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Behavioral Sciences

Zaheer Hussain, Boban Simonovic, Edward J N Stupple, Maggie Austin
Social networking sites (SNSs) have become ubiquitous in our everyday lives, and for all its communicative benefits, excessive SNS use has been associated with a range of negative health implications. In the present study, the authors use eye-tracking methodology to explore the relationship between individual differences in personality, mental well-being, SNS usage, and the focus of Facebook users' visual attention. Participants ( n = 69, mean age = 23.09, SD = 7.54) completed questionnaire measures for personality and to examine changes in depression, anxiety, stress, and self-esteem...
February 18, 2019: Behavioral Sciences
Juan Aníbal González-Rivera, Idania Hernández-Gato
: The present study evaluates the psychometric properties of the Conflicts in Romantic Relationships Over Facebook Use Scale with a sample of Puerto Rican adults. A total of 300 Puerto Ricans participated in this confirmatory and psychometric study. The results confirmed that the scale has a multidimensional structure. These dimensions are: Partner Facebook intrusion, Conflict over Facebook use, and Jealousy over Facebook use. A total of 18 items complied with the criteria of discrimination and presented appropriate factorial loads (six items per dimension)...
February 10, 2019: Behavioral Sciences
Jacquelyn D Wiersma-Mosley, Kristen N Jozkowski
Violence against women on college campuses continues to be a pervasive public health problem with approximately one in five women experiencing sexual assault and one in nine women experiencing rape while in college. The current study examined relationship and sexual violence among National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I universities. Based on previous research, Division I universities seem to report higher rates of sexual assault, but within-group differences have yet to be examined. The data include 1422 four-year private and public institutions with at least 1000 students who submitted Clery data (2014) on rape, domestic and dating violence, and stalking...
February 4, 2019: Behavioral Sciences
Shervin Assari
Background: Although high educational attainment is linked to better health and lower health risk behaviors, this effect may be systemically smaller for racial and ethnic minority groups compared to Whites. However, it is still unknown whether these diminished returns also apply to marginalization based on sexual orientation. Aims: In a national sample of adults which was composed of people of color, we compared straight and homosexual people for the association between education attainment and obesity. Methods: The Social Justice Sexuality Project (SJS-2010) is a cross-sectional national survey of health and wellbeing of predominantly people of color who identify as homosexual...
January 29, 2019: Behavioral Sciences
Saher Hoda Kamil, Mustafa Qureshi, Rikinkumar S Patel
Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) are classified as a somatoform conversion disorder. We present a case of a 24-year-old male with a past psychiatric history of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and anxiety disorder, admitted to our inpatient psychiatric unit. The patient experienced multiple episodes of seizures during hospitalization. Work up was unremarkable, and PNES were suspected and later confirmed with video-electroencephalography (video-EEG). He underwent supervised withdrawal of antiepileptic medications with the initiation of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), which reduced the frequency of seizures...
January 29, 2019: Behavioral Sciences
Kristina M Childers
Unpaid caregivers (CG) provide most of the assistance to persons with dementias (PWD) living in the community. This study explores the current state of knowledge regarding the concept of sense of coherence (SOC) and CG of PWD via a concept analysis. The identified defining attributes were health, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), CG burden, CG stress, coping as a strength, gender, and decreasing sense of CG coherence over the progression of the disease (dementia). Further study by health care professionals using clinical observations, large samples of respondents, a consistent theory, valid and reliable instruments used to measure defining attributes consistently, and critical reviews of the literature are needed...
January 28, 2019: Behavioral Sciences
Lynissa R Stokes, Leslie R Brody
Black adolescent and young adult women in the United States experience a disproportionately higher rate of HIV infections than White and Hispanic adolescent and young adult women. Heterosexual sexual activity is the main route of infection for women, regardless of race or ethnicity. We examined two potential barriers to reducing Black adolescent and young adult women's HIV risk: high levels of self-silencing and low levels of sexual relationship power. Data were collected on a small convenience sample of sexually active Black college-aged women ( N = 57, M age = 19...
January 28, 2019: Behavioral Sciences
Maydelin Alfonso-Alfonso, Lilia María Morales-Chacón, Justa Elizabeth González-Naranjo
Sleep disturbances are very common in children with autism; it is for this reason that instruments that facilitate their evaluation are necessary. OBJECTIVES: Perform sleep assessment from a subjective perspective in a group of children with primary autism and compare them with a control group, using the Sleep Habits in Children Survey (CSHQ), with the purpose of determining sleep disturbances according to the subscales used. METHOD: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in a group of 21 patients with primary autism...
January 24, 2019: Behavioral Sciences
Ángel Romero-Martínez, Macarena González, Marisol Lila, Enrique Gracia, Luis Martí-Bonmatí, Ángel Alberich-Bayarri, Rebeca Maldonado-Puig, Amadeo Ten-Esteve, Luis Moya-Albiol
Introduction: There is growing scientific interest in understanding the biological mechanisms affecting and/or underlying violent behaviors in order to develop effective treatment and prevention programs. In recent years, neuroscientific research has tried to demonstrate whether the intrinsic activity within the brain at rest in the absence of any external stimulation (resting-state functional connectivity; RSFC) could be employed as a reliable marker for several cognitive abilities and personality traits that are important in behavior regulation, particularly, proneness to violence...
January 15, 2019: Behavioral Sciences
Adriel Boals, Lee A Bedford, Jennifer L Callahan
Recent research has distinguished between actual posttraumatic growth (PTG) and perceived PTG. We used a prospective research design to measure both actual and perceived PTG in an attempt to replicate and extend previous findings. We examined college students ( N = 64) who experienced a traumatic event between the start (Time 1) and end (Time 2) of a semester. We included three measures of change from pre- to post-trauma: (1) Actual PTG (change scores in measures of PTG domains), (2) perceived general growth (Time 2 ratings of functioning at Time 1 subtracted from actual ratings given at Time 1), and (3) perceived PTG (self-reports of PTG on the posttraumatic growth inventory)...
January 15, 2019: Behavioral Sciences
Shervin Assari, Mehdi Farokhnia, Ritesh Mistry
According to the minorities' diminished returns (MDR) theory, socioeconomic status (SES) indicators such as education attainment have smaller protective effects on health risk behaviors for racial and ethnic minority groups in comparison to the 'dominant' social group. However, most studies of MDR theory have been on comparison of Blacks versus Whites. Much less is known about diminished returns of SES in ethnic subpopulations (i.e., Hispanics versus non-Hispanic Whites). To test whether MDR also holds for the social patterning of problematic alcohol use among Hispanic and non-Hispanic Whites, this study investigated ethnic variations in the association between education attainment and alcohol binge drinking frequency in a population-based sample of adults...
January 14, 2019: Behavioral Sciences
Marta Tremolada, Livia Taverna, Sabrina Bonichini
This research revealed the children with difficulties in attentional functions among healthy children attending primary school and aimed to identify the possible sociodemographic factors, such as the child's age, gender, and school grade, that could influence attentive performance. The participants were 105 children aged 6⁻10 years (M age = 8.6; SD = 1.04), attending primary schools. Family economic condition was mostly at a medium level (63.5%), and parents most frequently had 13 years of schooling. The computerized test KiTAP was administered to children to assess their attentional functions...
January 8, 2019: Behavioral Sciences
Justa Elizabeth González-Naranjo, Maydelin Alfonso-Alfonso, Daymet Grass-Fernandez, Lilia María Morales-Chacón, Ivón Pedroso-Ibáñez, Yordanka Ricardo-de la Fe, Arnoldo Padrón-Sánchez
Patients diagnosed with Parkinson's disease present sleep disorders with a higher frequency than the general population. The sleep architecture in these patients shows variations with respect to the normal population, so in this work it was decided to investigate the characteristics of the macroarchitecture of sleep in patients diagnosed with Parkinson's disease. A polysomnographic study was carried out on 77 patients diagnosed with Parkinson's disease. All the studies were processed according to the AASM Manual for the Scoring of Sleep and Associated Events v...
January 8, 2019: Behavioral Sciences
Kristina Nestsiarovich, Dirk Pons
Recording of team meeting's processes with electronic devices can be problematic because of the invasiveness of the process: issues with privacy; interpretation difficulty with noise or quiet speech; and distortion of participants' behaviour. There is a need for less intrusive methods. We developed the interaction diagram method by extending the directed graph nature of sociograms to capture the time sequence of events, including the identification of the person, communication behaviour, and duration of interactions...
December 30, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Manal A M Othman, Ebrahim Rajab, Ahmed AlMubarak, Mohammed AlNaisar, Noora Bahzad, Amer Kamal
Administration of erythropoietin (EPO) is neuroprotective against a variety of experimentally-induced neurological disorders. The aim was to determine if EPO protects against hippocampal neurodegeneration as well as impairment of cognition and motor performance, associated with long-term diabetes. BALB/c mice were randomly allocated between control, diabetic and EPO-treated diabetic groups. EPO-treated diabetic mice were administered EPO 0.05 U/kg/day i.p. three times/week for 10 weeks. Cognition was assessed by Morris water maze...
December 28, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Sabah Hammoud, Rita Karam, Rabih Mourad, Iman Saad, Mazen Kurdi
Real-life stressors, such as university examination, cause an increase in sympathetic activity of the nervous system innervating the heart, and thus an increase in heart rate (HR). Our study aimed to detect changes in heart rate variability (HRV) during different stages of an exam in a group of 90 healthy university students (30 males and 60 females), over 4 h of monitoring divided into 1 h before, 2 h during, and 1 h after the examination. HRV was significantly highest after the exam, indicating release from stress, as compared to before and during the examination when stress was observable...
December 27, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Cho Kwan Tse, Calvin Kai-Ching Yu
How perceptual limits can be reduced has long been examined by psychologists. This study investigated whether visual cues, blindfolding, visual-auditory synesthetic experience, and musical training could facilitate a smaller frequency difference limen (FDL) in a gliding frequency discrimination test. Ninety university students, with no visual or auditory impairment, were recruited for this one-between (blindfolded/visual cues) and one-within (control/experimental session) designed study. Their FDLs were tested by an alternative forced-choice task (gliding upwards/gliding downwards/no change) and two questionnaires (Vividness of Mental Imagery Questionnaire and Projector⁻Associator Test) were used to assess their tendency to synesthesia...
December 24, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Sara O'Donnell, Kelseanna Hollis-Hansen, Leonard H Epstein
Episodic future thinking (EFT), or prospectively imagining yourself in the future, has been developed into an intervention tool to reduce delay discounting (DD), or the preference for smaller immediate over larger future rewards, and to make healthier choices that promote long-term health rather than short-term enjoyment. Most EFT interventions use EFT cues whose future events match the time delays of the DD task, which may limit the utility of EFT. The current study ( N = 160, M age = 35.25, 47.5% female) used a 2 × 2 factorial design with type of episodic thinking (matched, unmatched) and temporal perspective (EFT, episodic recent thinking (ERT)) as between-subject factors to investigate whether there were differences in DD for groups that had EFT cues matched to the time delays of the DD task in comparison to cues with unmatched temporal delays...
December 21, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Crystal L Park, Sinead M Sinnott
Posttraumatic growth has garnered increasing interest as a potential positive consequence of traumatic events and illnesses. However, scientific investigations have yet to demonstrate the validity of self-reports of posttraumatic growth. The most common measure used to assess this construct is the Post Traumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI); however, the extent to which the PTGI (as well as other self-report measures of perceived posttraumatic growth; PPTG) assess actual positive change remains unknown. The present study aimed to examine the validity of PPTG measures...
December 15, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Sandy L Gonzalez, Eliza L Nelson
The MacArthur Inventario del Desarrollo de Habilidades Comunicativas: Primeras Palabras y Gestos (IDHC) is a widely-used parent report measure for infant Spanish language comprehension. The IDHC was originally created for use with infants of Mexican background. According to the U.S. 2017 census, however, about 37% of U.S. Hispanics are not of Mexican origin. In Miami-Dade, a large county in South Florida, 98% of Hispanics do not identify Mexico as their country of origin. IDHC use in mixed Hispanic communities such as Miami may be problematic due to differences in dialect and object labels...
December 15, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
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