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Case Reports in Genetics

Alejandra Rincon, Paola Paez-Rojas, Fernando Suárez-Obando
8q22.2q22.3 microdeletion syndrome has been described in only seven patients. We present a new case from Colombia. The characteristics of this condition are developmental delay, microcephaly, seizures, and typical facial dysmorphism. We discuss the clinical phenotype of the patient presenting relevant findings like hearing loss and severe epilepsy and the possible relations between the phenotype and the genes involved in the microdeletion. We describe a female with developmental delay, microcephaly, epilepsy, severe short stature, impaired speech, facial dysmorphism, and congenital deafness...
2019: Case Reports in Genetics
Taishi Fujisawa, Yoshiyasu Aizawa, Yoshinori Katsumata, Akihiro Udo, Shogo Ito, Kazumasa Hatakeyama, Makoto Hirose, Hiroshi Miyama, Kazuaki Nakajima, Takahiko Nishiyama, Takehiro Kimura, Masamitsu Nitta, Kazuo Misumi, Seiji Takatsuki, Kenjiro Kosaki, Keiichi Fukuda
A 62-year-old female had suffered from recurrent syncopal episodes triggered by physical and emotional stress since childhood. She had no family history of sudden death. An intensive examination could not detect any structural disease, and exercise stress testing provoked polymorphic ventricular ectopy followed by polymorphic ventricular tachycardia accompanied with syncope leading to a diagnosis of catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT). A genetic analysis with a next generation sequencer identified a homozygous W361X mutation in the CASQ2 gene...
2019: Case Reports in Genetics
Kwo Wei David Ho, Nivedita U Jerath
The clinical effect of T118M variant of the PMP22 gene has been controversial. Several studies have suggested that it may be autosomal recessive, partial loss of function, or a benign variant. Here we report three cases in further support that the T118M variant of the PMP22 gene is a partial loss of function variant. These three unrelated cases were heterozygotes with the T118M variant of the PMP22 gene. All three cases presented with painful peripheral neuropathy and varying degrees of Charcot-Marie-Tooth exam features...
2018: Case Reports in Genetics
Salma M Wakil, Dorota Monies, Samya Hagos, Fahad Al-Ajlan, Josef Finsterer, Aisha Al Qahtani, Khushnooda Ramzan, Rawan Al Humaidy, Mohamed A Al-Muhaizea, Brian Meyer, Saeed A Bohlega
Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSANs) are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders involving various sensory and autonomic dysfunctions. The most common symptoms of HSANs include loss of sensations of pain and temperature that frequently lead to chronic ulcerations in the feet and hands of the patient. In this case study, we present the clinical features and genetic characteristics of two affected individuals from two unrelated Saudi families presenting mutilating sensory loss and spastic paraplegia...
2018: Case Reports in Genetics
Ahmed Bouhouche, Houyam Tibar, Yamna Kriouale, Mohammed Jiddane, Imane Smaili, Naima Bouslam, Ali Benomar, Mohamed Yahyaoui, Elmostafa El Fahime
GM1 gangliosidosis is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder due to mutations in the lysosomal acid 3-galactosidase gene, GLB1 . It is usually classified into three forms, infantile, juvenile, or adult, based on age at onset and severity of central nervous system involvement. Because of their broad clinical spectrum and their similarity to many other aetiologies, including inherited neurodegenerative and metabolic diseases, it is often difficult to diagnose such diseases. Recently, whole exome sequencing (WES) has become increasingly used when a strong hypothesis cannot be formulated based on the clinical phenotype...
2018: Case Reports in Genetics
Nyamkhishig Sambuughin, Mingqiang Ren, John F Capacchione, Ognoon Mungunsukh, Kevin Chuang, Iren Horkayne-Szakaly, Francis G O'Connor, Patricia A Deuster
Individuals with Sickle Cell Trait (SCT), generally considered a benign carrier state of hemoglobin S (HbAS), are thought to be at risk for exertional rhabdomyolysis and hematuria, conditions that can also be caused by various other acquired and inherited factors. We report an SCT positive service member with an exertional rhabdomyolysis event, recurrent hematuria with transient proteinuria, and episodic burning pain in the lower extremities. Clinical and genetic studies revealed the multifactorial nature of his complex phenotype...
2018: Case Reports in Genetics
Charles Volk, Gregory Matwiyoff
Background: Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome is a genetic disorder characterized by skin fibrofolliculomas, cystic lung disease, and bilateral renal tumors. It has also been implicated in the formation of tumors in other organs, particularly thyroid and colon. This case presents a young female presenting with only cystic lung disease and kidney tumors, identified as having a never before identified heterozygous mutation in the folliculin ( FLCN ) gene which is the likely cause of her syndrome...
2018: Case Reports in Genetics
Surasak Puvabanditsin, Mehrin Sadiq, Marianne Jacob, Maaz Jalil, Kenya Cabrera, Omer Choudry, Rajeev Mehta
We report a preterm female infant with intrauterine growth retardation, dysmorphic facies, missing rib, small hands and feet, and hemihypertrophy. The results of whole genome SNP microarray analysis showed approximately 77 Kb interstitial deletion of the short arm of chromosome 11 (11p15.4). We report novel clinical findings of this rare genetic condition.
2018: Case Reports in Genetics
Kara Nadeau, Michele Brule
Rothmund-Thomson syndrome is a genetic disorder with characteristic findings in childhood as well as a predisposition to osteosarcoma, skin cancer, and hematological malignancy. We present the first reported case of duodenal malignancy in a patient with Rothmund-Thompson syndrome. An enlarged Virchow's node was noted and an advanced duodenal adenocarcinoma was diagnosed shortly thereafter. The features of Rothmund-Thomson syndrome are discussed, as well as current management and screening guidelines for duodenal adenocarcinoma...
2018: Case Reports in Genetics
Nadia Al-Hashmi, Mohammed Mohammed, Salim Al-Kathir, Naeema Al-Yarubi, Patrick Scott
The autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxias (ARCA) affect both the central and the peripheral nervous systems. They are also characterized by a relatively high level of genetic heterogeneity with well over 40 genes already implicated. The present study aimed to identify the gene mutation responsible for a complex phenotype comprising cerebellar ataxia and intellectual disability segregating in an Omani consanguineous family. Homozygosity-guided exome data analysis identified a novel frameshift mutation (c.2319_2322del) within the sorting nexin 14 gene (SNX14), which predicts complete absence of the SNX14 encoded protein...
2018: Case Reports in Genetics
L Swan, G Gole, V Sabesan, J Cardinal, D Coman
Hajdu-Cheney Syndrome (HSC) is a rare multisystem disease in which the phenotype involves acro-osteolysis, severe osteoporosis, short stature, wormian bones, facial dysmorphism, central neurological abnormalities, cardiovascular defects, and polycystic kidneys. We describe an infant with severe manifestations of HCS in whom congenital glaucoma was a significant early feature, which has not been reported to date. HCS cases reported to date have involved truncating mutations in exon 34 of NOTCH2 upstream the PEST domain that lead to the development of a truncated and stable NOTCH2 protein which upregluates notch signaling...
2018: Case Reports in Genetics
Kwo Wei David Ho, Nivedita U Jerath
Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type I (HSAN I) is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by distal sensory loss, pain insensitivity, and autonomic disturbances. The major underlying causes of HSAN I are point mutations in the SPTLC1 gene. Patients with mutations in the SPTLC1 genes typically exhibit dense sensory loss and incidence of lancinating pain. Although most of these mutations produce sensory loss, it is unclear which mutations would lead to the painful phenotype. In this case series, we report that the V144D mutation in SPTLC1 gene may relate to both painful and painless peripheral neuropathies...
2018: Case Reports in Genetics
James Blackburn, Dinesh Giri, Barbara Ciolka, Nicole Gossan, Mohammad Didi, George Kokai, Alison Waghorn, Matthew Jones, Senthil Senniappan
Activating mutations in thyrotropin receptor ( TSHR ) have been previously described in the context of nonautoimmune hyperthyroidism and thyroid adenomas. We describe, for the first time, a mutation in TSHR contributing to follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) in an adolescent. A 12-year-old girl presented with a right-sided neck swelling, increasing in size over the previous four weeks. Clinical examination revealed a firm, nontender thyroid nodule. Ultrasound scan of the thyroid showed a heterogeneous highly vascular mass...
2018: Case Reports in Genetics
Kameryn M Butler, Philip J Holt, Sarah S Milla, Cristina da Silva, John J Alexander, Andrew Escayg
CACNA2D2 encodes an auxiliary subunit of the voltage-dependent calcium channel. To date, there have only been two reports of individuals with early-infantile epileptic encephalopathy due to CACNA2D2 mutations. In both reports, patients were homozygous for the identified variants. Here, we report a patient with epileptic encephalopathy and cerebellar atrophy who was found to have two novel variants in the CACNA2D2 gene: c.782C>T (p.Pro261Leu) and c.3137T>C (p.Leu1046Pro), by whole-exome sequencing. The variants were shown to be inherited in trans and the unaffected parents were confirmed to be heterozygous carriers...
2018: Case Reports in Genetics
T Couture, K Amato, A DiAdamo, P Li
Jumping translocations of 1q refer to the break-off of chromosome 1q as a donor fusing to two or more recipient chromosomes. We detected jumping translocations of 1q in three patients with initial diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and later progression to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Review of literature found jumping translocations of 1q in 30 reported cases of MDS and AML. The cytogenetic findings from these 33 cases showed that seven cases had a stemline clone and 26 cases had de novo jumping translocations of 1q in which 5% of cell lineages had additional structural rearrangements...
2018: Case Reports in Genetics
Rathika Damodara Shenoy, Vijaya Shenoy, Vikram Shetty
This case series of three children reports clinical features and chromosomal abnormalities seen in a craniofacial clinic. All presented with orofacial cleft, developmental or intellectual disability, and dysmorphism. Emanuel syndrome or supernumerary der (22)t(11; 22), the prototype of complex small supernumerary marker disorders, was seen in one child. Duplication 4q27q35.2 with concomitant deletion 21q22.2q22.3 and duplication 12p13.33p13.32 with concomitant deletion 18q22.3q23 seen in the remaining two children are not reported in literature...
2018: Case Reports in Genetics
Amber Hildreth, Mark A Valasek, Irene Thung, Thomas Savides, Mamata Sivagnanam, Sonia Ramamoorthy, Sherry C Huang
Constitutional (Biallelic) Mismatch Repair Deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by numerous cancers presenting as early as the first decade of life. Biallelic germline variants in one of four mismatch repair genes ( MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, or PMS2 ) cause this devastating disease. Given the rarity of the syndrome, often-asymptomatic tumors, and overlap with neurofibromatosis-1, diagnosis is frequently unrecognized or delayed. We present a unique case of a 14-year-old female with minimal gastrointestinal symptoms diagnosed with invasive adenocarcinoma secondary to biallelic PMS2 variants...
2018: Case Reports in Genetics
Nicola Laforgia, Manuela Capozza, Lucrezia De Cosmo, Antonio Di Mauro, Maria Elisabetta Baldassarre, Francesca Mercadante, Anna Laura Torella, Vincenzo Nigro, Nicoletta Resta
Congenital myopathies are a group of rare inherited diseases, defined by hypotonia and muscle weakness. We report clinical and genetic characteristics of a male preterm newborn, whose phenotype was characterized by severe hypotonia and hyporeactivity, serious respiratory distress syndrome that required mechanical ventilation, clubfoot, and other dysmorphic features. The diagnostic procedure was completed with the complete exome sequencing of the proband and of his parents and his sister, which showed new mutations in the ryanodine receptor gene (RYR1), which maps to chromosome 19q13...
2018: Case Reports in Genetics
Ivanka Dimova, Ivo Kremensky
Congenital muscle dystrophies (CMD) are genetically and clinically heterogeneous hereditary myopathies mainly with autosomal recessive type of inheritance. The most common form worldwide is considered to be merosin-deficient muscle dystrophy type 1A, called MDC1A (due to laminin- α 2 defects as a result of LAMA2 gene mutation), accounting for 30-40% of total cases of CMD. The exact molecular and clinical diagnoses, respectively, are a prerequisite for the most effective treatment; sometimes orphan drugs exist for some rare diseases...
2018: Case Reports in Genetics
Xike Wang, Yue Wu, Yuxia Cui, Nan Wang, Lasse Folkersen, Yuchuan Wang
Limb girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMDs) are a heterogeneous group of genetic myopathies leading primarily to proximal muscle weakness. It is caused by mutations at over 50 known genetic loci typically from mutations in genes encoding constituents of the sarcolemmal dystrophin complex or related functions. Herein we describe the case of two siblings with LGMD that were investigated using whole-exome sequencing followed by Sanger sequencing validation of a specific double-mutation in the TRAPPC11 gene. Further, from parental sequencing we determined the mode of transmission, a double heterozygous mutation at the maternal and paternal alleles...
2018: Case Reports in Genetics
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