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FEBS Open Bio

Éva Sivadó, Meddy El Alaoui, Robert Kiraly, László Fesüs, Frédéric Delolme, Adeline Page, Saïd El Alaoui
Transglutaminases (TGs) are a family of structurally and functionally related enzymes that catalyse calcium-dependent post-translational modifications of proteins through protein-protein crosslinking, amine incorporation, or deamidation. For many years deamidation mediated by TGs was considered to be a side reaction, but recently substrate-specific deamidations have been reported. Here we describe an optimised SDS/PAGE assay for the easy and rapid monitoring of the TG reaction with small peptides. The relative proportion of deamidation to transamidation was evaluated by densitometric analysis and confirmed by nano-liquid chromatography-nano-electrospray ionisation MS...
February 2019: FEBS Open Bio
Christian Sonnendecker, Wolfgang Zimmermann
Cyclodextrin glucanotransferases (CGTases) convert α-1,4-glucans to cyclic oligosaccharides (cyclodextrins, CD), which have found applications in the food and the pharmaceutical industries. In this study, we used two CGTases with different cyclization activities, product specificities, and pH and temperature optima to construct chimeric variants for the synthesis of large-ring CD. We used (a) a synthetic thermostable CGTase mainly forming α- and β-CD (CD6 and CD7) derived from Geobacillus stearothermophilus ET1/NO2 (GeoT), and (b) a CGTase with lower cyclization activity from the alkaliphilic Bacillus sp...
February 2019: FEBS Open Bio
Shiva Shrestha, Monichan Phay, Hak Hee Kim, Pedram Pouladvand, Seung Joon Lee, Soonmoon Yoo
Distinct subcellular localization and subsequent translational control of 3' UTR variants of mRNA encoding brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are critical for the development and plasticity of neurons. Although the processes that lead to preferential localization of BDNF have been well studied, it is still not clear how neurons ensure differential BDNF production in a spatial-specific manner. Here, we identified that microRNA (miRNA)-206 has the potential to specifically regulate BDNF with a long 3' UTR without affecting its short 3' UTR counterpart...
February 2019: FEBS Open Bio
Shuen-Fuh Lin, Cheng-Ke Li, Yi-Pei Chung
Lactobionic acid ( O -β-galactosyl-(1-4)-gluconic acid) (LBA) is a high-value lactose derivative, produced via oxidation of the reducing terminal of lactose. LBA can be produced by fermentation using certain microorganisms, although subsequent purification is challenging. Therefore, we have attempted to identify an enzyme for possible use in LBA production. Here, we purified a novel lactose oxidase (LOD) to homogeneity from a wheat bran culture of a soil-isolated fungal strain, Myrmecridium flexuosum NUK-21...
February 2019: FEBS Open Bio
Harumasa Nakazawa, Kazuhiro Ikeda, Shohei Shinozaki, Shingo Yasuhara, Yong-Ming Yu, J A Jeevendra Martyn, Ronald G Tompkins, Tomoko Yorozu, Satoshi Inoue, Masao Kaneki
Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with metabolic alterations in various disease states, including major trauma (e.g., burn injury). Metabolic derangements, including muscle insulin resistance and hyperlactatemia, are a clinically significant complication of major trauma. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is an essential cofactor for mitochondrial electron transport, and its reduced form acts as a lipophilic antioxidant. Here, we report that burn injury induces impaired muscle insulin signaling, hyperlactatemia, mitochondrial dysfunction (as indicated by suppressed mitochondrial oxygen consumption rates), morphological alterations of the mitochondria (e...
February 2019: FEBS Open Bio
Weibo Chen, Junsheng Yang, Yue Zhang, Huihua Cai, Xuemin Chen, Donglin Sun
Sorafenib resistance is one of the major obstacles towards achieving a better outcome in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), in which aberrant activation of the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/mesenchymal-epithelial transition pathway is frequently observed. Here, we report that HCC cells develop sorafenib resistance following HGF stimulation. Furthermore, HGF activates the downstream extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway and induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by up-regulating Snail in HCC cells...
February 2019: FEBS Open Bio
Barbara Toffoli, Stella Bernardi, Carine Winkler, Coralie Carrascosa, Federica Gilardi, Béatrice Desvergne
Obesity is a condition characterized by adipose tissue hypertrophy; it is estimated that the obesity epidemic accounted for 4 million deaths in 2015 and that 70% of these were due to cardiovascular disease (CVD). One of the mechanisms linking obesity to CVD is the ability of adipose tissue to secrete circulating factors. We hypothesized that adipose tissue and its secretory products may influence mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) expression. Here, we showed that expression of MR and its downstream targets ( Cnksr3 , Scnn1b , and Sgk1 ) were significantly reduced in the kidneys of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ null ( Pparg Δ/Δ ) and A-ZIP/F-1 (AZIPtg/+ ) lipoatrophic mice with respect to their controls...
February 2019: FEBS Open Bio
Zhi-Peng Ren, Xiao-Bin Hou, Xiao-Dong Tian, Jun-Tang Guo, Lian-Bin Zhang, Zhi-Qiang Xue, Jian-Qing Deng, Shao-Wei Zhang, Jun-Yi Pan, Xiang-Yang Chu
Lung cancer is a leading global cause of cancer-related death, and lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) accounts for ~ 50% of lung cancer. Here, we screened for novel and specific biomarkers of LUAD by searching for differentially expressed mRNAs (DEmRNAs) and microRNAs (DEmiRNAs) in LUAD patient expression data within The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). The identified optimal diagnostic miRNA biomarkers were used to establish classification models (including support vector machine, decision tree, and random forest) to distinguish between LUAD and adjacent tissues...
February 2019: FEBS Open Bio
Shuang Liu, Yuan Shao, Qi Wang, Yonggong Zhai, Xialu Li
RNA splicing has emerged as a critical player in the DNA damage response (DDR). However, the underlying mechanism(s) by which pre-mRNA splicing is coordinately regulated by genotoxic stress has remained largely unclear. Here, we show that a DDR factor, DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), participates in the modulation of pre-mRNA splicing in the presence of DNA double-strand break (DSB)-induced genotoxic stress. Through indirect immunostaining, we made the surprising discovery that DNA-PK catalytic subunits (DNA-PKcs) autophosphorylated at serine 2056 (S2056) accumulate at nuclear speckles (dynamic nuclear structures that are enriched with splicing factors), following their dissociation from DSB lesions...
February 2019: FEBS Open Bio
Mamoru Aoto, Akiho Iwashita, Kanako Mita, Nobutaka Ohkubo, Yoshihide Tsujimoto, Noriaki Mitsuda
Enucleation is the process whereby the nucleus is extruded from the erythroblast during late stage mammalian erythropoiesis. However, the specific signaling pathways involved in this process remain unclear. To better understand the mechanisms underlying erythroblast enucleation, we investigated erythroblast enucleation using both the spleens of adult mice with phenylhydrazine-induced anemia and mouse fetal livers. Our results indicated that both iron-bound transferrin (holo-Tf) and the small-molecule iron transporter hinokitiol with iron ions (hinokitiol plus iron) promote hemoglobin synthesis and the enucleation of mouse spleen-derived erythroblasts...
February 2019: FEBS Open Bio
Yohei Nakayama, Ryoki Kobayashi, Yasunobu Iwai, Keisuke Noda, Mizuho Yamazaki, Tomoko Kurita-Ochiai, Atsutoshi Yoshimura, Bernhard Ganss, Yorimasa Ogata
Junctional epithelium (JE) develops from reduced enamel epithelium during tooth formation and is critical for the maintenance of healthy periodontal tissue through ensuring appropriate immune responses and the rapid turnover of gingival epithelial cells. We have previously shown a relationship between inflammatory cytokines and expression of JE-specific genes, such as amelotin (AMTN), in gingival epithelial cells. Here, we elucidated the effects of Porphyromonas gingivalis -derived lipopolysaccharide ( Pg LPS) on Amtn gene transcription and the interaction of transcription factors...
February 2019: FEBS Open Bio
Hui-Min Hu, Hong-Wu Du, Jia-Wen Cui, De-Qin Feng, Zhong-Dong Du
Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute systemic vasculitis that mainly afflicts infants and young children. The symptoms of KD are similar to those of various febrile diseases. Here, we attempted to develop accurate diagnostic biomarkers of KD by performing urine proteomic analysis of samples from healthy controls, patients with KD, and patients with another febrile disease, pneumonia (two patients). We identified differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in KD as compared to normal controls. We also constructed functional annotation and protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks of DEPs in KD and pneumonia...
February 2019: FEBS Open Bio
Preeti Yadav, R Ayana, Swati Garg, Ravi Jain, Raj Sah, Nishant Joshi, Soumya Pati, Shailja Singh
Lipid-based palmitoylation is a post-translation modification (PTM) which acts as a biological rheostat in life cycle progression of a deadly human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum . P. falciparum palmitoylation is catalyzed by 12 putative palmitoyl acyl-transferase enzymes containing the conserved DHHC-CRD (DHHC motif within a cysteine-rich domain) which can serve as a druggable target. However, the paucity of high-throughput assays has impeded the design of drugs targeting palmitoylation. We have developed a novel strategy which involves engineering of Escherichia coli , a PTM-null system, to enforce ectopic expression of palmitoyl acyl-transferase in order to study Plasmodium -specific palmitoylation and screening of inhibitors...
February 2019: FEBS Open Bio
Yuki Onishi, Manami Hiraiwa, Hikari Kamada, Takashi Iezaki, Takanori Yamada, Katsuyuki Kaneda, Eiichi Hinoi
An imbalance of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) in the brain may result in neuropathological conditions, such as autism spectrum disorders. The L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1), encoded by the solute carrier transporter 7a5 ( Slc7a5 ) gene, is critical for maintaining normal levels of BCAAs in the brain. However, our understanding of the mechanisms that regulate the expression of LAT1/ Slc7a5 in neurons is currently limited. Here, we demonstrate that hypoxic conditions result in upregulated expression of Slc7a5 in differentiated neuronal cells (Neuro2A cells induced to differentiate using all- trans retinoic acid)...
February 2019: FEBS Open Bio
Shengqun Wang, Hongwei Gao, Jianlin Zuo, Zhongli Gao
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), a key enzyme in arachidonic acid metabolism, is involved in several cancers, including osteosarcoma. The prognostic significance of COX-2 in osteosarcoma remains controversial. This study was to analyze the potential clinical and prognostic effects of COX-2 protein expression in patients with osteosarcoma. Eligible articles were searched via online databases. The combined odds ratios (ORs) or hazard ratios (HRs) with their 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated using the random-effects model...
February 2019: FEBS Open Bio
Rongqi Huang, Fei Wang, Yuchen Yang, Wenbo Ma, Zuoxian Lin, Na Cheng, Yan Long, Sihao Deng, Zhiyuan Li
Some members of the transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) subfamily of cation channels are thermosensitive. Earlier studies have revealed the distribution and functions of these thermo-TRPVs (TRPV1-4) in various organs, but their expression and function in the human esophagus are not fully understood. Here, we probed for the expression of the thermo-TRPVs in one nontumor human esophageal squamous cell line and two esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cell lines. TRPV1, TRPV2, and TRPV4 proteins were found to be upregulated in ESCC cells, while TRPV3 was not detectable in any of these cell lines...
February 2019: FEBS Open Bio
Anastassja L Akal, Ram Karan, Adrian Hohl, Intikhab Alam, Malvina Vogler, Stefan W Grötzinger, Jörg Eppinger, Magnus Rueping
Enzymes originating from hostile environments offer exceptional stability under industrial conditions and are therefore highly in demand. Using single-cell genome data, we identified the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) gene, adh/a1a , from the Atlantis II Deep Red Sea brine pool. ADH/A1a is highly active at elevated temperatures and high salt concentrations (optima at 70 °C and 4 m KCl) and withstands organic solvents. The polyextremophilic ADH/A1a exhibits a broad substrate scope including aliphatic and aromatic alcohols and is able to reduce cinnamyl-methyl-ketone and raspberry ketone in the reverse reaction, making it a possible candidate for the production of chiral compounds...
February 2019: FEBS Open Bio
Kristóf Takács, Bálint Varga, Vince Grolmusz
The Protein Data Bank (PDB) contains more than 135 000 entries at present. From these, relatively few amyloid structures can be identified, since amyloids are insoluble in water. Therefore, most amyloid structures deposited in the PDB are in the form of solid state NMR data. Based on the geometric analysis of these deposited structures, we have prepared an automatically updated web server, which generates a list of the deposited amyloid structures, and also entries of globular proteins that have amyloid-like substructures of given size and characteristics...
January 2019: FEBS Open Bio
Jens Guðmundur Hjörleifsson, Bjarni Ásgeirsson
Most enzymes are homodimers or higher order multimers. Cold-active alkaline phosphatase from Vibrio splendidus (VAP) transitions into a dimer with very low activity under mild denaturation conditions. The desire to understand why this dimer fails to efficiently catalyse phosphomonoester hydrolysis led us to investigate interfacial communication between subunits. Here, we studied in detail the unfolding mechanism at two pH values and in the presence or absence of sodium chloride. At pH 8.0, the denaturation model had to include an inactive dimer intermediate and follow the pathway: N 2 → I 2 → 2 U ...
January 2019: FEBS Open Bio
Paul Conception, Delpech Hélène, Haouzi Delphine, Hamamah Samir, Sardet Claude, Fabbrizio Eric
Repression of retrotransposons is essential for genome integrity during germ cell development and is tightly controlled through epigenetic mechanisms. In primordial germ cells, protein arginine N -methyltransferase (Prmt5) is involved in retrotransposon repression by methylating Piwi proteins, which is part of the piRNA pathway. Here, we show that in mice, genetic inactivation of coprs (which is highly expressed in testis and encodes a histone-binding protein required for the targeting of Prmt5 activity) affects the maturation of spermatogonia to spermatids...
January 2019: FEBS Open Bio
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