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Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

Raphaël P Piarroux, Thomas Romain, Aurélie Martin, Damien Vainqueur, Joana Vitte, Laurence Lachaud, Jean-Pierre Gangneux, Frédéric Gabriel, Judith Fillaux, Stéphane Ranque
Aspergillus sp. fungi cause various diseases in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. The most frequent Aspergillus disorders include chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA), a life-threatening disease that affects at least 3 million people worldwide, and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), which affects approximately 4.8 million severe asthmatic patients globally. Diagnosis of such diseases involves IgG serological testing; however, the currently available anti- Aspergillus IgG detection assays are inappropriate for resource-poor laboratory settings, as they are expensive, rely on automated procedures, and require stable electrical power...
2019: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Ying Luo, Yaoju Tan, Jing Yu, Qun Lin, Hongyan Hou, Liyan Mao, Weiyong Liu, Feng Wang, Ziyong Sun
The performance of T-SPOT.TB (T-SPOT) assay in diagnosing pleural tuberculosis (plTB) is inconsistent. In this study, we compared the performance of peripheral blood (PB) and pleural fluid (PF) T-SPOT assay in diagnosing plTB. Between July 2017 and March 2018, 218 and 210 suspected plTB patients were prospectively enrolled from Wuhan (training) and Guangzhou (validation) cohort, respectively. PB T-SPOT, PF T-SPOT, and other conventional tests were simultaneously performed. Our data showed the performance of PB T-SPOT in diagnosing plTB was limited, especially with low sensitivity...
2019: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Xianping Li, Liqiong Song, Siyi Zhu, Yuchun Xiao, Yuanming Huang, Yuting Hua, Qiongfang Chu, Zhihong Ren
Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) infection is a serious challenge for clinical management and there is no effective treatment at present. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) and probiotic intervention have been shown to be promising approaches for reducing the colonization of certain pathogenic bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract, however, no such studies have been done on VRE. In this study, we evaluated the effect of FMT and two Lactobacillus strains (Y74 and HT121) on the colonization of VRE in a VRE-infection mouse model...
2019: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Obdulio García-Nicolás, Marta Lewandowska, Meret E Ricklin, Artur Summerfield
Several mosquito-borne Flaviviruses such as Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), West Nile virus (WNV), Dengue Virus (DENV), and Zika virus (ZIKV) can cause severe clinical disease. Being zoonotic, Flaviviruses infect a wide variety of terrestrial vertebrates, which dependent of the virus-host interactions, can enhance ongoing epidemics and maintain the virus in the environment for prolonged periods. Targeted species can vary from amphibians, birds to various mammals, dependent on the virus. For many mosquito-borne flaviviruses the spectrum of targeted species is incompletely understood, in particular with respect to their contribution to the maintenance of virus in certain geographical regions...
2019: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Mona Dehhaghi, Hamed Kazemi Shariat Panahi, Edward C Holmes, Bernard J Hudson, Richard Schloeffel, Gilles J Guillemin
There are 17 human-biting ticks known in Australia. The bites of Ixodes holocyclus, Ornithodoros capensis , and Ornithodoros gurneyi can cause paralysis, inflammation, and severe local and systemic reactions in humans, respectively. Six ticks, including Amblyomma triguttatum, Bothriocroton hydrosauri, Haemaphysalis novaeguineae, Ixodes cornuatus, Ixodes holocyclus , and Ixodes tasmani may transmit Coxiella burnetii, Rickettsia australis, Rickettsia honei , or Rickettsia honei subsp. marmionii . These bacterial pathogens cause Q fever, Queensland tick typhus (QTT), Flinders Island spotted fever (FISF), and Australian spotted fever (ASF)...
2019: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Brooke C Wilson, Tommi Vatanen, Wayne S Cutfield, Justin M O'Sullivan
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has become a highly effective bacteriotherapy for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. Meanwhile the efficacy of FMT for treating chronic diseases associated with microbial dysbiosis has so far been modest with a much higher variability in patient response. Notably, a number of studies suggest that FMT success is dependent on the microbial diversity and composition of the stool donor, leading to the proposition of the existence of FMT super-donors. The identification and subsequent characterization of super-donor gut microbiomes will inevitably advance our understanding of the microbial component of chronic diseases and allow for more targeted bacteriotherapy approaches in the future...
2019: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Ting-Ting Li, Jin-Lei Wang, Nian-Zhang Zhang, Wen-Hui Li, Hong-Bin Yan, Li Li, Wan-Zhong Jia, Bao-Quan Fu
Trichinella spp., are amongst the most widespread parasitic nematodes, primarily live in the muscles of a wide range of vertebrate animals and humans. Human infection occurs by ingestion of raw or undercooked meat containing Trichinella larvae. Accurate diagnosis of Trichinella spp. infection in domestic animals is crucial for the effective prevention and control of human trichinellosis. In the present study, a simple, rapid and accurate diagnostic assay was developed combining recombinase polymerase amplification and a lateral flow strip (LF-RPA) to detect Trichinella spp...
2019: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Ian A Myles, Ian N Moore, Carlo R Castillo, Sandip K Datta
Introduction: As therapies for atopic dermatitis (AD) based on live biotherapeutic products (LBP) are developed, the potential displacement of biotherapeutic strains, and species to mucosal sites where they are not naturally found is of investigative interest. However, formal assessment of the toxicity potential of healthy skin commensal organisms has not been reported in the literature. Our previous research indicates that topical application of live Roseomonas mucosa to treat AD was associated with clinical benefit on the skin, but the effects of exposure via inhalation, eye inoculation, and ingestion were unknown...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fcimb.2018.00419.].
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Monica Ararat-Sarria, Manuel A Patarroyo, Hernando Curtidor
Malaria, a disease caused by Plasmodium parasites, is widespread throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions worldwide; it mostly affects children and pregnant woman. Eradication has stalled despite effective prevention measures and medication being available for this disease; this has mainly been due to the parasite's resistance to medical treatment and the mosquito vector's resistance to insecticides. Tackling such resistance involves using renewed approaches and techniques for accruing a deep understanding of the parasite's biology, and developing new drugs and vaccines...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Nathália Luísa Sousa de Oliveira Malacco, Milene Alvarenga Rachid, Isabella Luisa da Silva Gurgel, Tauany Rodrigues Moura, Pedro Henrique Ferreira Sucupira, Lirlândia Pires de Sousa, Daniele da Glória de Souza, Remo de Castro Russo, Mauro Martins Teixeira, Frederico Marianetti Soriani
Aspergillus fumigatus is a common widespread microorganism with environmental, biological and clinical relevance. After inhalation, swollen conidia can germinate, colonize and invade pulmonary tissues. Eosinophils have been described as key cells in A. fumigatus lung infection. However, their specific role in protecting or damaging lung tissue as well as their relatioship among different A. fumigatus strains is poorly understood. Previously, it has been reported that eosinophils are able to produce IL-17 and mediate an innate response that protected mice from infection using Af293 and CEA10 strains...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Yuli Hu, Qian Hu, Rong Wei, Runcheng Li, Dun Zhao, Meng Ge, Qing Yao, Xinglong Yu
Streptococcus suis is a zoonotic pathogen that harbors anti-oxidative stress genes, which have been reported to be associated with virulence. Serial passage has been widely used to obtain phenotypic variant strains to investigate the functions of important genes. In the present study, S. suis serotype 9 strain DN13 was serially passaged in mice 30 times. The virulence of a single colony from passage 10 (SS9-P10) was found to increase by at least 140-fold as indicated by LD50 values, and the increased virulence was stable for single colonies from passage 20 (SS0-P20) and 30 (SS0-P30)...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Rahul Kumar Maurya, Suman Bharti, Manju Y Krishnan
Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb ) has the remarkable ability to persist with a modified metabolic status and phenotypic drug tolerance for long periods in the host without producing symptoms of active tuberculosis. These persisters may reactivate to cause active disease when the immune system becomes disrupted or compromised. Thus, the infected hosts with the persisters serve as natural reservoir of the deadly pathogen. Understanding the host and bacterial factors contributing to Mtb persistence is important to devise strategies to tackle the Mtb persisters...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Patricia Del Portillo, Lázaro García-Morales, María Carmen Menéndez, Juan Manuel Anzola, Juan Germán Rodríguez, Addy Cecilia Helguera-Repetto, Miguel A Ares, Rafael Prados-Rosales, Jorge A Gonzalez-Y-Merchand, María Jesús García
The capacity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb ) to sense, respond and adapt to a variable and hostile environment within the host makes it one of the most successful human pathogens. During different stages of infection, Mtb is surrounded by a plethora of lipid molecules and current evidence points out the relevance of fatty acids during the infectious process. In this study, we have compared the transcriptional response of Mtb to hypoxia in cultures supplemented with a mix of even long-chain fatty acids or dextrose as main carbon sources...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Jiyang Fu, Liang Li, Xiaopei Yang, Ruicheng Yang, Nouman Amjad, Lu Liu, Chen Tan, Huanchun Chen, Xiangru Wang
Bacterial penetration of the blood-brain barrier requires its successful invasion of brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs), and host actin cytoskeleton rearrangement in these cells is a key prerequisite for this process. We have reported previously that meningitic Escherichia coli can induce the activation of host's epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) to facilitate its invasion of BMECs. However, it is unknown how EGFR specifically functions during this invasion process. Here, we identified an important EGFR-interacting protein, α-actinin-4 (ACTN4), which is involved in maintaining and regulating the actin cytoskeleton...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Preeti Shahi, France Moreau, Kris Chadee
The intestinal protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica ( Eh ) causes amebiasis associated with severe diarrhea and/or liver abscess. Eh pathogenesis is multifactorial requiring both parasite virulent molecules and host-induced innate immune responses. Eh -induced host pro-inflammatory responses plays a critical role in disease pathogenesis by causing damage to tissues allowing parasites access to systemic sites. Eh cyclooxygenase ( Eh Cox) derived prostaglandin E2 stimulates the chemokine IL-8 from mucosal epithelial cells that recruits neutrophils to the site of infection to exacerbate disease...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Grasielle Pereira Jannuzzi, José Roberto Fogaça de Almeida, Gustavo P Amarante-Mendes, Lavínia Maria Dal'Mas Romera, Gilberto Hideo Kaihami, José Ronnie Vasconcelos, Camila Pontes Ferreira, Sandro Rogério de Almeida, Karen Spadari Ferreira
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) comprise the best-characterized pattern-recognition receptor (PRR) family able to activate distinct immune responses depending on the receptor/adaptor set assembled. TLRs, such as TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9, and their signaling were shown to be important in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infections. However, the role of the endosomal TLR3 in experimental paracoccidioidomycosys remains obscure. In vitro assays, macrophages of the bone marrow of WT or TLR3-/- mice were differentiated for evaluation of their microbicidal activity...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Itzel López-Rosas, César López-Camarillo, Yarely M Salinas-Vera, Olga N Hernández-de la Cruz, Carlos Palma-Flores, Bibiana Chávez-Munguía, Osbaldo Resendis-Antonio, Nancy Guillen, Carlos Pérez-Plasencia, María Elizbeth Álvarez-Sánchez, Esther Ramírez-Moreno, Laurence A Marchat
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that function as negative regulators of gene expression. Recent evidences suggested that host cells miRNAs are involved in the progression of infectious diseases, but its role in amoebiasis remains largely unknown. Here, we reported an unexplored role for miRNAs of human epithelial colon cells during the apoptosis induced by Entamoeba histolytica . We demonstrated for the first time that SW-480 colon cells change their miRNAs profile in response to parasite exposure...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
July Fong, Kim T Mortensen, Amalie Nørskov, Katrine Qvortrup, Liang Yang, Choon Hong Tan, Thomas E Nielsen, Michael Givskov
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is known as an opportunistic pathogen that often causes persistent infections associated with high level of antibiotic-resistance and biofilms formation. Chemical interference with bacterial cell-to-cell communication, termed quorum sensing (QS), has been recognized as an attractive approach to control infections and address the drug resistance problems currently observed worldwide. Instead of imposing direct selective pressure on bacterial growth, the right bioactive compounds can preferentially block QS-based communication and attenuate cascades of bacterial gene expression and production of virulence factors, thus leading to reduced pathogenicity...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Marine J Petit, Priya S Shah
Studying how arthropod-borne viruses interact with their arthropod vectors is critical to understanding how these viruses replicate and are transmitted. Until recently, these types of studies were limited in scale because of the lack of classical tools available to study virus-host interaction for non-model viruses and non-model organisms. Advances in systems biology "-omics"-based techniques such as next-generation sequencing (NGS) and mass spectrometry can rapidly provide an unbiased view of arbovirus-vector interaction landscapes...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
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