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Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology

Casey L Durfey, Sabrina E Swistek, Shengfa F Liao, Mark A Crenshaw, Henry J Clemente, Rooban V K G Thirumalai, Christy S Steadman, Peter L Ryan, Scott T Willard, Jean M Feugang
Background: Advances in nanotechnology have permitted molecular-based targeting of cells through safe and biocompatible magnetic nanoparticles (MNP). Their use to detect and remove damaged spermatozoa from semen doses could be of great interest. Here, MNP were synthesized and tested for their ability to target apoptotic (annexin V) and acrosome-reacted (lectin) boar spermatozoa, for high-throughout retrieval in a magnetic field (nanoselection). The potential impacts of nanoselection on sperm functions and performance of offspring sired by sperm subjected to nanoselection were determined...
2019: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Pedro J Llamas-López, Rebeca López-Úbeda, Gustavo López, Emily Antinoja, Francisco A García-Vázquez
Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproductive performance of a new artificial insemination (AI) device specifically designed for gilts (Deep cervical AI, Dp-CAI) by means of which the sperm is deposited deeply in the cervix (8 cm more cranial than in traditional cervical insemination-CAI). New AI techniques have arisen in recent decades in the porcine industry, such as post-cervical artificial insemination (PCAI), which involves depositing the sperm in the body of the uterus [through a catheter (outer tube)-cannula (inner tube)] rather than by CAI...
2019: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Hongmin Jia, Ting He, Haitao Yu, Xiangfang Zeng, Shihai Zhang, Wenfeng Ma, Jie Zhang, Shiyan Qiao, Xi Ma
Background: Lysine is used widely in livestock production due to the shortage of feed protein resources. L -lysine·H2 SO4 contains L -lysine sulphate as well as fermentation co-products which contain other amino acids and phosphorus. However, there are few articles about L -lysine·H2 SO4 product regarding intestinal morphology and liver pathology of broiler chickens. In this article, we focus on the absorption and metabolism of L -lysine·H2 SO4 revealed in the variation of intestinal morphology and liver pathology to determine the tolerance of chicks for L -lysine·H2 SO4 ...
2019: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Xiao Wang, Mogens Sandø Lund, Peipei Ma, Luc Janss, Haja N Kadarmideen, Guosheng Su
Background: Genotyping by sequencing (GBS) is a robust method to genotype markers. Many factors can influence the genotyping quality. One is that heterozygous genotypes could be wrongly genotyped as homozygotes, dependent on the genotyping depths. In this study, a method correcting this type of genotyping error was demonstrated. The efficiency of this correction method and its effect on genomic prediction were assessed using simulated data of livestock populations. Results: Chip array (Chip) and four depths of GBS data was simulated...
2019: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Ruairi P McDonnell, John V O' Doherty, Bernadette Earley, Anne Marie Clarke, David A Kenny
Background: Previous research in both calves and other species has suggested n -3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and β-glucans may have positive effects on immune function. This experiment measured performance, behaviour, metabolite and immunological responses to pre-weaning supplementation of dairy bull calves with n -3 PUFA in the form of fish oil and β-glucans derived from seaweed extract. 44 Holstein Friesian bull calves, aged 13.7 ± 2.5 d and weighing 48.0 ± 5.8 kg were artificially reared using an electronic feeding system...
2019: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
J J Bond, A J Donaldson, J V F Coumans, K Austin, D Ebert, D Wheeler, V H Oddy
Background: The rumen wall plays a major role in efficient transfer of digested nutrients in the rumen to peripheral tissues through the portal venous system. Some of these substrates are metabolised in the epithelium during this process. To identify the specific proteins involved in these processes, we used proteomic technologies. Protein extracts were prepared from ventral rumen tissue of six sheep fed a fibrous diet at 1.5× maintenance energy requirements. Using a newly developed method, we were able to enzymatically isolate the epithelial cells from underlying tissue layers, thus allowing cytosol and membrane fractions to be independently analysed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC MS/MS)...
2019: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Xiumin Zhang, Rodolfo F Medrano, Min Wang, Karen A Beauchemin, Zhiyuan Ma, Rong Wang, Jiangnan Wen, Lukuyu A Bernard, Zhiliang Tan
Background: Urea pretreatment is an efficient strategy to improve fiber digestibility of low quality roughages for ruminants. Nitrate and oil are usually used to inhibit enteric methane (CH4 ) emissions from ruminants. The objective of this study was to examine the combined effects of urea plus nitrate pretreated rice straw and corn oil supplementation to the diet on nutrient digestibility, nitrogen (N) balance, CH4 emissions, ruminal fermentation characteristics and microbiota in goats...
2019: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Luoyang Ding, Yizhao Shen, Yifan Wang, Gang Zhou, Xin Zhang, Mengzhi Wang, Juan J Loor, Lianmin Chen, Jun Zhang
Background: Enhancing the post-ruminal supply of arginine (Arg), a semi-essential amino acid (AA), elicits positive effects on milk production. Our objective was to determine the effects of Arg infusion on milk production parameters and aspects of nitrogen (N) absorption and utilization in lactating dairy cows. Six lactating Chinese Holstein cows of similar body weight (508 ± 14 kg), body condition score (3.0 ± 0), parity (4.0 ± 0), milk yield (30.6 ± 1.8 kg) and days in milk (20 ± 2 d) were randomly assigned to 3 treatments in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 21 d for each period (1 week for infusion and 2 weeks for washout)...
2019: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Laura Gasco, Sihem Dabbou, Angela Trocino, Gerolamo Xiccato, Maria Teresa Capucchio, Ilaria Biasato, Daniela Dezzutto, Marco Birolo, Marco Meneguz, Achille Schiavone, Francesco Gai
Background: The present work aimed at evaluating the effect of the dietary replacement of soybean oil (S) by two types of insect fats extracted from black soldier fly larvae (H, Hermetia illucens L.) and yellow mealworm larvae (T, Tenebrio molitor L.) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood parameters, intestinal morphology and health of growing rabbits. Methods: At weaning, 200 crossbred rabbits (36 days old) were allotted to five dietary treatments (40 rabbits/group): a control diet (C) containing 1...
2019: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Sudhir Yadav, Rajesh Jha
Poultry is widely produced and consumed meat globally. Its demand is expected to continue increasing to meet the animal protein requirement for ever-increasing human population. Thus, the challenge that poultry scientists and industry face are to produce sufficient amount of poultry meat in the most efficient way. In the past, using antibiotics to promote the growth of poultry and manage gut microbiota was a norm. However, due to concerns over potential fatalistic impacts on food animals and indirectly to humans, their use as feed additives are banned or regulated in several jurisdictions...
2019: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Robin B Guevarra, Jun Hyung Lee, Sun Hee Lee, Min-Jae Seok, Doo Wan Kim, Bit Na Kang, Timothy J Johnson, Richard E Isaacson, Hyeun Bum Kim
The gut microbiome has long been known to play fundamentally important roles in the animal health and the well-being of its host. As such, the establishment and maintenance of a beneficial gut microbiota early in life is crucial in pigs, since early gut colonizers are pivotal in the establishment of permanent microbial community structures affecting the health and growth performance of pigs later in life. Emphasizing this importance of early gut colonizers, it is critical to understand the factors impacting the establishment of the piglet gut microbiome at weaning...
2019: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Bianca M J Martens, Walter J J Gerrits, Erik M A M Bruininx, Henk A Schols
Background: Starch is the main source of energy in commonly used pig diets. Besides effects related to the extent of starch digestion, also several effects related to variation in digestion rate have recently been demonstrated in non-ruminants. Different rates of starch digestion in animals and in in vitro models have been reported, depending on the botanic origin of starch. Starches from different botanic sources differ widely in structural and molecular properties. Predicting the effect of starch properties on in vitro digestion kinetics based on existing literature is hampered by incomplete characterization of the starches, or by a selective choice of starches from a limited number of botanic sources...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Yanhong Luo, Xin Zhang, Zhengpeng Zhu, Ning Jiao, Kai Qiu, Jingdong Yin
Background: Isoleucine (Ile) has been implicated in the regulation of energy homeostasis and adipogenesis. However, the impact of surplus dietary Ile intake on muscle lipogenesis remains unknown. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of dietary supplementation of extra-Ile on lipogenesis, fatty acid profile and lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle in finishing pigs. Methods: Forty-eight barrows with initial body weight of 77.0 ± 0.1 kg were allotted to one of two groups and fed diets containing 0...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Zhuocheng Hou, Lei An, Jianyong Han, Ye Yuan, Dongbao Chen, Jianhui Tian
Meat and milk production needs to increase ~ 70-80% relative to its current levels for satisfying the human needs in 2050. However, it is impossible to achieve such genetic gain by conventional animal breeding systems. Based on recent advances with regard to in vitro induction of germ cell from pluripotent stem cells, herein we propose a novel embryo-stem cell breeding system. Distinct from the conventional breeding system in farm animals that involves selecting and mating individuals, the novel breeding system completes breeding cycles from parental to offspring embryos directly by selecting and mating embryos in a dish...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Zongjun Li, Qi Deng, Yangfan Liu, Tao Yan, Fei Li, Yangchun Cao, Junhu Yao
Background: Ruminal microbes are vital to the conversion of lignocellulose-rich plant materials into nutrients for ruminants. Although protozoa play a key role in linking ruminal microbial networks, the contribution of protozoa to rumen fermentation remains controversial; therefore, this meta-analysis was conducted to quantitatively summarize the temporal dynamics of methanogenesis, ruminal volatile fatty acid (VFA) profiles and dietary fiber digestibility in ruminants following the elimination of protozoa (also termed defaunation)...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
T Martins, M Sponchiado, O A Ojeda-Rojas, A M Gonella-Diaza, E O S Batista, B O Cardoso, C C Rocha, A C Basso, M Binelli
Background: Insufficient production of anti-luteolytic signals by the pre-attachment embryo is considered a major cause of pregnancy failure in cattle. We tested the hypothesis that transfer of multiple blastocysts ( n  = 5/recipient) and progesterone (P4) supplementation amplify anti-luteolytic signaling and reduce embryonic losses in beef cattle. Cows detected in estrus (D0; n  = 104) were assigned randomly to receive 150 mg of injectable long-acting P4 (iP4) or vehicle (non-iP4) on D4 and transcervical transfer of none or five, grade 1, not-frozen, in vitro-produced blastocysts, on D7...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Dan Wang, Chao Ning, Hai Xiang, Xianrui Zheng, Minghua Kong, Tao Yin, Jianfeng Liu, Xingbo Zhao
Background: Mutations in mitochondrial tRNA genes have been widely reported association with human reproductions. It is also important to explore the effect on the number of piglets born alive (NBA). Here, 1017 sows were used to investigate the association between polymorphisms in mitochondrial tRNA genes and NBA. Results: In total, 16 mutations were found in mitochondrial tRNA genes, of which 13 mutations were significantly associated with NBA ( P  < 0.05)...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Xiaopeng An, Haidong Ma, Peng Han, Chao Zhu, Binyun Cao, Yueyu Bai
Background: DNA methylation plays a vital role in reproduction. Entire genome DNA methylation changes during the oestrous phase (ES) and dioestrous phase (DS) in the ovaries of Guanzhong dairy goats were investigated using bisulphite sequencing to understand the molecular biological mechanisms of these goats' oestrous cycle. Results: We discovered distinct genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in ES and DS ovaries. A total of 26,910 differentially methylated regions were upregulated and 21,453 differentially methylated regions were downregulated in the ES samples compared with the DS samples ( P -values ≤0...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Abdulrahman S Alharthi, Fernanda Batistel, Mohamed K Abdelmegeid, Gustavo Lascano, Claudia Parys, Ariane Helmbrecht, Erminio Trevisi, Juan J Loor
Background: Pregnancy and early life are critical periods of plasticity during which the fetus and neonate may be influenced by environmental factors such as nutrition. Maternal methionine (Met) supply in non-ruminants during pregnancy can affect offspring development and growth. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate if increasing Met supply during late-pregnancy affects developmental parameters of the calf at birth and if either maternal Met or colostrum from Met-fed cows alters calf growth...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Rubina Sirri, Marika Vitali, Paolo Zambonelli, Giulia Giannini, Martina Zappaterra, Domenico Pietro Lo Fiego, Dalal Sami, Roberta Davoli
Background: Supplementing farm animals diet with functional ingredients may improve the nutritional quality of meat products. Diet composition has been also demonstrated to influence the gene expression with effect on biological processes and pathways. However, the knowledge on the effect of nutrients at the molecular level is scant. In particular, studies on the effects of antioxidants and polyphenols dietary supplementation have been investigated mainly in rodents, and only scarcely in farm animals so far...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
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