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Schizophrenia Research and Treatment

Shelagh Szabo, Elizabeth Merikle, Greta Lozano-Ortega, Lauren Powell, Thomas Macek, Stephanie Cline
Objective: To perform a systematic review of the published literature to evaluate how functional capacity, as measured by the University of California at San Diego (UCSD) Performance-based Skills Assessment (UPSA), relates to other functional measures and real-world outcomes among individuals with schizophrenia. Methods: The MEDLINE® and Embase® databases were searched to identify joint evaluations with UPSA and key functional outcomes (functional scale measures; generic or disease-specific, health-related quality of life [HRQoL]; or real-world outcomes [residential status; employment status]) in patients with schizophrenia...
2018: Schizophrenia Research and Treatment
Andreana De Mare, Miriam Cantarella, Giovanni Galeoto
Cognitive impairment is highly prevalent in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Many interventions have been developed to treat cognitive deficit, since it has a strong impact on functional outcome; however, there are no integrated interventions targeting multiple neuro- and social-cognitive domains with a particular focus on the generalization of the effects of therapy on the functional outcome. Recently, a group of experts has developed a cognitive remediation group therapy approach called Integrated Neurocognitive Therapy (INT), which includes exercises to improve the MATRICS (Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia) neuro- and social-cognitive domains...
2018: Schizophrenia Research and Treatment
Valentina Corigliano, Anna Comparelli, Iginia Mancinelli, Benedetta Montalbani, Dorian A Lamis, Antonella De Carolis, Denise Erbuto, Paolo Girardi, Maurizio Pompili
Long-acting injectable second-generation antipsychotics (LAI-SGA) are typically used to maintain treatment adherence in patients with chronic schizophrenia. Recent research suggests that they may also provide an effective treatment strategy for patients with early-phase disease. The aim of this study is to evaluate clinical and psychosocial outcomes among recent and long-term diagnosed schizophrenia outpatients treated with LAI-SGA during a follow-up period of 12 months. Stable schizophrenia patients receiving LAI-SGA with 5 or less years of illness duration ( n = 10) were compared to those with more than 5 years of illness duration ( n = 15)...
2018: Schizophrenia Research and Treatment
Angela Owusu-Ansah, Anto Berko Panyin, Christian Obirikorang, Christian Agyare, Emmanuel Acheampong, Simon Kwofie, Enoch Odame Anto, Emmanuella Nsenbah Batu
The study determined the prevalence of MetS in patients with schizophrenia at the Psychiatric Unit of the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), Kumasi, Ghana. This comparative cross-sectional study recruited 348 schizophrenic patients comprising 236 antipsychotic-treated and 112 newly diagnosed treatment- naïve patients. The MetS prevalence was assessed based on World Health Organization (WHO), International Diabetes Federation (IDF), and the National Cholesterol Education Programme, Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) criteria...
2018: Schizophrenia Research and Treatment
Chakrapani Balijepalli, Eric Druyts, Michael J Zoratti, Ping Wu, Salmaan Kanji, Kiran Rabheru, Kevin Yan, Kristian Thorlund
Background: Treatment of schizophrenia with first- and second-generation antipsychotics has been associated with elevated prolactin levels, which may increase the risk for prolactin-related adverse events. Methods: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) included in a recent systematic review were considered for this analysis. A Bayesian network meta-analysis was used to compare changes in prolactin levels in pediatric patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizophrenia spectrum disorders treated with second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs)...
2018: Schizophrenia Research and Treatment
Stéphane Potvin, Andràs Tikàsz, Stéphane Richard-Devantoy, Ovidiu Lungu, Alexandre Dumais
Despite the high prevalence of suicidal ideas/attempts in schizophrenia, only a handful of neuroimaging studies have examined the neurobiological differences associated with suicide risk in this population. The main objective of the current exploratory study is to examine the neurofunctional correlates associated with a history of suicide attempt in schizophrenia, using a risky decision-making task, in order to show alterations in brain reward regions in this population. Thirty-two male outpatients with schizophrenia were recruited: 13 patients with (SCZ + S) and 19 without a history of suicidal attempt (SCZ - S)...
2018: Schizophrenia Research and Treatment
Mohammad Zia Ul Haq Katshu, Sukanto Sarkar, S Haque Nizamie
Acute and short-term administration of olanzapine has a favorable effect on sleep in schizophrenia patients. This study aimed to clarify the effect of olanzapine on polysomnographic profiles of schizophrenia patients during the acute phase of illness after controlling for previous drug exposure. Twenty-five drug-naïve or drug-free schizophrenia patients were assessed at baseline and after six weeks of olanzapine treatment on Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), and Udvalg for Kliniske Undersogelser (UKU) side-effect rating scale and a whole-night polysomnography; fifteen patients completed the study...
2018: Schizophrenia Research and Treatment
Luigi Grillo
In the prodromal phase of schizophrenia, severe alterations of the visual appearance of the environment have been found, accompanied by a state of intense anxiety. The present study considers the possibility that these alterations really exist in the appearance of objects, but that healthy people do not see them. The image of the world that we see is continuously deformed and fragmented by foreshortenings, partial overlapping, and so on and must be constantly reassembled and interpreted; otherwise, it could change so much that we would hardly recognize it...
2018: Schizophrenia Research and Treatment
Lâle Battal Merlet, Alain Blanchet, Hazlin Lockman, Milena Kostova
The objective of this electrophysiological study was to investigate the processing of semantic coherence during encoding in relation to episodic memory processes promoted at test, in schizophrenia patients, by using the N400 paradigm. Eighteen schizophrenia patients and 15 healthy participants undertook a recognition memory task. The stimuli consisted of pairs of words either semantically related or unrelated to a given category name (context). During encoding, both groups exhibited an N400 external semantic coherence effect...
2018: Schizophrenia Research and Treatment
Margarita V Alfimova, Galina I Korovaitseva, Tatyana V Lezheiko, Vera E Golimbet
Literature suggests that the effect of winter birth on vulnerability to schizophrenia might be mediated by increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines due to prenatal infection and its inadequate regulation by anti-inflammatory factors. As the response of the immune system depends on genotype, this study assessed the interaction effects of cytokine genes and season of birth (SOB) on schizotypy measured with the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ-74). We searched for associations of IL1B rs16944, IL4 rs2243250, and IL-1RN VNTR polymorphisms, SOB, and their interactions with the SPQ-74 total score in a sample of 278 healthy individuals...
2017: Schizophrenia Research and Treatment
Anuradha Sharma, Heinrich Sauer, Holger Hill, Claudia Kaufmann, Stephan Bender, Matthias Weisbrod
OBJECTIVE: Activation of semantic networks is indexed by the N400 effect. We used a twin study design to investigate whether N400 effect abnormalities reflect genetic/trait liability or are related to psychopathological processes in schizophrenia. METHODS: We employed robust linear regression to compare N400 and behavioral priming effects across 36 monozygotic twin pairs (6 pairs concordant for schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder, 11 discordant pairs, and 19 healthy control pairs) performing a lexical decision task...
2017: Schizophrenia Research and Treatment
R Walter Heinrichs, Farena Pinnock, Melissa Parlar, Colin Hawco, Lindsay Hanford, Geoffrey B Hall
This study assessed whether cortical thickness across the brain and regionally in terms of the default mode, salience, and central executive networks differentiates schizophrenia patients and healthy controls with normal range or below-normal range cognitive performance. Cognitive normality was defined using the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) composite score (T = 50 ± 10) and structural magnetic resonance imaging was used to generate cortical thickness data. Whole brain analysis revealed that cognitively normal range controls (n = 39) had greater cortical thickness than both cognitively normal (n = 17) and below-normal range (n = 49) patients...
2017: Schizophrenia Research and Treatment
Élisabeth Thibaudeau, Caroline Cellard, Clare Reeder, Til Wykes, Hans Ivers, Michel Maziade, Marie-Audrey Lavoie, William Pothier, Amélie M Achim
Schizophrenia is associated with deficits in theory of mind (ToM) (i.e., the ability to infer the mental states of others) and cognition. Associations have often been reported between cognition and ToM, and ToM mediates the relationship between impaired cognition and impaired functioning in schizophrenia. Given that cognitive deficits could act as a limiting factor for ToM, this study investigated whether a cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) that targets nonsocial cognition and metacognition could improve ToM in schizophrenia...
2017: Schizophrenia Research and Treatment
Martino Belvederi Murri, Flaminia Fanelli, Uberto Pagotto, Elena Bonora, Federico Triolo, Luigi Chiri, Fabio Allegri, Marco Mezzullo, Marco Menchetti, Valeria Mondelli, Carmine Pariante, Domenico Berardi, Ilaria Tarricone
Neuroactive steroids may play a role in the pathophysiology of psychotic disorders, but few studies examined this issue. We compared serum levels of cortisol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and progesterone between a representative sample of first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients and age- and gender-matched healthy subjects. Furthermore, we analyzed the associations between neuroactive steroids levels and the severity of psychotic symptom dimensions. Male patients had lower levels of progesterone than controls (p = 0...
2016: Schizophrenia Research and Treatment
Rodolfo Pérez-Garza, Gamaliel Victoria-Figueroa, Rosa Elena Ulloa-Flores
Background. Previous studies have reported sex differences in the clinical presentation and outcome of adult patients with schizophrenia; the aim of present study was to compare the clinical characteristics, social functioning, adherence to treatment, and cognition of adolescents with this diagnosis in a six-month followup. Methods. A total of 87 adolescents with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizophreniform disorder were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS), the Matrics Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB), Personal and Social Performance Scale (PSP), and the Rating of Medication Influences (ROMI)...
2016: Schizophrenia Research and Treatment
Lara N Pantlin, Deana Davalos
Schizophrenia is a complex and often disabling disorder that is characterized by a wide range of social, emotional, and cognitive deficits. Increasing research suggests that the greatest social and cognitive therapeutic impact comes from early identification. The present study applied a well-established neurophysiological paradigm in the schizophrenia literature, mismatch negativity (MMN), to college students identified as high risk (HR) for psychosis to investigate MMN as a potential biomarker for the onset of psychosis...
2016: Schizophrenia Research and Treatment
Audrey Benoit, Philippe-Olivier Harvey, Louis Bherer, Martin Lepage
Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) has emerged as a viable treatment option for people diagnosed with schizophrenia presenting disabling cognitive deficits. However, it is important to determine which variables can influence response to CRT in order to provide cost-effective treatment. This study's aim was to explore cognitive insight as a potential predictor of cognitive improvement after CRT. Twenty patients with schizophrenia completed a 24-session CRT program involving 18 hours of computer exercises and 6 hours of group discussion to encourage generalization of cognitive training to everyday activities...
2016: Schizophrenia Research and Treatment
Lizzette Gómez-de-Regil, Agnès Ros-Morente, Gisela Rodríguez-Hansen
This cross-sectional study aimed at identifying the most common attributions of their mental disorder in a Mexican patients who have experienced psychosis and their relatives and exploring how having experienced or not characteristic psychotic symptoms and their present clinical status might affect their etiological attributions. Past and current symptom profiles of 66 patients were as assessed with the SCID-I (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders) and the PANSS (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale), respectively...
2016: Schizophrenia Research and Treatment
Michael Rehse, Marina Bartolovic, Katlehn Baum, Dagmar Richter, Matthias Weisbrod, Daniela Roesch-Ely
Many patients with schizophrenia show cognitive impairment. There is evidence that, beyond a certain dose of antipsychotic medication, the antipsychotic daily dose (ADD) may impair cognitive performance. Parallel to their D2 receptor antagonism, many antipsychotics show a significant binding affinity to cholinergic muscarinic receptors. Pharmacological treatment with a high anticholinergic daily dose (CDD) significantly impairs attention and memory performance. To examine the relationships between individual cognitive performance and ADD and/or CDD, we conducted a retrospective record-based analysis of a sample of n = 104 in patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, all of whom had completed a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery...
2016: Schizophrenia Research and Treatment
Hyeong-Min Lee, Yuna Kim
Better the drugs you know than the drugs you do not know. Drug repurposing is a promising, fast, and cost effective method that can overcome traditional de novo drug discovery and development challenges of targeting neuropsychiatric and other disorders. Drug discovery and development targeting neuropsychiatric disorders are complicated because of the limitations in understanding pathophysiological phenomena. In addition, traditional de novo drug discovery and development are risky, expensive, and time-consuming processes...
2016: Schizophrenia Research and Treatment
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