of interventions to prevent healthcare-associated infections in the United States rarely take the societal perspective and thus ignore the potential benefits of morbidity and mortality risk reductions. Using new Department of Health and Human Services guidelines for regulatory impact analysis, we developed a cost-benefit analyses of a national multifaceted, in-hospital Clostridioides difficile infection prevention program (including staffing an antibiotic stewardship program) that incorporated value of statistical life estimates to obtain economic values associated with morbidity and mortality risk reductions...
2019: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30675343/emergence-of-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-in-switzerland-a-nation-wide-survey
#14
Niccolò Buetti, Nasstasja Wassilew, Viktorija Rion, Laurence Senn, Céline Gardiol, Andreas Widmer, Jonas Marschall
This nation-wide survey on the epidemiology of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) included 142 healthcare institutions and showed an increasing number of VRE colonizations and infections in Switzerland, probably for the most part due to nosocomial dissemination. The introduction and spread of a new clone, gaps in VRE screening policies as well as heterogeneity regarding the management of VRE clusters may be possible explanations.
2019: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30675342/point-prevalence-survey-of-peripheral-venous-catheter-usage-in-a-large-tertiary-care-university-hospital-in-germany
#15
Seven Johannes Sam Aghdassi, Christin Schröder, Désirée Gruhl, Petra Gastmeier, Florian Salm
Background: Bloodstream infections (BSI) are among the most frequently documented healthcare-associated infections (HAI). Central and peripheral venous catheters (CVC and PVC) are relevant risk factors for BSI. Although the risk for BSI is higher for CVC, PVC are utilized more frequently and are therefore relevant in the context of HAI prevention. Robust data on the prevalence of PVC and associated infections in German hospitals are scarce to this date. The objectives of this survey were to estimate the prevalence of PVC and PVC-associated infections on peripheral wards of a large tertiary care hospital in Germany...
2019: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30675341/the-potential-of-visible-blue-light-405-nm-as-a-novel-decontamination-strategy-for-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-cpe
#16
Fenella D Halstead, Zahra Ahmed, Jonathan R B Bishop, Beryl A Oppenheim
Background: Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) pose a considerable threat to modern medicine. New treatment options and methods to limit spread need to be investigated. Blue light (BL) is intrinsically antimicrobial, and we have previously demonstrated significant antimicrobial effects on biofilms of a panel of isolates, including two CPEs.This study was performed to assess the antibacterial activity of 405 nm BL against a panel of CPE isolates (four encoding bla NDM , three bla KPC , two bla OXA-48 , and three encoding both NDM and OXA-48 carbapenemases)...
2019: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30675340/effects-of-an-antimicrobial-stewardship-intervention-on-perioperative-antibiotic-prophylaxis-in-pediatrics
#17
Daniele Donà, Dora Luise, Enrico La Pergola, Genni Montemezzo, Annachiara Frigo, Rebecca Lundin, Theoklis Zaoutis, Piergiorgio Gamba, Carlo Giaquinto
Purpose: This study aims to determine the effectiveness of an Antimicrobial Stewardship Program based on a Clinical Pathway (CP) to improve appropriateness in perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis (PAP). Materials and methods: This pre-post quasi-experimental study was conducted in a 12 month period (six months before and six months after CP implementation), in a tertiary Pediatric Surgical Centre. All patients from 1 month to 15 years of age receiving one or more surgical procedures were eligible for inclusion...
2019: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30675339/molecular-epidemiology-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-iranian-hospitals
#18
Parisa Shoaei, Hasan Shojaei, Farzin Khorvash, Sayed Mohsen Hosseini, Behrooz Ataei, Hossein Tavakoli, Mohammad Jalali, J Scott Weese
Background: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is known as one of the most important causes of nosocomial infections. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of Clostridium difficile in the stool of hospitalized patients with diarrhea as well as in their environments. Methods: C. difficile isolates were characterized according to the presence of toxin genes and antibiotic resistance. Multilocus Sequence Typing Analysis (MLST) was applied for finding the genetic polymorphism and relationship among strain lineages...
2019: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30651977/correction-to-efficacy-of-intravenous-plus-intrathecal-intracerebral-ventricle-injection-of-polymyxin-b-for-post-neurosurgical-intracranial-infections-due-to-mdr-xdr-acinectobacter-baumannii-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#19
Sijun Pan, Xiaofang Huang, Yesong Wang, Li Li, Changyun Zhao, Zhongxiang Yao, Wei Cui, Gensheng Zhang
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1186/s13756-018-0305-5.].
2019: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30651976/correction-to-non-prescribed-sale-of-antibiotics-for-acute-childhood-diarrhea-and-upper-respiratory-tract-infection-in-community-pharmacies-a-2-phase-mixed-methods-study
#20
Daniel Asfaw Erku, Sisay Yifru Aberra
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1186/s13756-018-0389-y.].
2019: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
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