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Open Biology

Rongsong Luo, Chunling Bai, Lei Yang, Zhong Zheng, Guanghua Su, Guangqi Gao, Zhuying Wei, Yongchun Zuo, Guangpeng Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2018: Open Biology
Yi-Ting Hsu, Ya-Gin Chang, Yijuang Chern
Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant progressive neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by a triad of motor, psychiatric and cognitive impairments. There is still no effective therapy to delay or halt the disease progress. The striatum and cortex are two particularly affected brain regions that exhibit dense reciprocal excitatory glutamate and inhibitory gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) connections. Imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory signalling is known to greatly affect motor and cognitive processes...
December 5, 2018: Open Biology
Jie Tang, Diane C Bassham
Autophagy is a major degradation and recycling pathway in plants. It functions to maintain cellular homeostasis and is induced by environmental cues and developmental stimuli. Over the past decade, the study of autophagy has expanded from model plants to crop species. Many features of the core machinery and physiological functions of autophagy are conserved among diverse organisms. However, several novel functions and regulators of autophagy have been characterized in individual plant species. In light of its critical role in development and stress responses, a better understanding of autophagy in crop plants may eventually lead to beneficial agricultural applications...
December 5, 2018: Open Biology
Tin Tin Su
The ability to regenerate is a fundamental requirement for tissue homeostasis. Regeneration draws on three sources of cells. First and best-studied are dedicated stem/progenitor cells. Second, existing cells may proliferate to compensate for the lost cells of the same type. Third, a different cell type may change fate to compensate for the lost cells. This review focuses on regeneration of the third type and will discuss the contributions by post-transcriptional mechanisms including the emerging evidence for cell-autonomous and non-lethal roles of cell death pathways...
November 28, 2018: Open Biology
Gloria Lozano, Rosario Francisco-Velilla, Encarnacion Martinez-Salas
Beyond the general cap-dependent translation initiation, eukaryotic organisms use alternative mechanisms to initiate protein synthesis. Internal ribosome entry site (IRES) elements are cis -acting RNA regions that promote internal initiation of translation using a cap-independent mechanism. However, their lack of primary sequence and secondary RNA structure conservation, as well as the diversity of host factor requirement to recruit the ribosomal subunits, suggest distinct types of IRES elements. In spite of this heterogeneity, conserved motifs preserve sequences impacting on RNA structure and RNA-protein interactions important for IRES-driven translation...
November 28, 2018: Open Biology
Kazuhide Inoue
Acute nociceptive pain is an undesirable feeling but has a physiological significance as a warning system for living organisms. Conversely, chronic pain is lacking physiological significance, but rather represents a confusion of nerve functions. The neuropathic pain that occurs after peripheral nerve injury (PNI) is perhaps the most important type of chronic pain because it is refractory to available medications and thus remains a heavy clinical burden. In recent decades, studies have shown that spinal microglia play a principal role in the alterations in synaptic functions evoking this pain...
November 28, 2018: Open Biology
Nada Zaidan, Katrin Ottersbach
The transcription factor Gata3 is crucial for the development of several tissues and cell lineages both during development as well as postnatally. This importance is apparent from the early embryonic lethality following germline Gata3 deletion, with embryos displaying a number of phenotypes, and from the fact that Gata3 has been implicated in several cancer types. It often acts at the level of stem and progenitor cells in which it controls the expression of key lineage-determining factors as well as cell cycle genes, thus being one of the main drivers of cell fate choice and tissue morphogenesis...
November 21, 2018: Open Biology
Yihua Wang, Katalin Ajtai, Thomas P Burghardt
Cardiac ventricular myosin (βmys) translates actin by transducing ATP free energy into mechanical work during muscle contraction. Unitary βmys translation of actin is the step-size. In vitro and in vivo βmys regulates contractile force and velocity autonomously by remixing three different step-sizes with adaptive stepping frequencies. Cardiac and skeletal actin isoforms have a specific 1 : 4 stoichiometry in normal adult human ventriculum. Human adults with inheritable hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) upregulate skeletal actin in ventriculum probably compensating the diseased muscle's inability to meet demand by adjusting βmys force-velocity characteristics...
November 21, 2018: Open Biology
Jack Daniel Sunter, Flavia Moreira-Leite, Keith Gull
Flagella have multiple functions that are associated with different axonemal structures. Motile flagella typically have a 9 + 2 arrangement of microtubules, whereas sensory flagella normally have a 9 + 0 arrangement. Leishmania exhibits both of these flagellum forms and differentiation between these two flagellum forms is associated with cytoskeletal and cell shape changes. We disrupted flagellum elongation in Leishmania by deleting the intraflagellar transport (IFT) protein IFT140 and examined the effects on cell morphogenesis...
November 21, 2018: Open Biology
Thomas G McWilliams, Erica Barini, Risto Pohjolan-Pirhonen, Simon P Brooks, François Singh, Sophie Burel, Kristin Balk, Atul Kumar, Lambert Montava-Garriga, Alan R Prescott, Sidi Mohamed Hassoun, François Mouton-Liger, Graeme Ball, Rachel Hills, Axel Knebel, Ayse Ulusoy, Donato A Di Monte, Jevgenia Tamjar, Odetta Antico, Kyle Fears, Laura Smith, Riccardo Brambilla, Eino Palin, Miko Valori, Johanna Eerola-Rautio, Pentti Tienari, Olga Corti, Stephen B Dunnett, Ian G Ganley, Anu Suomalainen, Miratul M K Muqit
Mutations in PINK1 and Parkin result in autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease (PD). Cell culture and in vitro studies have elaborated the PINK1-dependent regulation of Parkin and defined how this dyad orchestrates the elimination of damaged mitochondria via mitophagy. PINK1 phosphorylates ubiquitin at serine 65 (Ser65) and Parkin at an equivalent Ser65 residue located within its N-terminal ubiquitin-like domain, resulting in activation; however, the physiological significance of Parkin Ser65 phosphorylation in vivo in mammals remains unknown...
November 7, 2018: Open Biology
Akpéli V Nordor, Dominique Bellet, Geoffrey H Siwo
Cancer and malaria exemplify two maladies historically assigned to separated research spaces. Cancer, on the one hand, ranks among the top priorities in the research agenda of developed countries. Its rise is mostly explained by the ageing of these populations and linked to environment and lifestyle. Malaria, on the other hand, represents a major health burden for developing countries in the Southern Hemisphere. These two diseases also belong to separate fields of medicine: non-communicable diseases for cancer and communicable diseases for malaria...
October 31, 2018: Open Biology
Nadia C Abascal, Lynne Regan
Protein-based materials are finding new uses and applications after millennia of impacting the daily life of humans. Some of the earliest uses of protein-based materials are still evident in silk and wool textiles and leather goods. Today, even as silks, wools and leathers are still be used in traditional ways, these proteins are now seen as promising materials for biomaterials, vehicles of drug delivery and components of high-tech fabrics. With the advent of biosynthetic methods and streamlined means of protein purification, protein-based materials-recombinant and otherwise-are being used in a host of applications at the cutting edge of medicine, electronics, materials science and even fashion...
October 31, 2018: Open Biology
Elisabetta Onelli, Monica Scali, Marco Caccianiga, Nadia Stroppa, Piero Morandini, Giulio Pavesi, Alessandra Moscatelli
Fine regulation of exocytosis and endocytosis plays a basic role in pollen tube growth. Excess plasma membrane secreted during pollen tube elongation is known to be retrieved by endocytosis and partially reused in secretory pathways through the Golgi apparatus. Dissection of endocytosis has enabled distinct degradation pathways to be identified in tobacco pollen tubes and has shown that microtubules influence the transport of plasma membrane internalized in the tip region to vacuoles. Here, we used different drugs affecting the polymerization state of microtubules together with SYP21, a marker of prevacuolar compartments, to characterize trafficking of prevacuolar compartments in Nicotiana tabacum pollen tubes...
October 31, 2018: Open Biology
Thomas F Chartier, Joran Deschamps, Wiebke Dürichen, Gáspár Jékely, Detlev Arendt
Chemical detection is key to various behaviours in both marine and terrestrial animals. Marine species, though highly diverse, have been underrepresented so far in studies on chemosensory systems, and our knowledge mostly concerns the detection of airborne cues. A broader comparative approach is therefore desirable. Marine annelid worms with their rich behavioural repertoire represent attractive models for chemosensation. Here, we study the marine worm Platynereis dumerilii to provide the first comprehensive investigation of head chemosensory organ physiology in an annelid...
October 31, 2018: Open Biology
Feng Wang, Weihua Zhang, Tianfeng Wu, Heying Chu
Lung cancer continues to be the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide due to its high incidence, malignant behaviour and lack of major advancements in treatment strategy. The occurrence and development of lung cancer is closely related to inflammation. Thus, we conducted the present study to investigate the effects of IL-38 (interleukin-38), a newly identified anti-inflammatory factor, on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), which accounts for about 85% of all lung cancers. We first evaluated the IL-38 expression in 384 pairs of NSCLC samples and their adjacent normal mucosa by real-time PCR, ELISA (enzyme-linked immunoassay) and tissue microarrays...
October 31, 2018: Open Biology
Rongsong Luo, Chunling Bai, Lei Yang, Zhong Zheng, Guanghua Su, Guangqi Gao, Zhuying Wei, Yongchun Zuo, Guangpeng Li
DNA methylation has been investigated for many years, but recent technologies have allowed for single-cell- and single-base-resolution DNA methylation datasets and more accurate assessment of DNA methylation dynamics at the key genomic regions that regulate gene expression in human early embryonic development. In this study, the region from upstream 20 kb to downstream 20 kb of RefSeq gene was selected and divided into 12 distinct regions (up20, up10, up5, up2, 5'UTR, exon, intron, 3'UTR, down2, down5, down10 and down20)...
October 31, 2018: Open Biology
Le Shu, Zhe Wang, Qizhi Wang, Yumeng Wang, Xiaobo Zhang
The dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs), key posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression, is closely associated with cancer development. However, the miRNAs of monocytes, important cells of tumour immunity, have not been extensively explored. In the present study, the differentially expressed miRNAs of blood monocytes derived from gastric and breast cancer patients and healthy donors were characterized. The results indicated that 74 miRNAs were upregulated and 46 miRNAs were downregulated in monocytes of patients with breast or gastric cancers compared with the healthy donors, suggesting that these 120 miRNAs from transformed monocytes were associated with cancers...
October 31, 2018: Open Biology
Shinichi Nakagawa, Tomohiro Yamazaki, Tetsuro Hirose
Paraspeckles are nuclear bodies built on an architectural long noncoding RNA, NEAT1, and a series of studies have revealed their molecular components, fine internal structures and cellular and physiological functions. Emerging lines of evidence suggest that paraspeckle formation is elicited by phase separation of associating RNA-binding proteins containing intrinsically disordered regions, which induce ordered arrangement of paraspeckle components along NEAT1. In this review, we will summarize the history of paraspeckle research over the last couple of decades, especially focusing on the function and structure of the nuclear bodies...
October 24, 2018: Open Biology
Stephanie Sefried, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Cora Weigert, Sabine S Eckstein
Immortal hepatocyte cell lines are widely used to elucidate insulin-dependent signalling pathways and regulation of hepatic metabolism, although the often tumorigenic origin might not represent the metabolic state of healthy hepatocytes. We aimed to investigate if murine cell line AML12 and human cell line THLE-2, which are derived from healthy liver cells, are comparable to hepatoma cell line HepG2 for studying acute insulin signalling and expression of gluconeogenic enzymes and hepatokines. Insulin responsiveness of AML12 and THLE-2 cells was impaired when cells were cultured in the recommended growth medium, but comparable with HepG2 cells by using insulin-deficient medium...
October 24, 2018: Open Biology
Ana Lopez, Angeleen Fleming, David C Rubinsztein
Autophagy is an intracellular clearance pathway that delivers cytoplasmic contents to the lysosome for degradation. It plays a critical role in maintaining protein homeostasis and providing nutrients under conditions where the cell is starved. It also helps to remove damaged organelles and misfolded or aggregated proteins. Thus, it is not surprising that defects in this pathway are associated with a variety of pathological conditions, such as neurodegeneration, cancer and infection. Pharmacological upregulation of autophagy is considered a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of neurodegenerative and infectious diseases...
October 24, 2018: Open Biology
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