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Paediatrics and International Child Health

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30762489/hiv-exposed-uninfected-compared-with-unexposed-infants-show-the-presence-of-leucocytes-lower-lactoferrin-levels-and-antimicrobial-resistant-micro-organisms-in-the-stool
#1
A C Maloupazoa Siawaya, E Kuissi Kamgaing, S Minto'o Rogombe, T Obiang, E Moungoyi Massala, M J V Magossou Mbadinga, M Leboueny, O Mvoundza Ndjindji, A Mveang-Nzoghe, J P Ondo, A Mintsa Ndong, P N Essone, S T Agnandji, M Kaba, S Ategbo, J F Djoba Siawaya
BACKGROUND: HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU)-infants have been shown to be particularly vulnerable to infections. In this population, disturbance of the gut micro-environment might increase their susceptibility to enteric diseases and even favour the translocation of bacteria in the bloodstream. METHODS: The gastro-intestinal micro-environment was explored in 22 HEU infants and 16 HIV-unexposed (HU) infants aged 6-24 weeks. Faecal leucocytes, firmicutes (gram-positive bacteria) and gracilicutes (gram-negative bacteria) were assessed by cytology...
February 14, 2019: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30739577/permanent-damage-of-the-sciatic-nerve-in-an-8-year-old-girl-with-newly-diagnosed-type-1-diabetes
#2
Styliani Giza, Eleni Litou, Eleni P Kotanidou, Angeliki N Kleisarchaki, Panagiotis Koliatos, Tasos Tzirtzipis, Vasiliki Rengina Tsinopoulou, Athanasios Tychalas, Athanasios Evangeliou, Assimina Galli-Tsinopoulou
Neuropathy, a complication of type 1 diabetes (T1D), is a heterogeneous group, and chronic polyneuropathy is the most common form in adults. Αn 8-year-old girl admitted with severe diabetic ketoacidosis was diagnosed with T1D. She was managed with intravenous fluids and insulin and was subsequently commenced on multiple daily subcutaneous injections of insulin. On the 7th day of hospitalisation, a right foot drop with sensory loss on the dorsal surface and cellulitis were detected and the latter responded to intravenous antibiotics...
February 11, 2019: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30739567/effect-of-fortifiers-on-the-osmolality-of-preterm-human-milk
#3
Pitiporn Siripattanapipong, Buranee Yangthara, Sopapan Ngerncham
BACKGROUND: The nutritional content of preterm human milk (HM) can be increased by adding human milk fortifier (HMF). Premature formula (PF) has been used as an alternative to HMF due to the high cost of HMF in some countries. However, the osmolality of HM after fortification remains a matter of concern. AIM: To evaluate the osmolality of fortified preterm HM. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study. HM was collected from 28 mothers of infants with a gestational age of <32 weeks or birthweight <1500 g...
February 11, 2019: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30729880/comparison-of-efficacy-and-safety-of-oral-ibuprofen-versus-oral-indomethacin
#4
Jogender Kumar, Arushi Yadav
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 7, 2019: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30729877/child-health-and-health-systems-in-asia
#5
John Grundy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 7, 2019: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30714507/outcomes-of-in-hospital-paediatric-cardiac-arrest-from-a-tertiary-hospital-in-a-low-income-african-country
#6
Nneka Edwards-Jackson, Krysten North, Msandeni Chiume, Wisdom Nakanga, Charles Schubert, Amber Hathcock, Ajib Phiri, Michelle Eckerle
BACKGROUND: There are scarce data on outcomes of in-hospital paediatric cardiac arrest (CA) in resource-poor settings and none for World Bank-defined low-income countries. AIM: To report the outcomes of in-hospital paediatric CA from a university-affiliated referral hospital in Malawi. METHODS: Data were collected prospectively on patients aged 30 days to 13 years who experienced CA and underwent cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) at Kamuzu Central Hospital in Lilongwe, Malawi from January through June 2017...
February 4, 2019: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30642227/a-9-5-year-old-boy-with-recurrent-neurological-manifestations-and-severe-hypertension-treated-initially-for-polyarteritis-nodosa-was-subsequently-diagnosed-with-adenosine-deaminase-type-2-deficiency-dada2-which-responded-to-anti-tnf-%C3%AE
#7
Sezgin Sahin, Amra Adrovic, Kenan Barut, Selen Baran, Eda Tahir Turanli, Nur Canpolat, Osman Kizilkilic, Ozan Ozkaya, Ozgur Kasapcopur
A 9.5-year-old boy was referred with a 2-year history of recurrent fever, myalgia, abdominal pain and various neurological manifestations associated with increased acute phase reactants and IgG level. During the recent episode, severe hypertension and right-sided hemiparesis developed and angiography demonstrated irregularities and stenosis in renal and mesenteric artery branches. Although these manifestations were consistent with polyarteritis nodosa (PAN), the consanguinity of his parents, a cousin with similar clinical features and early disease onset led to suspicion of deficiency of adenosine deaminase type 2 (DADA2) diseases...
January 15, 2019: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30477407/replacing-hospital-based-epilepsy-clinics-with-rural-epilepsy-clinics-and-education-in-uganda-impact-on-attendance
#8
Christopher Harris, Bwambale George, Unity Harris, Mary Munyagwa, Anne Greenough
BACKGROUND: A high proportion of the Ugandan population with epilepsy receive no treatment. AIM: To determine whether introduction of an agreed multidisciplinary guideline and establishment of a local clinic outside the hospital and four rural satellite clinics improved attendance and follow-up by children with epilepsy in Western Uganda. METHODS: A multidisciplinary team from Kagando Hospital, Kasese, south-west Uganda created a guideline for the management of epilepsy...
November 27, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30460880/intravenous-magnesium-sulphate-infusion-as-first-line-therapy-in-the-control-of-spasms-and-muscular-rigidity-in-childhood-tetanus
#9
Preeti Shanbag, Anupama Mauskar, Sanjeevani Masavkar
BACKGROUND: Reports suggest that, in tetanus, magnesium sulphate (MgSO4 ) alone may control muscle spasms, thereby avoiding sedation and mechanical ventilation. AIM: To study the efficacy and safety of intravenous MgSO4 in controlling spasms and rigidity in children with tetanus. METHODS: All children with tetanus consecutively admitted over a 2-year period in a tertiary-care teaching hospital were recruited. In addition to human tetanus immunoglobulin and parenteral metronidazole, patients received MgSO4 100 mg/kg intravenously followed by infusion at 40 mg/kg/hr...
November 21, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30451103/paediatric-deaths-in-a-tertiary-government-hospital-setting-malawi
#10
Caroline Harris, Rowena Mills, Ezgi Seager, Sarah Blackstock, Tamanda Hiwa, James Pumphrey, Josephine Langton, Neil Kennedy
BACKGROUND: Malawisuccessfully achieved Millennium Development Goal (MDG) four by decreasing the under-5 mortality rate by two-thirds in 2012. Despite this progress child mortality is still high and in 2013, the leading causes of death in under-5s were malaria, acute respiratory infections and HIV/AIDS. AIMS: To determine the causes of inpatient child death including microbiological aetiologies in Malawi. METHODS: A prospective, descriptive study was undertaken in Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital over 12 months in 2015/2016...
November 19, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30451100/feasibility-of-high-flow-nasal-cannula-implementation-for-children-with-acute-lower-respiratory-tract-disease-in-rural-kenya
#11
Amélie O Von Saint André-Von Arnim, Bob Okeyo, Nathan Cook, Mardi Steere, Joan Roberts, Christopher R A Howard, Larissa I Stanberry, Grace C John-Stewart, Arianna Shirk
BACKGROUND: High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is a well-established respiratory support device in high-income countries, but to our knowledge, its use in sub-Saharan Africa has not been reported. This feasability study describes the implementation process of HFNC in rural Kenya. METHODS: HFNC was implemented in intensive care and high dependency units at Kijabe Hospital, Kenya for children with acute lower respiratory disease. Rate of intubation was compared with historical controls and challenges of implementation described...
November 19, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30472935/electrocardiogram-in-a-patient-with-paragonimiasis-westermani-triggered-takotsubo-syndrome
#12
LETTER
John E Madias
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30382004/sudden-unexpected-infant-death-characteristics-in-the-french-region-of-west-provence-alpes-c%C3%A3-te-d-azur
#13
Lucile Tuchtan, Clémence Delteil, Flore Levrat, Juliette Bacquet, Patricia Garcia, Laurence Fayol, Guillaume Gorincour, Christine Zandotti, Nadine Girard, Michel Drancourt, Georges Léonetti, Marie Dominique Piercecchi Marti, Christophe Bartoli
BACKGROUND: Although the incidence of sudden unexpected infant death (SUID) has decreased since the 'Back to Sleep' campaign in English-speaking countries and other preventive campaigns, the circumstances of such deaths remain unclear. AIM: To analyse infant deaths recorded at the referral centre for sudden infant death of the West Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region of France (West PACA) and the forensic medicine department of Marseille University Hospital. METHODS: Information on all SUID cases from 2000 to 2017 was extracted from the referral centre for sudden infant deaths in West PACA and the forensic medicine department of Marseille...
November 1, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30382002/thymus-gland-size-during-recovery-from-complicated-severe-acute-malnutrition-a-prospective-study-of-the-role-of-probiotics
#14
Nicolette Nabukeera-Barungi, Benedikte Grenov, Henrik Friis, Betty Lanyero, Hanifa Namusoke, Ezekiel Mupere, Kim F Michaelsen, Christian Mølgaard, Vibeke B Christensen, Maren Johanne Rytter
BACKGROUND: Children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) are prone to infections due to immune dysfunction including severe thymus atrophy which recovers during nutritional rehabilitation. AIM: To investigate predictors of thymus size recovery, including probiotics during nutritional rehabilitation of children admitted with complicated SAM. METHODS: In this prospective study nested in a randomized controlled trial, children 6-59 months admitted with SAM received standard care and either probiotics or placebo during hospitalization until 8 weeks post-discharge...
November 1, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30160618/yield-of-meconium-in-non-vigorous-neonates-undergoing-endotracheal-suctioning-and-profile-of-all-neonates-born-through-meconium-stained-amniotic-fluid-a-prospective-observational-study
#15
V R Viraraghavan, Sushma Nangia, B H Prathik, Babu S Madarkar, Deepshika Rani, Arvind Saili
BACKGROUND: Delivery room management of infants born via meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) is quite controversial. No study has tried to quantify the amount of meconium that can be aspirated from the trachea of a non-vigorous neonate born through MSAF. AIMS: To study the yield of meconium in non-vigorous neonates born through MSAF undergoing endotracheal (ET) suctioning. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study conducted from 1 March 2015 to 31 October 2015...
November 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30092157/three-monthly-bolus-vitamin-d-supplements-1000-vs-400-iu-day-for-prevention-of-bone-loss-in-children-with-difficult-to-treat-nephrotic-syndrome-a-randomised-clinical-trial
#16
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Dhurva Nandan Singh, Sriram Krishnamurthy, Sadish Kumar Kamalanathan, K T Harichandrakumar, Palanisamy Sivamurukan
BACKGROUND: Nephrotic syndrome (NS) in children is one of the most common chronic diseases with a remitting and relapsing course. Glucocorticoids (prednisolone) are considered to be the treatment of choice but are associated with osteoporosis. There are no uniform consensus guidelines regarding the optimum dose of calcium and vitamin D for osteoprotection. Some authorities suggest a daily dose of 1000 IU vitamin D for children for osteoprotection, while others suggest a daily dose of 400 IU...
November 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29790845/guidelines-for-the-treatment-of-dysentery-shigellosis-a-systematic-review-of-the-evidence
#17
Phoebe C M Williams, James A Berkley
BACKGROUND: Shigella remains the primary cause of diarrhoea in paediatric patients worldwide and accounts for up to 40,000 deaths per year. Current guidelines for the treatment of shigellosis are based on data which are over a decade old. In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, an updated review of the appropriate empirical therapy for shigellosis in children is necessary, taking into account susceptibility patterns, cost and the risk of adverse events. METHODS: A systematic review of the current published literature on the treatment of shigella dysentery was undertaken in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA)...
November 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29790844/antibiotic-use-for-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-neonates-and-children-who-evidence-review
#18
Shrey Mathur, Aline Fuchs, Julia Bielicki, Johannes Van Den Anker, Mike Sharland
Background Pneumonia is the most common cause of death in children worldwide, accounting for 15% of all deaths of children under 5 years of age. This review summarises the evidence for the empirical antibiotic treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in neonates and children and puts emphasis on publications since the release of the previous WHO Evidence Summary report published in 2014. Methods A systematic search for systematic reviews and meta-analyses of antibiotic therapy for community-acquired pneumonia was conducted between 1 January 2013 and 10 November 2016...
November 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29790843/empirical-antibiotic-treatment-for-children-suffering-from-dysentery-cholera-pneumonia-sepsis-or-severe-acute-malnutrition
#19
Per Ashorn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29790842/reviewing-the-who-guidelines-for-antibiotic-use-for-sepsis-in-neonates-and-children
#20
Aline Fuchs, Julia Bielicki, Shrey Mathur, Mike Sharland, Johannes N Van Den Anker
Background Guidelines from 2005 for treating suspected sepsis in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) recommended hospitalisation and prophylactic intramuscular (IM) or intravenous (IV) ampicillin and gentamicin. In 2015, recommendations when referral to hospital is not possible suggest the administration of IM gentamicin and oral amoxicillin. In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, an updated review of the appropriate empirical therapy for treating sepsis (taking into account susceptibility patterns, cost and risk of adverse events) in neonates and children is necessary...
November 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
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