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Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

Rachel A Segalman, Michael F Doherty
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 7, 2018: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
John Newman, Christopher A Bonino, James A Trainham
The foreseeable energy future will be driven by economics of known technologies and the desire to reduce CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. Renewable energy options are compared with each other and with the use of fossil fuels with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS). Economic analysis is used to determine the best of several alternatives. One can disagree on the detailed costs, including externalities such as climate change and air and water pollution. But the differences in capital and operating costs between known technologies are so significant that one can draw clear conclusions...
June 7, 2018: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
Christopher L Burcham, Alastair J Florence, Martin D Johnson
The pharmaceutical industry has found new applications for the use of continuous processing for the manufacture of new therapies currently in development. The transformation has been encouraged by regulatory bodies as well as driven by cost reduction, decreased development cycles, access to new chemistries not practical in batch, improved safety, flexible manufacturing platforms, and improved product quality assurance. The transformation from batch to continuous manufacturing processing is the focus of this review...
June 7, 2018: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
Frerich J Keil
Chemical reactor modelling based on insights and data on a molecular level has become reality over the last few years. Multiscale models describing elementary reaction steps and full microkinetic schemes, pore structures, multicomponent adsorption and diffusion inside pores, and entire reactors have been presented. Quantum mechanical (QM) approaches, molecular simulations (Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics), and continuum equations have been employed for this purpose. Some recent developments in these approaches are presented, in particular time-dependent QM methods, calculation of van der Waals forces, new approaches for force field generation, automatic setup of reaction schemes, and pore modelling...
June 7, 2018: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
Ali Hussain Motagamwala, Madelyn R Ball, James A Dumesic
Microkinetic analysis plays an important role in catalyst design because it provides insight into the fundamental surface chemistry that controls catalyst performance. In this review, we summarize the development of microkinetic models and the inclusion of scaling relationships in these models. We discuss the importance of achieving stoichiometric and thermodynamic consistency in developing microkinetic models. We also outline how analysis of the maximum rates of elementary steps can be used to determine which transition states and adsorbed intermediates are kinetically significant, allowing the derivation of general reaction kinetics rate expressions in terms of changes in binding energies of the relevant transition states and intermediates...
June 7, 2018: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
Jian Liu, Tingting Liu, Jian Pan, Shaomin Liu, G Q Max Lu
Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) are promising functional nanomaterials for a variety of biomedical applications, such as bioimaging, drug/gene delivery, and cancer therapy. This is due to their low density, low toxicity, high biocompatibility, large specific surface areas, and excellent thermal and mechanical stability. The past decade has seen rapid advances in the development of MSNs with multiple compartments. These include hierarchical porous structures and core-shell, yolk-shell, and Janus structured particles for efficient diagnosis and therapeutic applications...
June 7, 2018: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
Richard J Hermann, Michael J Gordon
Light-matter interactions can provide a wealth of detailed information about the structural, electronic, optical, and chemical properties of materials through various excitation and scattering processes that occur over different length, energy, and timescales. Unfortunately, the wavelike nature of light limits the achievable spatial resolution for interrogation and imaging of materials to roughly λ/2 because of diffraction. Scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) breaks this diffraction limit by coupling light to nanostructures that are specifically designed to manipulate, enhance, and/or extract optical signals from very small regions of space...
June 7, 2018: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
Eric E Stangland
Substantial natural gas liquids recovery from tight shale formations has produced a significant boon for the US chemical industry. As fracking technology improves, shale liquids may represent the same for other geographies. As with any major industry disruption, the advent of shale resources permits both the chemical industry and the community an excellent opportunity to have open, foundational discussions on how both public and private institutions should research, develop, and utilize these resources most sustainably...
June 7, 2018: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
Anne E d'Aquino, Do Soon Kim, Michael C Jewett
The ribosome is the cell's factory for protein synthesis. With protein synthesis rates of up to 20 amino acids per second and at an accuracy of 99.99%, the extraordinary catalytic capacity of the bacterial translation machinery has attracted extensive efforts to engineer, reconstruct, and repurpose it for biochemical studies and novel functions. Despite these efforts, the potential for harnessing the translation apparatus to manufacture bio-based products beyond natural limits remains underexploited, and fundamental constraints on the chemistry that the ribosome's RNA-based active site can carry out are unknown...
June 7, 2018: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
Daniel A Wilcox, Varad Agarkar, Sanjoy Mukherjee, Bryan W Boudouris
Although less studied than their closed-shell counterparts, materials containing stable open-shell chemistries have played a key role in many energy storage and energy conversion devices. In particular, the oxidation-reduction (redox) properties of these stable radicals have made them a substantial contributor to the progress of organic batteries. Moreover, the use of radical-based materials in photovoltaic devices and thermoelectric systems has allowed for these emerging molecules to have impacts in the energy conversion realm...
June 7, 2018: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
Johan Karlsson, Hannah J Vaughan, Jordan J Green
Polymeric nanoparticles have tremendous potential to improve the efficacy of therapeutic cancer treatments by facilitating targeted delivery to a desired site. The physical and chemical properties of polymers can be tuned to accomplish delivery across the multiple biological barriers required to reach diverse subsets of cells. The use of biodegradable polymers as nanocarriers is especially attractive, as these materials can be designed to break down in physiological conditions and engineered to exhibit triggered functionality when at a particular location or activated by an external source...
June 7, 2018: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
Stephen J A DeWitt, Anshuman Sinha, Jayashree Kalyanaraman, Fengyi Zhang, Matthew J Realff, Ryan P Lively
Recent advances in adsorptive gas separations have focused on the development of porous materials with high operating capacity and selectivity, useful parameters that provide early guidance during the development of new materials. Although this material-focused work is necessary to advance the state of the art in adsorption science and engineering, a substantial problem remains: how to integrate these materials into a fixed bed to efficiently utilize the separation. Structured sorbent contactors can help manage kinetic and engineering factors associated with the separation, including pressure drop, sorption enthalpy effects, and external heat integration (for temperature swing adsorption, or TSA)...
June 7, 2018: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
David Maresca, Anupama Lakshmanan, Mohamad Abedi, Avinoam Bar-Zion, Arash Farhadi, George J Lu, Jerzy O Szablowski, Di Wu, Sangjin Yoo, Mikhail G Shapiro
Visualizing and modulating molecular and cellular processes occurring deep within living organisms is fundamental to our study of basic biology and disease. Currently, the most sophisticated tools available to dynamically monitor and control cellular events rely on light-responsive proteins, which are difficult to use outside of optically transparent model systems, cultured cells, or surgically accessed regions owing to strong scattering of light by biological tissue. In contrast, ultrasound is a widely used medical imaging and therapeutic modality that enables the observation and perturbation of internal anatomy and physiology but has historically had limited ability to monitor and control specific cellular processes...
June 7, 2018: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
Fanglei Zhou, Mahdi Fathizadeh, Miao Yu
Two-dimensional, graphene-based materials have attracted great attention as a new membrane building block, primarily owing to their potential to make the thinnest possible membranes and thus provide the highest permeance for effective sieving, assuming comparable porosity to conventional membranes and uniform molecular-sized pores. However, a great challenge exists to fabricate large-area, single-layered graphene or graphene oxide (GO) membranes that have negligible undesired transport pathways, such as grain boundaries, tears, and cracks...
June 7, 2018: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
Jeffrey D Rimer, Aseem Chawla, Thuy T Le
Crystal engineering relies upon the ability to predictively control intermolecular interactions during the assembly of crystalline materials in a manner that leads to a desired (and predetermined) set of properties. Economics, scalability, and ease of design must be leveraged with techniques that manipulate the thermodynamics and kinetics of crystal nucleation and growth. It is often challenging to exact simultaneous control over multiple physicochemical properties, such as crystal size, habit, chirality, polymorph, and composition...
June 7, 2018: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
Jacinta C Conrad, Ryan Poling-Skutvik
Bacteria overwhelmingly live in geometrically confined habitats that feature small pores or cavities, narrow channels, or nearby interfaces. Fluid flows through these confined habitats are ubiquitous in both natural and artificial environments colonized by bacteria. Moreover, these flows occur on time and length scales comparable to those associated with motility of bacteria and with the formation and growth of biofilms, which are surface-associated communities that house the vast majority of bacteria to protect them from host and environmental stresses...
June 7, 2018: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
Sankaran Sundaresan, Ali Ozel, Jari Kolehmainen
As multiscale structures are inherent in multiphase flows, constitutive models employed in conjunction with transport equations for momentum, species, and energy are scale dependent. We suggest that this scale dependency can be better quantified through deep learning techniques and formulation of transport equations for additional quantities such as drift velocity and analogies for species, energy, and momentum transfer. How one should incorporate interparticle forces, which arise through van der Waals interaction, dynamic liquid bridges between wet particles, and tribocharging, in multiscale models warrants further study...
June 7, 2018: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
Jinghai Li, Wenlai Huang
This review covers three decades of research on mesoscale phenomena in chemical engineering, from the energy minimization multiscale (EMMS) model specific for gas-solid fluidization to a general principle of compromise in competition between dominant mechanisms, leading to the proposed concept of mesoscience. First, the concept of mesoscales is reviewed with respect to their commonality, diversity, and misunderstanding in different fields. Then, the evolution from the EMMS model to the EMMS principle common to all mesoscales is described to show the rationale of mesoscience referring to both mesoscales and mesoregimes...
June 7, 2018: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
Ronald W Rousseau
This article provides a synopsis of my professional career, from the decision to study chemical engineering to leadership of one of the top academic programs in that field. I describe how I chose to devote my research to phenomena associated with crystallization as practiced for separation and purification and then made the transition to leader of an academic program. Embedded in the coverage are descriptions of research advances coming from exploration of secondary nucleation, especially how collisions of crystals in supersaturated environments dominate the behavior of industrially relevant crystallization processes...
June 7, 2018: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
Gulsum Meric, Anne S Robinson, Christopher J Roberts
Nonnative protein aggregation is the process by which otherwise folded, monomeric proteins are converted to stable aggregates composed of protein chains that have undergone some degree of unfolding. Often, a conformational change is needed to allow certain sequences of amino acids-so-called aggregation-prone regions (APRs)-to form stable interprotein contacts such as β-sheet structures. In addition to APRs that are needed to stabilize aggregates, other factors or driving forces are also important in inducing aggregation in practice...
June 7, 2017: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
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