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Journals Case Reports in Neurological M...

Case Reports in Neurological Medicine

https://read.qxmd.com/read/38741705/syncope-vs-seizure-ictal-bradycardia-and-ictal-asystole
#1
Sumika Ouchida, Kaitlyn Parratt, Armin Nikpour, Greg Fairbrother
BACKGROUND: Ictal arrhythmia is a rare condition that causes arrhythmic manifestations induced by epileptic seizures, including asystole or bradycardia. Ictal asystole (IA) is a very rare condition found in patients undergoing video-encephalography (EEG) monitoring. It is often related to temporal lobe epilepsy and can cause syncope, which can lead to injury or even death. Case Presentation . Two patients with epilepsy showed symptoms of syncope. Both patients underwent 4-day ambulatory EEG tests and were diagnosed with IA...
2024: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38716424/novel-slc18a2-variant-in-infantile-dystonia-parkinsonism-type-2
#2
Sakari Kaasalainen, Harri Arikka, Mika H Martikainen, Valtteri Kaasinen
Infantile dystonia-parkinsonism type 2 (PKDYS2) is a rare inherited autosomal recessive movement disorder with onset in infancy. The disease is associated with a mutation in the solute carrier family 18 member A2 gene ( SLC18A2 ). There are reports of trials with dopaminergic drugs and the condition of patients given levodopa almost always worsens and dopamine agonists give varying degrees of benefit to some. Here, we report a PKDYS2 patient with a new variant in the SLC18A2 gene who underwent multiple trials of pharmacotherapy...
2024: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38694182/giant-retinal-astrocytoma-a-case-report-of-an-uncommon-presentation-of-tuberous-sclerosis-in-a-young-female
#3
Keval Thakkar, Fnu Raveena, Aakash Kumar, Doongro Mal, Dileep Kumar, Neha Ahuja, Rahul Mandhan, Aqsa Baig, Manjeet Singh, Heeya Shah, Taha Sajjad, Mansi Singh
Tuberous sclerosis (TS) is a rare multisystem autosomal dominant genetic disorder with characteristic pathognomonic genetic mutations involving the TSC (tuberous sclerosis complex) group of genes. Ocular signs are fairly common and include an achromic patch and retinal astrocytic hamartomas, which usually have a maximum size of between 0.5 and 5 mm. The incidence of tuberous sclerosis is estimated to be 1 in 5000-10,000 individuals, with both familial and sporadic cases reported. The diagnostic criteria for tuberous sclerosis include the presence of major and/or minor clinical features as well as genetic mutations...
2024: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38590786/segawa-syndrome-a-dramatic-response-to-dopamine
#4
Omkar Dhungel, Amit Shrestha, Pawan Sharma, Nidesh Sapkota, Raju Paudel
Segawa syndrome usually manifests as dystonia, disturbance of gait with fatigue, and may be confused with spasticity. Also known as dopamine-responsive dystonia (DRD), it should be considered in any child who presents with paroxysmal or progressive hypertonia of unknown etiology, which responds dramatically to levodopa. It is a clinical diagnosis, but the level of pterins in cerebrospinal fluid and guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase-1 (GTCH 1) gene mutation testing done by molecular genetic testing are confirmatory...
2024: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38560631/ataxia-and-seizures-despite-phenytoin-a-case-report-highlighting-the-importance-of-tdm-and-genetic-influences
#5
Rachel Manoj, Arpita Meher, Jefry Winner G
Adverse drug reactions to commonly prescribed medications such as phenytoin, used for seizures, often go undetected due to various factors. This case report highlights a 52-year-old male diagnosed with late-onset epilepsy who was prescribed phenytoin. Despite the standard dosage, the patient experienced toxicity symptoms and a seizure, prompting admission for assessment. Laboratory tests and imaging were inconclusive, leading to a therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) consultation, which revealed elevated phenytoin levels...
2024: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38045988/a-case-of-symptomatic-intraluminal-internal-carotid-artery-thrombus-in-a-patient-with-essential-thrombocythemia-surgically-treated-by-cea
#6
Satoshi Takahashi, Masahiro Katsumata, Hirotsugu Nogawa, Kento Takahara, Jin Nakahara, Masahiro Toda
We report a patient with a symptomatic intraluminal internal carotid artery thrombus clinically revealed by cerebral infarction. In the preoperative evaluation, it was revealed that essential thrombocythemia existed in the background. Therefore, medical treatment with antithrombotic agents in conjunction with hydroxycarbamide for essential thrombocythemia was initiated, but the thrombus was not dissolved by three weeks. At this time, the patient underwent carotid endarterectomy, which removed the thrombus completely with its adjacent plaque without any perioperative stroke...
2023: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38025302/penetrating-head-injury-by-a-hit-of-rake-in-a-child-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#7
Issa Ibrahim Assoumane, Nicaise Kpègnon Agada, Rabiou Maman Sani, Aminath Kélani
BACKGROUND: A penetrating head injury (PHI) refers to a situation where a projectile has breached the cranium but does not exit it. It constitutes about 0.4% of all head injuries. Several nonmissile materials inserting the skull have been reported. But to our knowledge, never before has any case of PHI caused by a hit of rake been reported. We report a first case of PHI caused by a rake in a child; then, we relate our experience with its management and discuss the relevant literature...
2023: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38025301/generalized-extension-of-referred-trigeminal-pain-due-to-greater-occipital-nerve-entrapment
#8
Jung-Woo Hyung, Byung-Chul Son
We report a very rare case of referred pain caused by greater occipital nerve (GON) entrapment, inducing spontaneous pain in the whole body as well as in the trigeminal nerve region of the face and head. It has already been reported that entrapment of the GON can induce referred pain in the ipsilateral limb as well as the ipsilateral hemiface. A 42-year-old female patient presented with chronic pain in her gums, jaw angle, submandibular region, retro-auricular suboccipital, and temporo-occipital vertex that had been ongoing for four years...
2023: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37899764/inadvertent-intrathecal-administration-of-digoxin-with-review-of-the-literature
#9
Burton J Tabaac, Ian O T Laughrey, Hany F Ghali
While the systemic effects of digoxin have been studied, limited data exist on the effects of neuraxial administration. Prior case reports document how digoxin and lidocaine share indistinguishable vials and were inadvertently stocked together in spinal and epidural anesthesia kits, necessitating a need for further implementation of safety measures. Here, we report the poor progression and brain death of a postpartum woman after accidental administration of intrathecal digoxin during a routine elective cesarean section (C-section)...
2023: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37860076/alzheimer-s-type-neuropathological-changes-in-a-patient-with-depression-and-anxiety-a-case-report-and-literature-review-of-neuropathological-correlates-of-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Sumit Das
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is classified as a tauopathy and is the most common neuropathological correlate of dementia/cognitive impairment. AD is neuropathologically characterized by the presence of beta-amyloid immunoreactive senile plaques and tau positive neurofibrillary tangles. Neuropsychiatric symptoms of AD however continue to be underscored, and therefore, neuropathological correlates of these neuropsychiatric symptoms are not readily studied. Presented here is a case of 60-year-old female who initially presented with anxiety and depression, and continued to be the predominant symptoms although mild cognitive impairment was noted as per the available clinical notes...
2023: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37520771/chronic-lymphocytic-inflammation-with-pontine-perivascular-enhancement-responsive-to-steroids-clippers-syndrome-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#11
Nripesh Man Shrestha, Niranjan Acharya, Rabindra Desar
CLIPPERS is a rare, chronic inflammatory neurological syndrome affecting multiple regions of the brain including the brainstem, cerebellum, and spinal cord. More than 100 cases have been documented globally since its initial description in 2010. This article reports the first case of the CLIPPERS syndrome in Nepal. Clinical and radiological evidences of the patient lead to the diagnosis of this disease. Brain MRI reveals punctate and curvilinear gadolinium enhancement in the pons and cerebellum, which is diagnostic for the disease...
2023: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37275628/anti-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme-a-reductase-immune-mediated-necrotizing-myopathy-following-mrna-sars-cov-2-vaccination
#12
Marta Rodrigues de Carvalho, Myrian Mathildes Sá de Deus Rocha, Vinícius Alves Bezerra, Maciel Eduardo de Pontes, Maria Cristina Del Negro, Julio Salgado Antunes, Vinícius Viana Abreu Montanaro, Rubens Nelson Morato Fernandez
The new coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in the unprecedented production of vaccines. In this context, the possible adverse effects remain to be identified and reported. In this article, we report the case of a young female patient who developed anti-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (anti-HMG-CoA) immune-mediated necrotizing myositis (IMNM) after receiving the Pfizer-BioNTech (BNT162b2) COVID-19 vaccine. The diagnosis of probable post-vaccination IMNM was made due to the absence of other factors that may have led to the development of autoantibodies (medicines; e...
2023: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37082036/postanoxia-induced-chorea-treated-with-intravenous-fentanyl
#13
Ashley Audi, Brittany Cunningham, Christopher Newey
The case presented is that of a young male with postanoxic brain injury secondary to cocaine overdose who began to exhibit choreiform movements of the left upper extremity. Traditional treatment options for chorea were unsuccessful, leading to the administration of fentanyl, which rapidly resolved the patient's choreiform movements. There is a limited research involving the treatment of chorea in anoxic brain injury as well as fentanyl's role in the movement pathway. We hypothesize that chorea can be caused or exacerbated by opioid withdrawal in a patient with chronic opioid use through modulation of dopamine transmission...
2023: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36936604/isolated-neurosarcoidosis-presenting-as-chronic-progressive-pachymeningitis
#14
Joshua Abata, Danielle Bazer, Nicholas Koroneos, Olga Syritsyna
Neurologic manifestations of sarcoidosis are rare, and even rarer still are cases of isolated neurosarcoidosis. The clinical presentation of isolated neurosarcoidosis can be highly variable, and diagnosis is particularly challenging, the gold standard being tissue biopsy. We describe a patient with a history of atypical parkinsonian syndrome and chronic right frontal lobe infarct who developed weakness, imbalance, and gait disequilibrium in 2008, with magnetic resonance imaging at that time showing leptomeningeal and nodular enhancements in the bilateral frontal and parietal lobes...
2023: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36755987/acute-peripheral-facial-paralysis-masquerading-as-bell-s-palsy-is-the-first-presentation-of-covid-19-infection
#15
Tabtim Chongsuvivatwong, Panitta Mueanchoo, Praewchompoo Sathirapanya, Pornchai Sathirapanya
Although Bell's palsy is a common diagnosis of acute isolated peripheral facial palsy (PFP), acute isolated PFP can be the first presentation of various illnesses, including COVID-19 disease. A female with a known history of well-controlled diabetes mellitus presented initially with acute isolated PFP mimicking Bell's palsy. A course of oral prednisolone was given to treat acute PFP. Severe fifth cervical radicular pain, which is unusual for Bell's palsy followed 3 days later. The COVID-19 infection was finally diagnosed by a real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test 15 days after facial paralysis when typical pulmonary infection symptoms developed...
2023: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36704418/encephalo-arterio-synangiosis-with-cranioplasty-after-treatment-of-acute-subdural-hematoma-associated-with-subcortical-hemorrhage-due-to-unilateral-moyamoya-disease
#16
Naoki Kato, Shota Kakizaki, Yusuke Hirokawa, Shotaro Michishita, Takuya Ishii, Tohru Terao, Yuichi Murayama
Moyamoya disease is often diagnosed after intracranial hemorrhage in adult patients. Here, we report a case of unilateral moyamoya disease treated with indirect revascularization combined with cranioplasty after treatment for acute subdural hematoma and subcortical hemorrhage. A middle-aged woman with disturbed consciousness was transferred to our hospital. Computed tomography (CT) revealed an acute subdural hematoma with left temporoparietal subcortical hemorrhage. Three-dimensional CT angiography indicated a scarcely enhanced left middle cerebral artery (MCA) that was suspected to be delayed or nonfilling due to increased intracranial pressure...
2023: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36578653/diabetic-striatopathy-case-report-and-possible-new-actors
#17
Chiara Mozzini, Raffaele Ghirardi, Mauro Pagani
Diabetic striatopathy is a very rare neurological complication of diabetes. We report the case of an 86-year-old woman with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes admitted to the internal medicine ward for sudden onset of altered sensorium and severe bilateral choreiform and ballistic movements. The precise pathophysiology of this condition is not well understood. Our communication aims to remind clinicians to consider the possibility of diabetic striatopathy when poor-controlled diabetic patients have sudden-onset choreiform and ballistic movements...
2022: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36505755/ipsilateral-limb-extension-of-referred-trigeminal-facial-pain-due-to-greater-occipital-nerve-entrapment-a-case-report
#18
Byung-Chul Son, Changik Lee
We report a very rare case of referred pain associated with entrapment of the greater occipital nerve (GON) occurring not only in the ipsilateral hemiface but also in the ipsilateral limb. There is an extensive convergence of cutaneous, tooth pulp, visceral, neck, and muscle afferents onto nociceptive and nonnociceptive neurons in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis (medullary dorsal horn). In addition, nociceptive input from trigeminal, meningeal afferents projects into trigeminal nucleus caudalis and dorsal horn of C1 and C2...
2022: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36458134/something-got-your-tongue-a-unique-cause-of-hypoglossal-nerve-palsy
#19
Alan Tesson, Peter Kranz, Ali Zomorodi, Joel Morgenlander
INTRODUCTION: The authors report a rare cause of isolated hypoglossal nerve palsy caused by a high cervical osteophyte. This case increases clinical knowledge of an underreported condition and teaches the clinician radiologic pearls in making the diagnosis. To their knowledge, this is the first case report showing surgical remediation of this condition. Symptoms and Clinical Findings . A 73-year-old female presented with several months of occipital headache, progressive dysarthria, dysphagia, and tongue deviation to the right...
2022: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36340934/right-unilateral-spatial-neglect-improves-with-intrinsic-motivation
#20
Hirotaka Saito, Haruka Kobayashi, Junichi Yatsu, Shigeru Obayashi
Background . In the acute phase of stroke, it is well known that the incidence and severity of unilateral spatial neglect (USN) are more significant in the right hemisphere injuries. Still, the detection of USN in left hemisphere injuries has been increasing in recent years. This trend is because behavioral assessments have prevented the exclusion of patients who are difficult to assess for USN or apathy using conventional paper-and-pencil tests (e.g., aphasia). Right USN and post-stroke apathy share many common lesions...
2022: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
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