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Tuberculosis Research and Treatment

Ashenafi Abate Woya, Abay Kassa Tekile, Garoma Wakjira Basha
Tuberculosis (TB), a disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), is the main cause of death. It disproportionally affects those living in the different regions of countries and within the region. The aim of this study was to examine spatial variation of mortality and the risk factor of death on multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients treated in different MDR-TB hospitals of Amhara region. The data for this study was used from multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients' record charts and analyzed using STATA software...
2019: Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
Feven Abay, Aregawi Yalew, Agumas Shibabaw, Bamlaku Enawgaw
Background: Hematological abnormalities are common in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients, which is one of the major public health problems worldwide. However, there is paucity of information about the hematological profile of PTB patients with and without HIV in the study area. Therefore, this study aimed to assess hematological abnormalities of pulmonary tuberculosis patients with and without HIV at the University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted at the University of Gondar Hospital...
2018: Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
Thato Iketleng, Richard Lessells, Mlungisi Thabiso Dlamini, Tuelo Mogashoa, Lucy Mupfumi, Sikhulile Moyo, Simani Gaseitsiwe, Tulio de Oliveira
Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug resistance is a threat to global tuberculosis (TB) control. Comprehensive and timely drug susceptibility determination is critical to inform appropriate treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB). Phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST) is the gold standard for M. tuberculosis drug resistance determination. M. tuberculosis whole genome sequencing (WGS) has the potential to be a one-stop method for both comprehensive DST and epidemiological investigations. We discuss in this review the tremendous opportunities that next-generation WGS presents in terms of understanding the molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis and mechanisms of drug resistance...
2018: Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
Saroochi Agarwal, Duc T Nguyen, Justin D Lew, Brenda Campbell, Edward A Graviss
Background: The QuantiFERON Gold In-Tube (QFT-G) assay is used to identify individuals with tuberculosis infection and gives quantitative and qualitative results including positive, negative, or indeterminate results (that cannot be interpreted clinically). Several factors, including immunosuppression and preanalytical factors, have been suggested to be significantly associated with indeterminate QFT-G results. An online education program was designed and implemented to reduce the rate of indeterminate QFT-G test results at Houston Methodist Hospital (HMH)...
2018: Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
Ernest Yorke, Vincent Boima, Ida Dzifa Dey, Yacoba Atiase, Josephine Akpalu, Alfred Edwin Yawson, Vincent Ganu, Audrey Forson, C Charles Mate-Kole
The burden of both tuberculosis (TB) and diabetes mellitus in developing countries including Ghana is high; often, the two coexist and impact each other negatively. Objective . The study aimed to determine the prevalence and predictive factors of dysglycaemia among newly diagnosed smear positive tuberculosis patients at a tertiary tuberculosis treatment centre in Ghana. Methods . Dysglycaemia at diagnosis was determined by the use of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), while sputum smear microscopy was used to assess the sputum status...
2018: Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
Hugh Murray, Ee Laine Tay, Sarah Dinh, Helen Matthews, Alan Street, Justin T Denholm
Setting. Tuberculosis treatment requires long regimens with multiple antibiotics and is complicated by antibiotic resistance and intolerance. Fluoroquinolones were introduced for the treatment of multidrug resistant TB and have become a vital part of therapy. Objective. Reviewing the indications for fluoroquinolones use in the treatment of active TB in Victoria, Australia. Design. This was a retrospective case-control study of Victorian patients prescribed fluoroquinolones for active tuberculosis, from January 2011 to December 2016...
2018: Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
Yassir A Shuaib, Eltahir A G Khalil, Ulrich E Schaible, Lothar H Wieler, Mohammed A M Bakheit, Saad E Mohamed-Noor, Mohamed A Abdalla, Susanne Homolka, Sönke Andres, Doris Hillemann, Knut Lonnroth, Elvira Richter, Stefan Niemann, Katharina Kranzer
Background: In Sudan, tuberculosis diagnosis largely relies on clinical symptoms and smear microscopy as in many other low- and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the positive predictive value of a positive sputum smear in patients investigated for pulmonary tuberculosis in Eastern Sudan. Methods: Two sputum samples from patients presenting with symptoms suggestive of tuberculosis were investigated using direct Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) staining and light microscopy between June to October 2014 and January to July 2016...
2018: Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
Francine Mwayuma Birungi, Stephen Graham, Jeannine Uwimana, Brian van Wyk
Objective: To assess the uptake of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) by eligible children in Kigali, Rwanda, and associated individual, households, and healthcare systems characteristics. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among child contacts of index cases having sputum smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis. Data were collected from 13 selected primary health centres. Descriptive statistics were used to generate frequency tables and figures. Logistic regression models were performed to determine characteristics associated with IPT uptake...
2018: Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
C Padmapriyadarsini, Mrinalini Das, Sharath Burugina Nagaraja, Mahalakshmi Rajendran, Richard Kirubakaran, Sarabjit Chadha, Prathap Tharyan
Background: Preventive therapy for child contacts of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients is poorly studied, and no consensus about the role and the rationale of chemoprophylaxis has been reached. Objective: To conduct systematic review with an aim to determine the effectiveness of TB preventive therapy in reducing the incidence of TB disease in pediatric contacts of MDR-TB patients. Methods: We conducted a literature search for randomized control trials, cohort studies, and case reports of chemoprophylaxis for pediatric contacts of MDR-TB patients in PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Databases of Systematic Reviews, metaRegister of Controlled Trials, and other clinical registries through March 2017, using appropriate search strategy...
2018: Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
I Gusti Ngurah Edi Putra, Putu Ayu Swandewi Astuti, I Ketut Suarjana, Ketut Hari Mulyawan, I Made Kerta Duana, Ni Made Dian Kurniasari, I Wayan Gede Artawan Eka Putra
Diabetes mellitus (DM) increases the risk of developing pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) disease. Therefore, pulmonary TB screening among DM patients is essential. This study aimed to identify factors associated with participation of DM type II patients in pulmonary TB screening using chest X-ray. This was a cross-sectional analytic study and was part of TB-DM screening study in Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia. The sample consisted of 365 DM type II patients selected by quota sampling among DM type II patients joining the screening program from January until March 2016 in 11 public health centres in Denpasar...
2018: Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
Marsha L Griffin, Saroochi Agarwal, Melissa Zhu Murphy, Larry D Teeter, Edward A Graviss
Objectives. An 18-month prospective study serially tested healthcare workers (HCWs) for tuberculosis infection (TBI) and reported discordant QuantiFERON Gold In-Tube® (QFT) results in some participants. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether the interferon-gamma (IFN- γ ) measured by QFT in discordant individuals could be influenced by other circulating cytokines that vary seasonally at the time of phlebotomy. Methods. The CDC funded TBESC Task Order 18 (TO18) project to assess the use of Interferon Gamma Release Assays (IGRAs), T-SPOT...
2018: Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
Addisu Alemayehu Gube, Megbaru Debalkie, Kalid Seid, Kiberalem Bisete, Asfaw Mengesha, Abubeker Zeynu, Freselam Shimelis, Feleke Gebremeskel
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by the bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis . Nonadherence to anti-TB treatment may result in the emergence of multidrug-resistant TB, prolonged infectiousness, and poor tuberculosis treatment outcomes. Ethiopia is one of the seven countries that reported lower rates of treatment success (84%). This study assessed anti-TB drug nonadherence and associated factors among TB patients in Arba Minch governmental health institutions...
2018: Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
Ato Kwamena Tetteh, Edward Agyarko, Joseph Otchere, Langbong Bimi, Irene Ayi
We present, for the first time, an evaluation of treatment outcomes in a cohort at a TB referral centre in the Central Region of Ghana. Of the 213 clients placed on DOTS, 59.2% (126/213) were sputum smear-positive. An overall cure rate of 90.2% (51.6% cured + 37.6% completed) and a death rate of 8.5% (18/213) were estimated. Of the number of clients who died, 5.7% (12/213) were males ( χ 2 = 2.891, p = 0.699; LR = 3.004, p = 0.699). Deaths were only recorded among clients who were > 19 years old ( χ 2 = 40...
2018: Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
Christopher Vinnard, Isabel Manley, Brittney Scott, Mariana Bernui, Joella Adams, Sheryl Varghese, Isaac Zentner, Michele A Kutzler
Background: Rifampin malabsorption is frequently observed in tuberculosis patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) but cannot be predicted by patient factors such as CD4+ T cell count or HIV viral load. Methods: We sought to describe the relationship between HIV-associated immune activation, measures of gut absorptive capacity and permeability, and rifampin pharmacokinetic parameters in a pilot study of 6 HIV-infected, tuberculosis-uninfected patients who were naïve to antiretroviral therapy...
2017: Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
Mulusew Andualem Asemahagn
Background: Despite several interventions, tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a major public health concern in developing countries. Objective: To determine pulmonary TB prevalence and associated factors among shopkeepers in Bahir Dar City, Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2016 among 520 shopkeepers who had TB signs and symptoms using questionnaire interview and sputum samples processing. Shopkeepers were considered TB positive if two sputum slides became positive...
2017: Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
Geeta S Pardeshi, Dileep Kadam, Ajay Chandanwale, Andrea Deluca, Pranali Khobragade, Malan Parande, Nishi Suryavanshi, Aarti Kinikar, Anita Basavaraj, Sunita Girish, Sangita Shelke, Nikhil Gupte, Jason Farley, Robert Bollinger
Setting: Government tertiary health care center in India. Objective: To understand the perceptions of medical residents about their risk of developing TB in the workplace. Design: Cross-sectional study in which a semistructured questionnaire which included an open-ended question to assess their main concerns regarding TB in workplace was used to collect data. Results: Out of 305 resident doctors approached, 263 (94%) completed a structured questionnaire and 200 of these responded to an open-ended question...
2017: Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
Kwame Owusu-Edusei, Carla A Winston, Suzanne M Marks, Adam J Langer, Roque Miramontes
Objective: To evaluate TB test usage and associated direct medical expenditures from 2013 private insurance claims data in the United States (US). Methods: We extracted outpatient claims for TB-specific and nonspecific tests from the 2013 MarketScan® commercial database. We estimated average expenditures (adjusted for claim and patient characteristics) using semilog regression analyses and compared them to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) national reimbursement limits...
2017: Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
Ernest Yorke, Yacoba Atiase, Josephine Akpalu, Osei Sarfo-Kantanka, Vincent Boima, Ida Dzifa Dey
The burden of tuberculosis (TB) especially in developing countries continues to remain high despite efforts to improve preventive strategies. Known traditional risk factors for TB include poverty, malnutrition, overcrowding, and HIV/AIDS; however, diabetes, which causes immunosuppression, is increasingly being recognized as an independent risk factor for tuberculosis, and the two often coexist and impact each other. Diabetes may also lead to severe disease, reactivation of dormant tuberculosis foci, and poor treatment outcomes...
2017: Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
Glenn P Morlock, Frances C Tyrrell, Dorothy Baynham, Vincent E Escuyer, Nicole Green, Youngmi Kim, Patricia A Longley-Olson, Nicole Parrish, Courtney Pennington, Desmond Tan, Brett Austin, James E Posey
The primary platform used for pyrazinamide (PZA) susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the MGIT culture system (Becton Dickinson). Since false-resistant results have been associated with the use of this system, we conducted a multicenter evaluation to determine the effect of using a reduced cell density inoculum on the rate of false resistance. Two reduced inoculum densities were compared with that prescribed by the manufacturer (designated as "BD" method). The reduced inoculum methods (designated as "A" and "C") were identical to the manufacturer's protocol in all aspects with the exception of the cell density of the inoculum...
2017: Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
Shaip Krasniqi, Arianit Jakupi, Armond Daci, Bahri Tigani, Nora Jupolli-Krasniqi, Mimoza Pira, Valbona Zhjeqi, Burim Neziri
Setting: The poor patient adherence in tuberculosis (TB) treatment is considered to be one of the most serious challenges which reflect the decrease of treatment success and emerging of the Multidrug Resistance-TB (MDR-TB). To our knowledge, the data about patients' adherence to anti-TB treatment in our country are missing. Objective: This study was aimed to investigate the anti-TB treatment adherence rate and to identify factors related to eventual nonadherence among Kosovo TB patients...
2017: Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
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