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Biology Open

Anke Ziska, Jörg Tatzelt, Johanna Dudek, Adrienne W Paton, James C Paton, Richard Zimmermann, Sarah Haßdenteufel
The Sec61-complex as a dynamic polypeptide-conducting channel mediates protein transport into the human endoplasmic reticulum (ER) with the help of additional components. ER membrane resident Hsp40-type co-chaperone Sec63 as well as the ER lumenal Hsp70-type chaperone BiP were proposed to facilitate channel opening in a precursor-specific fashion. Here, we report on their rules of engagement in ER import of the prion protein (PrP) by addressing sixteen PrP-related variants which differ in their signal peptides and mature parts, respectively...
February 11, 2019: Biology Open
Kyle A Wegner, Vatsal Mehta, Jeanette A Johansson, Brett R Mueller, Kimberly P Keil, Lisa L Abler, Paul C Marker, M Mark Taketo, Denis J Headon, Chad M Vezina
Beta-catenin (CTNNB1) directs ectodermal appendage spacing by activating ectodysplasin A receptor (EDAR) transcription but whether CTNNB1 acts by a similar mechanism in prostate, an endoderm-derived tissue, is unclear. Here we examined the expression, function, and CTNNB1 dependence of the EDAR pathway during prostate development. In situ hybridization studies reveal EDAR pathway components including Wnt10b in developing prostate and localize these factors to prostatic bud epithelium where CTNNB1 target genes are co-expressed...
February 11, 2019: Biology Open
Tetsuya Ogino, Haruhiko Toyohara
Hypoxia often occurs in summer and causes deleterious effects on marine benthic animals. A marine annelid, Capitella teleta , has tolerance to hypoxia, as shown by the fact that it inhabits organically polluted area, where severe hypoxia is often observed. To understand how this species adapts to the environment, we focused on its hypoxia sensor, and we showed that TRPAbasal was a possible contributor to hypoxia detection in C. teleta To examine the involvement of TRPA1 in the response of C. teleta to hypoxia, we exposed C...
February 11, 2019: Biology Open
Bolette Lykke Holm Nielsen, Louise Gøtterup, Tue Sparholt Jørgensen, Benni Winding Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg Hansen, John Mortensen, Per Meyer Jepsen
The cyclopoid copepod Apocyclops royi (Lindberg 1940) is one of two dominant mesozooplankton species in brackish Taiwanese aquaculture ponds. Especially periodical low n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) content of seston could potentially be a limiting factor for the zooplankton diversity. A. royi' s potential ability to biosynthesize n-3 PUFA was investigated through a short-term feeding experiment on four species of microalgae. Furthermore, we analyze the expression of genes encoding putative fatty acid elongase ( ELO ) and desaturase ( FAD ) enzymes in A...
February 5, 2019: Biology Open
Yasuo Yoshitomi, Hiromi Osada, Haruka Satake, Masami Kojima, Hidehito Saito-Takatsuji, Takayuki Ikeda, Yoshino Yoshitake, Yasuhito Ishigaki, Eri Kubo, Hiroshi Sasaki, Hideto Yonekura
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation of eyes is a major risk factor for cataractogenesis, although the molecular mechanisms underlying in this process remain poorly understood and genes that are affected by UV radiation have not been fully identified. In this study, we examined the UV-related gene regulation in lens epithelial cells (LECs) of mouse eyes and investigated the molecular mechanisms of UV-triggered cataractogenesis. Forty-one genes were significantly upregulated in LECs following UVB exposure in vivo in two independent experiments...
February 4, 2019: Biology Open
Janina Müller-Deile, Heiko Schenk, Philipp Niggemann, Patricia Bolaños-Palmieri, Beina Teng, Alysha Higgs, Lynne Staggs, Hermann Haller, Patricia Schroder, Mario Schiffer
Different glomerular diseases that affect podocyte homeostasis can clinically present as nephrotic syndrome with massive proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, hyperlipidemia and edema. Up to now no drugs that specifically target the actin cytoskeleton of podocytes are on the market and model systems for library screenings to develop anti-proteinuric drugs are of high interest. We developed a standardized proteinuria model in zebrafish using puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN) via treatment in the fish water to allow for further drug testing to develop anti-proteinuric drugs for the treatment of glomerular diseases...
February 4, 2019: Biology Open
Annalisa Pinsino, Andi Alijagic
The sea urchin is an emergent model system for studying basic and translational immunology. Here we report a new method for the harvesting and maintenance of primary immune cells isolated from adult Paracentrotus lividus , a common Mediterranean sea urchin species. This optimised method uses Coelomocyte Culture Medium, containing a high-affinity Ca2+ chelator, as the ideal harvesting and anti-clotting vehicle and short-term culture medium (≤48 h), and artificial seawater as the master medium that maintains cell survival and in vitro-ex vivo physiological homeostasis over 2 weeks...
February 4, 2019: Biology Open
Mami Nomura, Kohei Atsuji, Keiko Hirose, Kogiku Shiba, Ryuji Yanase, Takeshi Nakayama, Ken-Ichiro Ishida, Kazuo Inaba
A haptonema is an elongated microtubule-based motile organelle uniquely present in haptophytes. The most notable and rapid movement of a haptonema is "coiling", which occurs within a few milliseconds following mechanical stimulation in an unknown motor-independent mechanism. Here, we analyzed the coiling process in detail by high-speed filming and showed that haptonema coiling was initiated by left-handed twisting of the haptonema, followed by writhing to form a helix from the distal tip. On recovery from a mechanical stimulus, the helix slowly uncoiled from the proximal region...
January 30, 2019: Biology Open
Kunal Chopra, Shoko Ishibashi, Enrique Amaya
Thyroid dyshormonogenesis is a leading cause of congenital hypothyroidism, a highly prevalent but treatable condition. Thyroid hormone synthesis is dependent on the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In humans, the primary sources for ROS production during thyroid hormone synthesis are the NADPH oxidases DUOX1 and DUOX2. Indeed, mutations in DUOX1 and DUOX2 have been linked with congenital hypothyroidism. Unlike humans, zebrafish has a single orthologue for DUOX1 and DUOX2 In this study, we investigated the phenotypes associated with two nonsense mutant alleles, sa9892 and sa13017 , of the single duox gene in zebrafish...
January 30, 2019: Biology Open
Emanuella F de Carvalho, André F Nunes, Náiguel C B Silva, João Paulo da Silva Gomes, Renato P de Sousa, Valdelânia G Silva, Paulo H M Nunes, Rosimeire F Santos, Mariana H Chaves, Aldeidia P Oliveira, Rita C M Oliveira
Terminalia fagifolia Mart. & Zucc. (Combretaceae) is a plant commonly found in the regions of the Brazilian cerrado , popularly used for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. There are no reports in the literature on the use of T. fagifolia for the treatment of the cardiovascular system conditions. Nevertheless, plants of the same genus, such as T. arjuna (Roxb.) Wight & Arn and T. superba Engler & Diels, present cardioprotective, hypotensive and vasodilatating effects. In light of this, the aim of the study was to investigate the effect of the ethanolic extract (Tf-EE) and of its aquous (Tf-AQF), hexanic (Tf-HEXF) and hydroethanolic (Tf-HAF) partition fractions obtained from the stem bark of Terminalia fagifolia Mart & Zucc...
January 25, 2019: Biology Open
Fu Wang, Guoqing Li, Zhifang Wu, Zhipeng Fan, Min Yang, Tingting Wu, Jinsong Wang, Chunmei Zhang, Songlin Wang
Abnormalities of tooth number in humans, such as agenesis and supernumerary tooth formation, are closely related to diphyodont development. There is an increasing demand to understand the molecular and cellular mechanisms behind diphyodont development through the use large animal models, since they are the most similar to the mechanism of human tooth development. However, attempting to study diphyodont development in large animal remains challenging due to the large tooth size, prolonged growth stage, and embryo manipulation...
January 25, 2019: Biology Open
E Denarier, C Brousse, A Sissoko, A Andrieux, C Boscheron
Malformations of the human cerebral cortex can be caused by mutations in tubulins that associate to compose microtubules. Cerebral cortical folding relies on neuronal migration and on progenitor proliferation partly dictated by microtubule-dependent mitotic spindle positioning. A single amino acid change, F265L, in the conserved TUBB2B β-tubulin gene has been identified in patients with abnormal cortex formation. A caveat for studying this mutation in mammalian cells is that nine genes encode β-tubulin in human...
January 23, 2019: Biology Open
Yuta Namiki, Satoru Hashizume, Akihiko Murai, Yoshiyuki Kobayashi, Hiroshi Takemura, Hiroaki Hobara
Knowledge of joint moments will provide greater insight into the manner in which lower-extremity amputees wearing running-specific prostheses regain running capacity and compensate for replacement of an active leg with a passive prosthetic implement. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate three-dimensional joint moments during sprinting for unilateral transfemoral amputees wearing running-specific prostheses. Ten sprinters with unilateral transfemoral amputation performed maximal sprinting at the 22-m mark while wearing running-specific prostheses...
January 23, 2019: Biology Open
Hannah M Flood, Craig Bolte, Nupur Dasgupta, Akanksha Sharma, Yufang Zhang, Chandrashekhar R Gandhi, Tanya V Kalin, Vladimir V Kalinichenko
Hepatic fibrosis is the common end stage to a variety of chronic liver injuries and is characterized by an excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM), which disrupts the liver architecture and impairs liver function. The fibrous lesions are produced by myofibroblasts, which differentiate from hepatic stellate cells (HSC). The myofibroblasts transcriptional networks remain poorly characterized. Previous studies have shown that the Forkhead box F1 (FOXF1) transcription factor is expressed in HSCs and stimulates their activation during acute liver injury; however, the role of FOXF1 in the progression of hepatic fibrosis is unknown...
January 22, 2019: Biology Open
Soojin Hwang, Haemin Jeong, Eun Hee Hong, Hae Mi Joo, Kyoung Sang Cho, Seon Young Nam
Ionizing radiation is widely used in medicine and is valuable in both the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. However, its health effects are ambiguous. Here, we report that low-dose ionizing radiation has beneficial effects in human amyloid-β42 (Aβ42)-expressing Drosophila Alzheimer's disease (AD) models. Ionizing radiation at a dose of 0.05 Gy suppressed AD-like phenotypes, including developmental defects and locomotive dysfunction, but did not alter the decreased survival rates and longevity of Aβ42-expressing flies...
January 22, 2019: Biology Open
Mariko Kondo, Megumi Matsuo, Kento Igarashi, Yoshikazu Haramoto, Takayoshi Yamamoto, Yuuri Yasuoka, Masanori Taira
hox genes are found as clusters in the genome in most bilaterians. The order of genes in the cluster is supposed to be correlated with the site of expression along the anterior-posterior body axis and the timing of expression during development, and these correlations are called spatial and temporal collinearity, respectively. Here we studied the expression dynamics of all hox genes of the diploid species Xenopus tropicalis in four Hox clusters (A to D) by analyzing high-temporal-resolution RNA-seq databases and the results showed that temporal collinearity is not supported, consistent with our previous data from allotetraploid X...
January 16, 2019: Biology Open
Shogo Ueda, Ingrid Rosenburg Cordeiro, Yuuta Moriyama, Chika Nishimori, Kei-Ichi Kai, Reiko Yu, Ryoichiro Nakato, Katsuhiko Shirahige, Mikiko Tanaka
In vertebrates, two pairs of buds that give rise to the fore- and hindlimbs form at discrete positions along the rostral-caudal axis of the body. The mechanism responsible for the positioning of the limb buds is still largely unknown. Here we show a novel function for Cut homeobox transcription factor 2, Cux2, the ortholog of Drosophila cut, in refining the forelimb field during chick development. Cux2 is expressed in the forelimb field before the emergence of the limb buds. Knocking down the expression of Cux2 using small interfering RNA (siRNA) resulted in a caudal shift of the forelimb bud, whereas misexpression of Cux2 or the constitutively active Cux2 - VP16 caused a rostral shift of the forelimb bud or reduction of the forelimb field along the anterior-posterior axis...
January 16, 2019: Biology Open
Pankaj Dubey, Tushna Kapoor, Samir Gupta, Seema Shirolikar, Krishanu Ray
Tight junctions prevent paracellular flow and maintain cell polarity in an epithelium. These junctions are also required for maintaining the blood-testis-barrier, which is essential for sperm differentiation. Septate junctions in insects are orthologous to the tight junctions. In Drosophila testis, major septate junction components co-localize at the interface of germline and somatic cells initially and then condense between the two somatic cells in a cyst after germline meiosis. Their localization is extensively remodeled in subsequent stages...
January 11, 2019: Biology Open
Raju Baskar, Anna Bakrhat, Uri Abdu
The polarized organization of the Drosophila oocyte can be visualized by examining the asymmetric localization of mRNAs, which is supported by networks of polarized microtubules (MTs). In this study, we used the gene forked , the putative Drosophila homologue of espin , to develop a unique genetic reporter for asymmetric oocyte organization. We generated a null allele of the forked gene using the CRISPR-Cas9 system and found that forked is not required for determining the axes of the Drosophila embryo. However, ectopic expression of a truncated form of GFP-Forked generated a distinct network of asymmetric Forked, which first accumulated at the oocyte posterior and was then restricted to the anterolateral region of the oocyte cortex in mid-oogenesis...
December 31, 2018: Biology Open
Amani Hassan, Edward T Bagu, Mathieu Levesque, Shunmoogum A Patten, Samira Benhadjeba, Lydia Edjekouane, Isabelle Villemure, André Tremblay, Florina Moldovan
The physiological role and the regulation of ADGRG7 are not yet elucidated. The functional involvement of this receptor was linked with different physiological process such as reduced body weight, gastrointestinal function and recently, a gene variant in ADGRG7 was observed in patients with idiopathic scoliosis. The physiological role and the regulation of Adhesion G protein coupled receptor7 (ADGRG7) are not yet elucidated. The functional involvement of this receptor was linked with different physiological process such as reduced body weight, gastrointestinal function and recently, a gene variant in ADGRG7 was observed in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis...
December 31, 2018: Biology Open
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