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Infection Ecology & Epidemiology

Marlene Cavaleiro Pinto, Veronica Rondahl, Mikael Berg, Erik Ågren, Júlio Carvalheira, Gertrude Thompson, Jonas Johansson Wensman
Background: The genus Orthobornavirus comprises RNA viruses infecting humans, mammals, birds and reptiles, where parrot bornavirus 1 to 8 causes fatal neurological and/or gastrointestinal syndromes in psittacines. There is, to the best of our knowledge, no publication describing avian bornaviruses in pet parrots in Sweden. We aimed to identify and to produce epidemiologic knowledge about the etiologic agent associated with a history of severe weight loss and death of a Primolius maracana. Methods and results: The results of histopathology, immunohistochemistry and real-time RT-PCR were compatible with avian bornavirus infection...
2019: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
R Jory Brinkerhoff, Lena Dang, Henry M Streby, Maren Gimpel
Introduction: Birds serve as reservoirs for tick-borne pathogens as well as hosts for multiple tick species of public health relevance.  Birds may perpetuate life cycles of vectors and vector-borne pathogens and disperse disease vectors over long distances, supplementing populations at range margins or seeding invading populations beyond the edges of current tick distributions.  Our goal for this study was to identify life history characteristics of birds that most strongly affect tick parasitism. Materials and Methods: We collected 6203 ticks from 5426 birds from two sites in eastern North America and used field-derived parasitism data and published literature to analyze impacts of life history factors on tick parasitism in birds...
2019: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
Irene Kagera, Peter Kahenya, Florence Mutua, Gladys Anyango, Florence Kyallo, Delia Grace, Johanna Lindahl
Introduction : Milk consumption in Kenya supersedes other countries in East Africa. However, milk contamination with aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is common, but the magnitude of this exposure and the health risks are poorly understood and need to be monitored routinely. This study aimed at assessing the awareness, knowledge and practices of urban and peri-urban farmers about aflatoxins and determining the levels of aflatoxin contamination in on-farm milk in a selected area within Nairobi County. Materials and methods : A cross-sectional study was undertaken to assess aflatoxin contamination levels of milk in Kasarani sub-county...
2019: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
Nehal M Nabil, Maram M Tawakol, Heba M Hassan
Salmonellosis is one of the main bacterial infections affecting commercial poultry, causing losses to poultry production, and posing a public health concern. Samples from internal organs (liver, cecum and spleen) of one hundred diseased broiler chickens were collected and subjected to Salmonella isolation, identification and serotyping. S. typhimurium and S. enteritidis were selected from the isolated Salmonella to prepare bacteriophages from sewage water taken at broiler farms. An experimental infection of one day old specific pathogen free (SPF) chicks followed by treatment with the prepared bacteriophages isolated from both Salmonella was performed...
2018: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
Dario Akaberi, Assar Bergfors, Midori Kjellin, Nader Kameli, Louise Lidemalm, Bhavya Kolli, Robert W Shafer, Navaneethan Palanisamy, Johan Lennerstrand
Background: Current combination treatments with direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) can cure more than 95% of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. However, resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) may emerge and can also be present in treatment-naïve patients. Methods, results and discussion: In this study, a semi-pan-genotypic population sequencing method was developed and used to assess all NS5B amino acid variants between residue positions 310 and 564. Our method successfully sequenced more than 90% of genotype (GT) 1a, 1b, 2b and 3a samples...
2018: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
Noah C Hull, Brant A Schumaker
Brucellosis is the world's most widespread zoonosis, but also ranks as one of the seven most neglected diseases, according to the World Health Organization. Additionally, it is recognized as the world's most common laboratory-acquired infection. There are a reported 500,000 incident cases of human brucellosis per year. However, true incidence is estimated to be 5,000,000 to 12,500,000 cases annually. Once diagnosed, focus is directed at treating individual patients with antibiotic regimes, yet overall neglecting the animal reservoir of disease...
2018: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
Miriam Maas, Ankje De Vries, Chantal Reusken, Jan Buijs, Marga Goris, Rudy Hartskeerl, Ahmed Ahmed, Peter Van Tulden, Arno Swart, Roan Pijnacker, Miriam Koene, Åke Lundkvist, Paul Heyman, Barry Rockx, Joke Van Der Giessen
BACKGROUND:   Brown rats ( Rattus norvegicus ) may carry pathogens that can be a risk for public health. Brown rats in the Netherlands were tested for the zoonotic pathogens Leptospira spp. and Seoul hantavirus (SEOV), in order to obtain insight in their prevalence. METHODS AND RESULTS:   Cross-sectional studies were performed at four locations from 2011 to 2015. The rats were tested for Leptospira spp. using real-time PCR and/or culture resulting in a prevalence ranging between 33-57%...
2018: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
Harindranath Cholleti, Juliette Hayer, Fernando Chanisso Mulandane, Kerstin Falk, Jose Fafetine, Mikael Berg, Anne-Lie Blomström
Background: Ticks are primary vectors for many well-known disease-causing agents that affect human and animal populations globally such as tick-borne encephalitis, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever and African swine fever. In this study, viral metagenomics was used to identify what viruses are present in Rhipicephalus spp. ticks collected in the Zambezi Valley of Mozambique. Methods: The RNA was amplified with sequence-independent single primer amplification (SISPA) and high-throughput sequencing was performed on the Ion Torrent platform...
2018: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
Todd M Lickfett, Erica Clark, Thomas M Gehring, Elizabeth W Alm
Introduction: Influenza A viruses have the potential to cause devastating illness in humans and domestic poultry. Wild birds are the natural reservoirs of Influenza A viruses and migratory birds are implicated in their global dissemination. High concentrations of this virus are excreted in the faeces of infected birds and faecal contamination of shared aquatic habitats can lead to indirect transmission among birds via the faecal-oral route. The role of migratory birds in the spread of avian influenza has led to large-scale surveillance efforts of circulating avian influenza viruses through direct sampling of live and dead wild birds...
2018: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
David A Geier, Janet K Kern, Mark R Geier
Introduction: Influenza is an acute respiratory disease with significant annual global morbidity/mortality. Influenza transmission occurs in distinct seasonal patterns suggesting an importance of climate conditions on disease pathogenesis. This hypothesis-testing study evaluated microenvironment conditions within different demographic/geographical groups on seasonal influenza deaths in the United States. Materials and methods: The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Wonder online computer interface was utilized to integrate and analyze potential correlations in data generated from 1999 through 2011 for climate conditions of mean daily sunlight (KJ/m2 ), mean daily maximum air temperature (o C), mean daily minimum air temperature (o C), and mean daily precipitation (mm) from the North America Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) database and on influenza mortality (ICD-10 codes:J09, J10, or J11) from the Underlying Cause of Death database...
2018: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
Ingrid H M Friesema, Jacinta Bakker, Miriam Maas, Marga G A Goris, Joke W B van der Giessen, Barry H G Rockx
Aims: Seoul orthohantavirus (SEOV) and  Leptospira  spp. are zoonotic pathogens with rats as main reservoir. Recently, the presence of SEOV in brown rats was reported in one region in the Netherlands. Brown rats are a frequent bycatch in traps placed to catch muskrats ( Ondatra zibethicus ) and coypus ( Myocastor coypus ), and thus are a potential health risk for trappers. It was our aim to determine the seroprevalence of orthohantavirus, specifically SEOV, and  Leptospira  spp in Dutch trappers. Methods and results: Participating trappers provided serum samples and completed an online questionnaire...
2018: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
Pradeep Sharma, Sunil Maherchandani, B N Shringi, Sudhir Kumar Kashyap, K S Gopi Sundar
Aims : Multiple antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli of wild vertebrates is a global concern with scarce assessments on the subject from developing countries that have high human-wild species interactions. We studied the ecology of E. coli in a wintering population of Egyptian Vultures in India to understand temporal changes in both E. coli strains and patterns of antimicrobial resistance. Methods and Results : We ribotyped E. coli strains and assessed antimicrobial resistance from wintering vultures at a highly synanthropic carcass dump in north-west India...
2018: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
Laura A Pulscher, Thomas C Moore, Luke Caddell, Lkhagvatseren Sukhbaatar, Michael E von Fricken, Benjamin D Anderson, Battsetseg Gonchigoo, Gregory C Gray
Background : Tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) are frequently studied in developed nations but are often neglected in emerging countries. In Mongolia, TBP research is especially sparse, with few research reports focusing upon human and domestic animal disease and tick ecology. However, little information exists on TBPs in small mammals. Methods : In this 2016 cross-sectional pilot study, we sought to uniquely study wildlife for TBPs. We live-trapped small mammals, and tested their whole blood, serum and ear biopsy samples for molecular or serological evidence of Borrelia spp...
2018: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
Rebekah C Kading, Robert M Kityo, Eric C Mossel, Erin M Borland, Teddie Nakayiki, Betty Nalikka, Luke Nyakarahuka, Jeremy P Ledermann, Nicholas A Panella, Amy T Gilbert, Mary B Crabtree, Julian Kerbis Peterhans, Jonathan S Towner, Brian R Amman, Tara K Sealy, Stuart T Nichol, Ann M Powers, Julius J Lutwama, Barry R Miller
Introduction: A number of arboviruses have previously been isolated from naturally-infected East African bats, however the role of bats in arbovirus maintenance is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the exposure history of Ugandan bats to a panel of arboviruses. Materials and methods: Insectivorous and fruit bats were captured from multiple locations throughout Uganda during 2009 and 2011-2013. All serum samples were tested for neutralizing antibodies against West Nile virus (WNV), yellow fever virus (YFV), dengue 2 virus (DENV-2), Zika virus (ZIKV), Babanki virus (BBKV), and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT)...
2018: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
Belisário Moiane, Lourenço Mapaco, Peter Thompson, Mikael Berg, Ann Albihn, José Fafetine
Introduction : Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an arthropod-borne disease that affects both animals and humans. RVF phlebovirus (RVFPV) is widespread in Africa and Arabian Peninsula. In Mozambique, outbreaks were reported in South; seroprevalence studies performed in livestock and water buffaloes were limited to central and south regions. We evaluated the seroprevalence of RVFPV among domestic ruminants and African buffaloes from 7 of 10 provinces of Mozambique, to understand the distribution of RVFPV and provide data for further RVF control programs...
2017: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
Siri Kulberg Sjurseth, Britt Gjerset, Karoline Bragstad, Olav Hungnes, Helene Wisløff, Chiek Er, Mette Valheim, Siri M Løtvedt, Bruce David, Skjalg A Hanssen, Siri H Hauge, Merete Hofshagen
Introduction : Routine surveillance samples disclosed seropositivity to influenza A virus (IAV) in a Norwegian turkey breeder flock. Simultaneous reports of influenza-like symptoms in farm workers and a laboratory confirmed influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 (H1N1pdm09) infection in one person led to the suspicion of a H1N1pdm09 infection in the turkeys. Animals and methods : H1N1pdm09 infection was confirmed by a positive haemaggutinin inhibition test using H1N1pdm09 antigens, and detection of H1N1pdm09 nucleic acid in reproductive organs of turkey hens...
2017: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
Karin Söderqvist
As part of a trend toward healthy convenience foods, ready-to-eat (RTE) mixed-ingredient salads have become popular products among consumers. A mixed-ingredient salad contains combinations of raw ( e.g . leafy vegetables and tomatoes) and processed ( e.g . chicken, salmon, ham, pasta and couscous) ingredients. Contamination of leafy vegetables can occur during any step in the production chain and, since there is no step that kills pathogens, a completely safe final product can never be guaranteed. Meat ingredients, for example poultry meat and ham, are generally heat-treated before preparation, but may be contaminated after this treatment, e...
2017: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
Per Eriksson, Evangelos Mourkas, Daniel González-Acuna, Björn Olsen, Patrik Ellström
Introduction : Advances in the development of nucleic acid-based methods have dramatically facilitated studies of host-microbial interactions. Fecal DNA analysis can provide information about the host's microbiota and gastrointestinal pathogen burden. Numerous studies have been conducted in mammals, yet birds are less well studied. Avian fecal DNA extraction has proved challenging, partly due to the mixture of fecal and urinary excretions and the deficiency of optimized protocols. This study presents an evaluation of the performance in avian fecal DNA extraction of six commercial kits from different bird species, focusing on penguins...
2017: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
Emeli Torsson, Mikael Berg, Gerald Misinzo, Ida Herbe, Tebogo Kgotlele, Malin Päärni, Nils Roos, Anne-Lie Blomström, Karl Ståhl, Jonas Johansson Wensman
Introduction: Livestock husbandry is critical for food security and poverty reduction in a low-income country like Tanzania. Infectious disease is one of the major constraints reducing the productivity in this sector. Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is one of the most important diseases affecting small ruminants, but other infectious diseases may also be present. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors for exposure to PPR, contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP), foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), bluetongue (BT), and bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) in sheep and goats in Tanzania...
2017: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
Bengt Rönnberg, Olli Vapalahti, Marco Goeijenbier, Chantal Reusken, Åke Gustafsson, Jonas Blomberg, Åke Lundkvist
Introduction: Hantaviruses are globally distributed zoonotic pathogens. Great diversity and high antigenic cross-reactivity makes diagnosis by traditional methods cumbersome. Materials and methods: 'Megapeptides', 119-120-mers from the amino terminus of the nucleoprotein of 16 hantaviruses, representing the four major branches of the hantavirus phylogenetic tree, were utilized in a novel IgG-based hantavirus suspension multiplex immunoassay (HSMIA) for detection of past hantavirus infections in 155 North European human samples...
2017: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
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