Journals Antimicrobial Resistance and I...

Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Isabella Bielicki, Hanna Schmid, Andrew Atkinson, Christian R Kahlert, Christoph Berger, Nicolas Troillet, Jonas Marschall, Julia A Bielicki
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the association between post-appendectomy SSI rates and the two most commonly used regimens for perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis in Swiss children. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study, analysing data from the Swiss national SSI surveillance database with a study period from 2014 to 2018. All hospitals undertaking paediatric appendectomies in Switzerland participate in the surveillance. We compared the cumulative incidence and odds of post-appendectomy SSI within 30 days of surgery in children ≤ 16 years of age undergoing appendectomy for uncomplicated appendicitis and receiving perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis with cefuroxime plus metronidazole or with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid using multivariable adjusted logistic regression and propensity-score matching...
September 25, 2023: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Sibylle C Mellinghoff, Caroline Bruns, Markus Albertsmeier, Juliane Ankert, Louis Bernard, Sofia Budin, Camille Bataille, Annika Y Classen, Florian B Cornely, Elodie Couvé-Deacon, Maria Fernandez Ferrer, Jesús Fortún, Alicia Galar, Eva Grill, Thomas Guimard, Jürgen A Hampl, Sebastian Wingen-Heimann, Juan P Horcajada, Felix Köhler, Carolin Koll, Joan Mollar, Patricia Muñoz, Mathias W Pletz, Jule Rutz, Jon Salmanton-García, Harald Seifert, Ferdinand Serracino-Inglott, Alex Soriano, Jannik Stemler, Janne J Vehreschild, Tim O Vilz, Jan-Hendrik Naendrup, Oliver A Cornely, Blasius J Liss
OBJECTIVE: To determine the overall and procedure-specific incidence of surgical site infections (SSI) caused by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) as well as risk factors for such across all surgical disciplines in Europe. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort of patients with surgical procedures performed at 14 European centres in 2016, with a nested case-control analysis. S. aureus SSI were identified by a semi-automated crossmatching bacteriological and electronic health record data...
September 19, 2023: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Elisavet Stavropoulou, Andrew Atkinson, Marie-Christine Eisenring, Christoph A Fux, Jonas Marschall, Laurence Senn, Nicolas Troillet
OBJECTIVE: To compare intravenous (IV) amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (A/CA) to IV cefuroxime plus metronidazole (C + M) for preventing surgical site infections (SSI) in colorectal surgery. BACKGROUND: Given their spectra that include most Enterobacterales and anaerobes, C + M is commonly recommended as prophylaxis of SSI in colorectal surgery. A/CA offers good coverage of Enterobacterales and anaerobes as well, but, in contrast to C + M, it also includes Enterococcus faecalis which is also isolated from patients with SSI and could trigger anastomotic leakage...
September 19, 2023: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Ya-Ting Yang, Xiaomin Zhong, Ali Fahmi, Simon Watts, Darren M Ashcroft, Jon Massey, Louis Fisher, Brian MacKenna, Amir Mehrkar, Sebastian C J Bacon, Ben Goldacre, Kieran Hand, Tjeerd van Staa, Victoria Palin
BACKGROUND: There is concern that the COVID-19 pandemic altered the management of common infections in primary care. This study aimed to evaluate infection-coded consultation rates and antibiotic use during the pandemic and how any change may have affected clinical outcomes. METHODS: With the approval of NHS England, a retrospective cohort study using the OpenSAFELY platform analysed routinely collected electronic health data from GP practices in England between January 2019 and December 2021...
September 16, 2023: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Tiyani Comfort Mthombeni, Johanita Riétte Burger, Martha Susanna Lubbe, Marlene Julyan
BACKGROUND: Electronic continuous surveillance databases are ideal for monitoring antibiotic use (ABU) in hospitalised patients for antibiotic stewardship programmes (ASP). However, such databases are scarce in low-resource settings. Point prevalence surveys (PPS) are viable alternatives. This report describes ABU and identifies ASP implementation improvement areas in Limpopo Province, South Africa. METHODS: This cross-sectional descriptive study extracted patient-level ABU data from patients' files using a modified global PPS tool...
September 16, 2023: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Thomas J A van Schaik, Maurits P A van Meer, Lex D de Jong, Jon H M Goosen, Matthijs P Somford, Job L C van Susante
BACKGROUND: Perioperative preventive measures are important to further reduce the rate of periprosthetic joint infections (PJI) in patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA). During THA surgery, joint capsule sutures are commonly placed to optimize exposure and reinsertion of the capsule. Bacterial contamination of these sutures during the procedure poses a potential risk for postoperative infection. In this exploratory study, we assessed the contamination rate of capsule sutures compared to the contamination of the remains of exchanged control sutures at the time of closure...
September 14, 2023: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Taikan Nanao, Hideo Nishizawa, Junichi Fujimoto
BACKGROUND: Infections and sepsis are the leading causes of death in intensive care units (ICUs). Antimicrobial agent selection is challenging because the intervention is directly related to the outcome, and the problem of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) must be considered. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to clarify the epidemiological data and examine whether the detection rate of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria differed depending on the presence or absence of the risk of MDR bacterial infections to establish guidance regarding the choice of antimicrobial therapy for ICU patients...
September 12, 2023: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Paul Laffont-Lozes, Romaric Larcher, Florian Salipante, Geraldine Leguelinel-Blache, Catherine Dunyach-Remy, Jean-Philippe Lavigne, Albert Sotto, Paul Loubet
BACKGROUNG: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is on the rise worldwide. Tools such as dynamic regression (DR) models can correlate antimicrobial consumption (AMC) with AMR and predict future trends to help implement antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs). MAIN BODY: We carried out a systematic review of the literature up to 2023/05/31, searching in PubMed, ScienceDirect and Web of Science. We screened 641 articles and finally included 28 studies using a DR model to study the correlation between AMC and AMR at a hospital scale, published in English or French...
September 12, 2023: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Philipp Kohler, Tamara Dörr, Andrée Friedl, Reto Stocker, Danielle Vuichard, Stefan P Kuster, Christian R Kahlert
BACKGROUND: Few studies have assessed whether the increased SARS-CoV-2 risk of healthcare workers (HCW) is carried on to their household contacts. Within a prospective HCW cohort, we assessed the SARS-CoV-2 risk of household contacts of HCW depending on the HCWs cumulative exposure to COVID-19 patients and identified factors influencing this association. METHODS: HCW aged ≥ 16 years from nine Swiss healthcare networks participated. HCW without any household contacts were excluded...
September 8, 2023: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Lisa Mallinckrodt, Robert Huis In 't Veld, Sigrid Rosema, Andreas Voss, Erik Bathoorn
BACKGROUND: Elizabethkingia anophelis is a multi-drug resistant emerging opportunistic pathogen with a high mortality rate, causing healthcare-associated outbreaks worldwide. METHODS: We report a case of E. anophelis pleuritis, resulting from transmission through lung transplantation, followed by a literature review of outbreak reports and strategies to minimize E. anophelis transmission in healthcare settings. RESULTS: From 1990 to August 2022, 14 confirmed E...
September 8, 2023: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Suzanne D van der Werff, Janneke D M Verberk, Christian Buchli, Maaike S M van Mourik, Pontus Nauclér
BACKGROUND: Automated surveillance methods that re-use electronic health record data are considered an attractive alternative to traditional manual surveillance. However, surveillance algorithms need to be thoroughly validated before being implemented in a clinical setting. With semi-automated surveillance patients are classified as low or high probability of having developed infection, and only high probability patients subsequently undergo manual record review. The aim of this study was to externally validate two existing semi-automated surveillance algorithms for deep SSI after colorectal surgery, developed on Spanish and Dutch data, in a Swedish setting...
September 8, 2023: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Jean-Yves Maillard, Isabella Centeleghe
Biofilms are ubiquitous in healthcare settings. By nature, biofilms are less susceptible to antimicrobials and are associated with healthcare-associated infections (HAI). Resistance of biofilm to antimicrobials is multifactorial with the presence of a matrix composed of extracellular polymeric substances and eDNA, being a major contributing factor. The usual multispecies composition of environmental biofilms can also impact on antimicrobial efficacy. In healthcare settings, two main types of biofilms are present: hydrated biofilms, for example, in drains and parts of some medical devices and equipment, and environmental dry biofilms (DSB) on surfaces and possibly in medical devices...
September 7, 2023: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Philip C Carling, Michael F Parry, Russell Olmstead
As today's most prevalent and costly healthcare-associated infection, hospital-onset Clostridioides difficile infection (HO-CDI) represents a major threat to patient safety world-wide. This review will discuss how new insights into the epidemiology of CDI have quantified the prevalence of C. difficile (CD) spore contamination of the patient-zone as well as the role of asymptomatically colonized patients who unavoidable contaminate their near and distant environments with resilient spores. Clarification of the epidemiology of CD in parallel with the development of a new generation of sporicidal agents which can be used on a daily basis without damaging surfaces, equipment, or the environment, led to the research discussed in this review...
September 7, 2023: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Jaewoong Kim, Shi Nae Yu, Yeon Su Jeong, Jin Hwa Kim, Min Hyok Jeon, Tark Kim, Eun Ju Choo, Eunjung Lee, Tae Hyong Kim, Se Yoon Park
BACKGROUND: Hand hygiene (HH) is a fundamental component of infection prevention and control in healthcare settings. This study aimed to identify knowledge, attitude, and barriers to HH according to occupational groups and strategies to increase the rate of HH compliance among healthcare workers (HCWs). METHODS: This cross-sectional survey was conducted in July 2018 at four university-affiliated hospitals. The survey comprised seven parts with 49 items, including self-reported HH compliance, knowledge, attitudes, behaviours, barriers to HH, and improvement strategies...
September 7, 2023: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Luis Cobrado, Elisabete Ricardo, Patricia Ramalho, Angela Rita Fernandes, Acacio Goncalves Rodrigues
BACKGROUND: To minimize environmental colonization by microorganisms that may persist and thrive in healthcare settings, thus reducing healthcare-associated infections (HAIs), new insights over already known biocides are certainly of relevance. Although the efficacy of hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) against the emergent yeast Candida auris is moderately documented, concerns over the potential induction of resistance after repeated exposure do persist. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the hypothetical induction of Candida auris resistance following 30 days of consecutive exposure to lethal and sublethal concentrations of H2 O2 ...
September 7, 2023: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Adriana Mihaela Stanciu, Dragoș Florea, Marius Surleac, Simona Paraschiv, Dan Oțelea, Daniela Tălăpan, Gabriel Adrian Popescu
The emerging opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida auris raises significant concerns for public health due to its outbreak potential, the associated high mortality, increased resistance to antifungals, challenging identification to species level, since commonly used diagnostic methods can confuse this fungus with other Candida spp. The present outbreak report describes probably some of the first Candida auris cases in Romania, providing clinical and epidemiological data, and also whole genome sequencing data...
September 7, 2023: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Claudia Truppa, Beatriz Alonso, Kate Clezy, Carole Deglise, Carole Dromer, Silvia Garelli, Carolina Jimenez, Rupa Kanapathipillai, Mohamad Khalife, Ernestina Repetto
Fragile and conflict-affected settings bear a disproportionate burden of antimicrobial resistance, due to the compounding effects of weak health policies, disrupted medical supply chains, and lack of knowledge and awareness about antibiotic stewardship both among health care providers and health service users. Until now, humanitarian organizations intervening in these contexts have confronted the threat of complex multidrug resistant infections mainly in their surgical projects at the secondary and tertiary levels of care, but there has been limited focus on ensuring the implementation of adequate antimicrobial stewardship in primary health care, which is known to be setting where the highest proportion of antibiotics are prescribed...
September 4, 2023: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Rima Moghnieh, Amal Saif Al-Maani, Jana Berro, Nour Ibrahim, Rana Attieh, Dania Abdallah, Jameela Al-Ajmi, Dhouha Hamdani, Najiba Abdulrazzaq, Abeer Omar, Safa Al-Khawaja, Rami Al-Abadla, Salam Al-Ratrout, Mohammad Gharaibeh, Zakaria Abdelrahim, Hiba Azrag, Karima Mayar Amiri, Atika Berry, Bashar Hagali, Jamal Kadhim, Huda Al-Shami, Mumtaz Ali Khan, Roula Husni, Iman Heweidy, Bassim Zayed
BACKGROUND: A strong understanding of infection prevention and control (IPC) procedures and comprehensive training among healthcare workers is essential for effective IPC programs. These elements play a crucial role in breaking the chain of nosocomial infections by preventing the transmission of resistant organisms to patients and staff members. This study mapped the components of IPC education and training across various member states of the World Health Organization (WHO) in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) at national, academic, and healthcare institutional levels...
September 4, 2023: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Guosong Wu, Cheligeer Cheligeer, Danielle A Southern, Elliot A Martin, Yuan Xu, Jenine Leal, Jennifer Ellison, Kathryn Bush, Tyler Williamson, Hude Quan, Cathy A Eastwood
BACKGROUND: Population based surveillance of surgical site infections (SSIs) requires precise case-finding strategies. We sought to develop and validate machine learning models to automate the process of complex (deep incisional/organ space) SSIs case detection. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included adult patients (age ≥ 18 years) admitted to Calgary, Canada acute care hospitals who underwent primary total elective hip (THA) or knee (TKA) arthroplasty between Jan 1st, 2013 and Aug 31st, 2020...
September 2, 2023: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Jean-Marie Januel, Nasim Lotfinejad, Rebecca Grant, Sarah Tschudin-Sutter, Peter W Schreiber, Bruno Grandbastien, Philipp Jent, Elia Lo Priore, Alexandra Scherrer, Stephan Harbarth, Gaud Catho, Niccolò Buetti
BACKGROUND: Intravascular catheter infections are associated with adverse clinical outcomes. However, a significant proportion of these infections are preventable. Evaluations of the performance of automated surveillance systems for adequate monitoring of central-line associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) or catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) are limited. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the predictive performance of automated algorithms for CLABSI/CRBSI detection, and investigated which parameters included in automated algorithms provide the greatest accuracy for CLABSI/CRBSI detection...
August 31, 2023: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
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