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American Journal of Stem Cells

Emilia Barreto-Durán, Claudia Camila Mejía-Cruz, Efrain Leal-García, Rafael Pérez-Núñez, Viviana Marcela Rodríguez-Pardo
In recent years, the therapeutic use of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) has generated a valuable number of scientific studies that delve into their biological characteristics and their potential in regenerative medicine; however, the impact of the clinical characteristics of tissue donors, from which these cells are isolated, on their potential in applied clinical research is not yet clear. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of the clinical characteristics of bone marrow donors on the quality of this tissue as a source of MSC for therapeutic use...
2018: American Journal of Stem Cells
Lauren Coombe, Aamir Kadri, Jessica Ferrer Martinez, Vivas Tatachar, Gary Ian Gallicano
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disorder in which the body destroys its pancreatic β cells. Since these cells are responsible for insulin production, dysfunction or destruction of these cells necessitates blood glucose control through exogenous insulin shots. Curative treatment involves pancreas transplantation, but due to the incidence of transplant rejection and complications associated with immunosuppression, alternatives are being explored. Despite facing clinical challenges and issues with public perception, the field of regenerative stem cell therapy shows great promise for the treatment of diabetes...
2018: American Journal of Stem Cells
Kyle Bruun, Erika Schermer, Anjali Sivendra, Emily Valaik, Reed B Wise, Rana Said, John R Bracht
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the number one cause of death globally, and new therapeutic techniques outside of traditional pharmaceutical and surgical interventions are currently being developed. At the forefront is stem cell-centered therapy, with adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs), an adult stem population, providing significant clinical promise. When introduced into damaged heart tissue, ADSCs promote cardiac regeneration by a variety of mechanisms including differentiation into new cardiomyocytes and secretion of paracrine factors acting on endogenous cardiac cells...
2018: American Journal of Stem Cells
Jang Cho, Matthew D'Antuono, Michael Glicksman, Jing Wang, Jacqueline Jonklaas
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are widely prevalent metabolic diseases with differing pathologies. T1DM manifests due to autoimmune destruction of the pancreatic beta cells, resulting in a diminished secretion of insulin. T2DM originates from a state of insulin resistance, resulting in hyperglycemia and reduction in beta cell mass. Both diseases can cause severe health consequences. Despite the globally increasing prevalence of both T1DM and T2DM there remains to be a medically defined cure for either of these diseases...
2018: American Journal of Stem Cells
Mark A Pianka, Alec T McIntosh, Sahaj D Patel, Pegah R Bakhshi, Mira Jung
Genetic imprinting is the process of epigenetic labelling or silencing of particular genes, based on the maternal or paternal origin of the gene, in a heritable pattern. The incidence of imprinting disorders has become a growing concern due to the potential association between these congenital syndromes and assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs). This review presents a general summary of the imprinting process as well as the current knowledge surrounding the genetic and epigenetic underpinnings of the most prevalent imprinting disorders: Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS), Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS), Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), and Angelman syndrome (AS)...
2018: American Journal of Stem Cells
Nurdan Kokturk, Fatma Yıldırım, Pınar Yıldız Gülhan, Yeon Mok Oh
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a respiratory disease that has a major impact worldwide. The currently-available drugs mainly focus on relieving the symptoms of COPD patients. However, in the latter stages of the disease, the airways become largely obstructed and lung parenchyma becomes destructed due to underlying inflammation. The inappropriate repair of lung tissue after injury may contribute to the development of disease. Novel regenerative therapeutic approaches have been investigated with the aim of repairing or replacing the injured functional structures of the respiratory system...
2018: American Journal of Stem Cells
Geeta Shroff, Rhea Shroff, Rakesh Gupta
Diabetes mellitus occurs either due to an autoimmune destruction of β cells (Type 1) or resistance to insulin effects (Type 2). Diverse conventional medications are used for treatment of diabetes, which is associated with long term complications such as kidney failure, blindness, and stroke. We recently showed the potential of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in 95 patients with type 2 diabetes. In the present study, we use the microarray and miRNA studies to prove why hESCs are effective in diabetes. Three samples of hESCs were cultured and microarray technology was used for the analysis of diabetic pathways...
2018: American Journal of Stem Cells
Maria Teresa González-Garza, Delia E Cruz-Vega, Alejandro Cárdenas-Lopez, Rosa Maria de la Rosa, Jorge E Moreno-Cuevas
Cell therapy presents a promising alternative for the treatment of degenerative diseases. The main sources of adult stem cells are bone marrow, adipose tissue and peripheral blood. Within those tissues, there are cell subpopulations that share pluripotential characteristics. Nevertheless, there is insufficient data to determine which of these stem cell subtypes would have a better possibility to differentiate to a specific tissue. The objective of this research was to analyze and compare the stemness genes expression from peripheral blood and adipose tissue of plastic adherent cells, and those immune-selected by the CD133+ and CD271+ membrane markers...
2018: American Journal of Stem Cells
Emily S Paffhausen, Yasir Alowais, Cara W Chao, Evan C Callihan, Karen Creswell, John R Bracht
Adipose derived stem cells (ASCs) can be obtained from lipoaspirates and induced in vitro to differentiate into bone, cartilage, and fat. Using this powerful model system we show that after in vitro adipose differentiation a population of cells retain stem-like qualities including multipotency. They are lipid (-), retain the ability to propagate, express two known stem cell markers, and maintain the capacity for trilineage differentiation into chondrocytes, adipocytes, and osteoblasts. However, these cells are not traditional stem cells because gene expression analysis showed an overall expression profile similar to that of adipocytes...
2018: American Journal of Stem Cells
Periasamy Parikumar, Kazutoshi Haraguchi, Rajappa Senthilkumar, Samuel Jk Abraham
Transplantation of in vitro expanded human corneal endothelial precursors (HCEP) cells using a nanocomposite (D25-NC) gel sheet as supporting material in bovine's cornea has been earlier reported. Herein we report the transplantation of HCEP cells derived from a cadaver donor cornea to three patients using the NC gel sheet. In three patients with bullous keratopathy, one after cataract surgery, one after trauma and another in the corneal graft, earlier performed for congenital corneal dystrophy, not amenable to medical management HCEP cells isolated from a human cadaver donor cornea in vitro expanded using a thermoreversible gelation polymer (TGP) for 26 days were divided into three equal portions and 1...
2018: American Journal of Stem Cells
Ivan Hernandez, Jonathan M Baio, Eric Tsay, Aida F Martinez, Tania I Fuentes, Leonard L Bailey, Nahidh W Hasaniya, Mary Kearns-Jonker
The use of cardiovascular progenitor cells (CPCs) to repair damaged myocardium has been the focus of intense research. Previous reports have shown that pretreatments, including hypoxia, improve cell function. However, the age-dependent effects of short-term hypoxia on CPCs, and the role of signaling in these effects, are unknown. Cloned neonatal and adult CPCs expressing Isl1, c-Kit, KDR, PDGFRA, and CXCR4, were preconditioned using hypoxia (1% O2 for six hours). Intracellular signaling pathway changes were modeled using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA), while qRT-PCR, flow cytometry, and immunoblotting were used to measure pathway activation...
2018: American Journal of Stem Cells
Wael Abo-Elkheir, Fawzy Hamza, Ahmed M Elmofty, Atef Emam, Magdy Abdl-Moktader, Sameh Elsherefy, Hala Gabr
RATIONALE: Burn injuries represent one of the major worldwide public health problems causing more severe physiological stress than other traumas. Effective treatment of burn injuries is mandatory to prevent the numerous life-threatening complications and possible disabilities. Stem cells, a population of multipotent cells retaining the properties of self-renewal and differentiation, are the main player in tissue regeneration after major trauma. Thus, they are thought to play a key role in wound healing inducing efficient and physiological skin regeneration...
2017: American Journal of Stem Cells
Sruti K Desai, Steven D Hartman, Shilpa Jayarajan, Stephanie Liu, G Ian Gallicano
Zika virus (ZIKV) has been of major international public health concern following large outbreaks in the Americas occurring in 2015-2016. Most notably, ZIKV has been seen to pose dangers in pregnancy due to its association with congenital abnormalities such as microcephaly. Numerous experimental approaches have been taken to address how the virus can cross the placenta, alter normal fetal development, and disrupt specific cellular functions. Many areas concerning the mechanisms of transmission, especially from mother to fetus, are largely unknown but demand further research...
2017: American Journal of Stem Cells
Geeta Shroff, Jyoti Dhanda Titus, Rhea Shroff
The first human embryonic stem cell (hESC) line was developed in the late nineties. hESCs are capable of proliferating indefinitely and differentiate into all the three embryonic germ layers. Further, the differentiation of hESC lines into neural precursor cells and neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes showed their potential in treating several incurable neurological disorders such as spinal cord injury (SCI), cerebral palsy (CP), Parkinson's disease (PD). In this review, we will discuss the global scenario of research and therapeutic use of hESCs in the treatment of neurological disorders...
2017: American Journal of Stem Cells
Habib-Ur-Rehman Ahmed, Sahel N Abduljauwad
Adhesion of cells to the ECM is key to the regulation of cellular morphology, migration, proliferation, survival, and differentiation. The decrease in or loss of the cell's ability of mutual adhesiveness has been considered as one of the specific abnormalities in the surface properties of malignant cells. A change in the association of plasma membrane with cytoskeletal structures also seems to have a close relation with these abnormalities. Similar to the role of adhesions in tumor cells, stem cells' self-renewal is also tightly controlled by the concerted action of stem cell-intrinsic factors and signals within the niche...
2016: American Journal of Stem Cells
Aditya Devineni, Scarlett Tohme, Michael T Kody, R Adams Cowley, Brent T Harris
The successful generation of the first iPSCs about ten years ago has provided deeper insight into previously unknown disease mechanisms and therapeutic opportunities for many diseases. In particular, iPSCs are becoming an important tool in advancing modeling and therapeutic intervention for Alzheimer's disease. In this manuscript, we assess the research climate surrounding the application of iPSCs to familial and sporadic Alzheimer's disease, including the generation and isolation of individualized neural stem cells, the introduction of neural stem cell transplants using iPSCs, and an estimation of the potential use of iPSCs as research models for Alzheimer's treatments and therapies...
2016: American Journal of Stem Cells
Meredith A Lilly, Meghan F Davis, Josh E Fabie, Elizabeth B Terhune, G Ian Gallicano
Diabetes is a disease with wide-ranging personal and societal impacts that has been managed medicinally for over half a century. Since the discovery of stem cells, pancreatic islet regeneration has become a central target for clinical application that has the potential to decrease or eliminate the need for insulin administration and adjunctive medications. The discovery of alternative routes to pluripotency that bypass the ethical implications of embryonic stem cells has significantly expanded the horizons of stem cell based therapy...
2016: American Journal of Stem Cells
Shuk Kei Cheng, Elisse Y Park, Andjela Pehar, Alexandra C Rooney, G Ian Gallicano
Diabetes mellitus affects millions of people worldwide, and is associated with serious complications that affect nearly all body systems. Because of the severity of this global health concern, there is a great deal of research being performed on alternative treatments and possible cures. Previous treatments for diabetes have included exogenous insulin injection and pancreatic islet transplantations. These treatment methods have several limitations; thus, the use of stem cells in treating diabetes is currently a significant area of research...
2016: American Journal of Stem Cells
Jairo A Diaz, Mauricio F Murillo, Jhonan A Mendoza, Ana M Barreto, Lina S Poveda, Lina K Sanchez, Laura C Poveda, Katherine T Mora
Emergent biological responses develop via unknown processes dependent on physical collision. In hypoxia, when the tissue architecture collapses but the geometric core is stable, actin cytoskeleton filament components emerge, revealing a hidden internal order that identifies how each molecule is reassembled into the original mold, using one common connection, i.e., a fractal self-similarity that guides the system from the beginning in reverse metamorphosis, with spontaneous self-assembly of past forms that mimics an embryoid phenotype...
2016: American Journal of Stem Cells
Sarah Fogleman, Casey Santana, Casey Bishop, Alyssa Miller, David G Capco
Thousands of mothers are at risk of transmitting mitochondrial diseases to their offspring each year, with the most severe form of these diseases being fatal [1]. With no cure, transmission prevention is the only current hope for decreasing the disease incidence. Current methods of prevention rely on low mutant maternal mitochondrial DNA levels, while those with levels close to or above threshold (>60%) are still at a very high risk of transmission [2]. Two novel approaches may offer hope for preventing and treating mitochondrial disease: mitochondrial replacement therapy, and CRISPR/Cas9...
2016: American Journal of Stem Cells
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