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Cell Biology International Reports

Carthur K Wan, Simon J O'Carroll, Sue-Ling Kim, Colin R Green, Louise F B Nicholson
While connexins (Cxs) are thought to be involved in differentiation, their expression and role has yet to be fully elucidated. We investigated the temporal expression of Cx30, Cx36 and Cx43 in two in vitro models of neuronal differentiation: human NT2/D1 and murine P19 cells, and the spatial localisation of Cx30 and Cx43 in these models. A temporal Cx43 downregulation was confirmed in both cell lines during RA-induced neuronal differentiation using RT-PCR (P < 0.05) preceding an increase in neuronal doublecortin protein...
December 2013: Cell Biology International Reports
Abraham O Rodríguez-De la Fuente, Juan M Alcocer-González, J Antonio Heredia-Rojas, Cristina Rodríguez-Padilla, Laura E Rodríguez-Flores, Martha A Santoyo-Stephano, Esperanza Castañeda-Garza, Reyes S Taméz-Guerra
Exposure to EMFs (electromagnetic fields) results in a number of important biological changes, including modification of genetic expression. We have investigated the effect of 60 Hz sinusoidal EMFs at a magnetic flux density of 80 μT on the expression of the luciferase gene contained in a plasmid labelled as pEMF (EMF plasmid). This gene construct contains the specific sequences for the induction of hsp70 (heat-shock protein 70) expression by EMFs, as well as the reporter for the luciferase gene. The pEMF vector was electrotransferred into quadriceps muscles of BALB/c mice that were later exposed to EMFs...
2012: Cell Biology International Reports
Minjuan Wu, Qing Sun, Xiaocan Guo, Houqi Liu
DP (dermal papilla) is a mesenchyme-derived structure situated at the base of the HF (hair follicle) that plays an important role in embryonic hair morphogenesis and maintenance of the hair growth cycle. hMSCs (human mesenchymal stem cells) have gained widespread attention in the field of tissue engineering, but not much is known about the differentiation of hMSCs into DP cells. hMSCs involved in HF formation were examined in our previous study. Here, we have explored the differentiation potential of hMSCs into DP cells by co-culturing hMSCs with DP cells, which proved to be the case...
2012: Cell Biology International Reports
Rubens Lene C Tavares, Paloma Alvarenga Cortes, Camila Issa de Azevedo, Silvia Dantas Cangussú, Aroldo Fernando Camargos, Rosa Maria E Arantes
Neural precursor differentiation from mouse ES (embryonic stem) cells have been demonstrated using EB (embryoid body), co-culture on stromal feeder layers, and in the absence of external inducing signals. Most of available mouse ES cell original research articles have worked with only six different cell lines. Our goals were to isolate one new mouse ES lineage, and perform a detailed immunocytochemistry study during neural differentiation, making use of an EB strategy protocol following the generation of neural progenitors, glial cells and postmitotic neurons...
2012: Cell Biology International Reports
Hye Ryung Kim, Myoung Woo Lee, Dae Seong Kim, Ha Yeong Jo, Soo Hyun Lee, Hee Won Chueh, Hye Lim Jung, Keon Hee Yoo, Ki Woong Sung, Hong Hoe Koo
TRAIL [TNF (tumour necrosis factor)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand] is a promising agent for clinical use since it kills a wide range of tumour cells without affecting normal cells. We provide evidence that pretreatment with etoposide significantly enhanced TRAIL-mediated apoptosis via up-regulation of DR5 (death receptor 5 or TRAIL-R2) expression in the caspase 8 expressing neuroblastoma cell line, SK-N-MC. In addition, sequential treatment with etoposide and TRAIL increased caspases 8, 9 and 3 activation, Mcl-1 cleavage and Bid truncation, which suggests that the ability of etoposide and TRAIL to induce apoptosis is mediated through activation of an intrinsic signalling pathway...
2012: Cell Biology International Reports
Leilei Lu, Fusheng Li, Jingjing Lu
In most somatic tissues, ASCs (adult stem cells) are crucial for the maintenance of tissue homoeostasis under normal physiological state and recovery from injury. LRC (label retaining cell) assay is a well-known method of identifying possible somatic stem/progenitor cells and their location both in situ and in vivo. BrdU (bromodeoxyuridine) was used here to tag the possible CSCs (cardiac stem cells)/CPCs (cardiac progenitor cells) in newborn pups, followed by a trace period of up to 24 months. In addition, we have used our newly developed 'KAL' method to rapidly Kill proliferating cells in adult heart tissues, then, Activate and Label the surviving CSCs/CPCs...
2012: Cell Biology International Reports
Zahra Taherian Mobarakeh, Jafar Ai, Farzad Yazdani, Seyed Mahdi Rezayat Sorkhabadi, Zinat Ghanbari, Abbas Noroozi Javidan, Seyed Abdolreza Mortazavi-Tabatabaei, Mohammad Massumi, Somayeh Ebrahimi Barough
Human EnSC (endometrial-derived stem cell) is an abundant and easily available source for cell replacement therapy. Many investigations have shown the potency of the cells to differentiate into several mesoderm-derived cell lineages, including osteocytes and adipocytes. Here, the potency of EnSC in neural differentiation has been investigated. Flow cytometric analysis showed that they were positive for CD90, CD105, OCT4, CD44 and negative for CD31, CD34, CD133. The characterized cells were induced into neural differentiation by bFGF (basic fibroblast growth factor), PDGF (platelet-derived growth factor) and EGF (epidermal growth factor) signalling molecules, respectively in a sequential protocol, and differentiated cells were analysed for expression of neuronal markers by RT-PCR (reverse transcription-PCR) and immunocytochemistry, including Nestin, GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid), MAP2 (microtubule-associated protein 2), β3-tub (class III β-tubulin) and NF-L (neurofilament-light) at the level of their mRNAs...
2012: Cell Biology International Reports
Jonathan Puddick, Ryan D Martinus
Myostatin, a secreted protein, is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth. Down-regulating its expression increases skeletal muscle mass that is accompanied by a marked change in the fibre composition from one reliant on mitochondrial oxidative metabolism to glycolysis. A comparative proteomic investigation of this altered metabolism was carried out on mitochondria from the gastrocnemius muscle of myostatin-null mice compared with wild-type. Most of the proteins identified showed no significant modulation between the 2 phenotypes, but give interesting insight into previous observations...
2011: Cell Biology International Reports
Alessandra Coli, Francesca Nocchi, Roberta Lamanna, Mariacarla Iorio, Simone Lapi, Patrizia Urciuoli, Fabrizio Scatena, Elisabetta Giannessi, Maria Rita Stornelli, Simona Passeri
The amnion is a particular tissue whose cells show features of multipotent stem cells proposed for use in cellular therapy and regenerative medicine. From equine amnion collected after the foal birth we have isolated MSCs (mesenchymal stem cells), namely EAMSCs (equine amnion mesenchymal stem cells), from the mesoblastic layer. The cells were grown in α-MEM (α-modified minimum essential medium) and the effect of EGF (epidermal growth factor) supplementation was evaluated. To assess the growth kinetic of EAMSCs we have taken into account some parameters [PD (population doubling), fold increase and DT (doubling time)]...
2011: Cell Biology International Reports
Nebiyyeh Kamaci, Tuba Emnacar, Nihal Karakas, Gulsum Arikan, Ken Tsutsui, Sevim Isik
hMSCs (human mesenchymal stem cells) express two isoforms of DNA topo II (topoisomerase II). Although both isoforms have the same catalytic activity, they are specialized for different functions in the cell: while topo IIα is essential for chromosome segregation in mitotic cells, topo IIβ is involved in more specific cellular functions. A number of inhibitors are available that inhibit the catalytic activity of both topo II isoforms. However, in order to investigate the isoform-specific inhibition of these two enzymes, it is necessary to use other techniques such as siRNA (small interfering RNA) interference to selectively silence either one of the isoforms individually...
2011: Cell Biology International Reports
Jee Eun Han, Casiano H Choresca, Ok Jae Koo, Hyun Ju Oh, So Gun Hong, Ji Hyung Kim, Sang Phil Shin, Jin Woo Jun, Byeong Chun Lee, Se Chang Park
Genetically manipulated transparent animals were already explored in many species for in vivo study of gene expression, transplantation analysis and cancer biology. However, there are no reports about transparent animals as in vitro genetic resources. In the present study, fin-derived cells from glass catfish (Krytopterus bicirrhis), naturally transparent fish with a visible skeleton and internal organs, were isolated after culturing fin explants and characterized using cryopreservation and cell cycle analysis...
2011: Cell Biology International Reports
Dennis G Drescher, Won Jin Cho, Marian J Drescher
Porosomes are proposed to be the universal secretory machinery of the cell plasma membrane, where membrane-bound secretory vesicles transiently dock and fuse to expel their contents to the extracellular space during cell secretion. In neurons, porosomes are manifested as cup-shaped lipoprotein structures in the presynaptic membrane, 12-17 nm in diameter and possessing a central plug. Hair cells of hearing and balance secrete transmitter from synaptic vesicles in sensory signal transduction, but it has not previously been demonstrated that these mechanosensory cells possess porosome structures that could participate in the secretory process...
2011: Cell Biology International Reports
Jian-Feng Zhang, Shan Gong, Zhi-Gang Guo
The effects of four elicitors, including 100 μmol/l MeJA (methyl jasmonate), 40 μl/l hydrogen peroxide (30%, w/w), 80 mg/l SA (salicylic acid) and 0.4 g/l F3 (fungal elicitor), on suspension cultures of Taxus cuspidata were studied. After addition of the above four elicitors, the enzyme activity of 10-DBAT (10-deacetylbaccatin III-10-O-acetyltransferase) was induced and reached its maximum of 5.47, 0.97, 3.30 and 6.82 U, respectively. After elicitation, the concentrations of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase were also induced to its maximum values of 0...
2010: Cell Biology International Reports
Joe Minta, James Jungwon Yun, Rosanne St Bernard
Recent studies suggest that circulating LDL (low-density lipoproteins) play a central role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, and the oxidized form (ox-LDL) is highly atherogenic. Deposits of ox-LDL have been found in atherosclerotic plaques, and ox-LDL has been shown to promote monocyte recruitment, foam cell formation and the transition of quiescent and contractile vascular SMCs (smooth muscle cells) to the migratory and proliferative phenotype. SMC phenotype transition and hyperplasia are the pivotal events in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis...
2010: Cell Biology International Reports
Yanzhi Xia, Xiong Wei, Shimin Wu, Bo Wang, Ximing Wang, Ling Hong
TERE1/UBIAD1 is involved in SCCD (Schnyder crystalline corneal dystrophy) and multiple human cancers. So far, the molecular mechanism of TERE1/UBIAD1 in tumourigenesis is unclear. Here, the expression levels of hTERT and TERE1/UBIAD1 in pathologically proven Chinese TCC (transitional cell carcinoma) samples were measured. It was found that decreased TERE1/UBIAD1 expression is closely related to both an increased hTERT expression and activation of Ras-MAPK signalling. Chemically modified TERE1 siRNA oligos were used to knock down TERE1 expression in human L02 cells...
2010: Cell Biology International Reports
Marisa Rangel, Marisa Ionta, Sandra Cristina Pfister, Raphael Adolpho Sant'anna Ferreira, Glaucia Maria Machado-Santelli
Connexins are membrane proteins that form GJ (gap junction) channels between adjacent cells. Cx43 (connexin 43), the most widely expressed member of the connexin family, has a rapid turnover rate, and its degradation involves both the lysosomal and ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. The goal of this work was to study the effects of geodiamolides, natural peptides from marine sponge that normally are involved with microfilament disruption, on connexin assembly or degradation in the plasma membrane. HTC (hepatocarcinoma cells) expressing Cx43-GFP (green fluorescent protein) were submitted to treatment with 200 nM geodiamolides A, B, H and I for 2 and 4 h...
2010: Cell Biology International Reports
Pamela Petrocchi, Stefania Quaresima, Maria Patrizia Mongiardi, Cinzia Severini, Roberta Possenti
Most cells activate intracellular signalling to recover from heat damage. An increase of temperature, known as HS (heat shock), induces two major signalling events: the transcriptional induction of HSPs (heat-shock proteins) and the activation of the MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) cascade. We performed the present study to examine the effects of HS, induced by different experimental conditions, on various kinases [ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase), JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase), p38, Akt, AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) and PKC (protein kinase C)]...
2010: Cell Biology International Reports
Takato Takenouchi, Miyako Yoshioka, Noriko Yamanaka, Hiroshi Kitani
EMT (epithelial-mesenchymal transition) is a key process in the development of liver fibrosis. This process is also essential for liver morphogenesis in embryonic development. To study the cellular and molecular basis of EMT, we established two phenotypically different SV40 large T antigen-immortalized cell lines from rat hepatocytes. The first cell line, which had an epithelial morphology and was established in DMEM (Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium)/Ham's F-12 (DF)-based medium (RL/DF cells), expressed CK18 (cytokeratin 18), a marker of parenchymal hepatocytes...
2010: Cell Biology International Reports
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