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Sergio Roncato
The planet Saturn is a familiar image for us, but it presents perceptual peculiarities that impeded the discovery of its structure and which can still be misleading today. Saturn appears to be surrounded by rings which hide it to a certain extent and then continue behind the outline of the planet. What we perceive is the result of a double amodal completion in which the planetary globe and the rings exchange the roles of occluding and occluded surface. Saturn was hidden to 17th-century astronomers for half a century because their rudimentary telescopes did not reveal the pictorial clues that are fundamental for discovering such a complex perceptual organization as that formed by a globe surrounded by rings...
January 2019: I-Perception
Gernot Horstmann, Sebastian Loth
If the person depicted in an image gazes at the camera or painter, a viewer perceives this as being gazed at. The viewers' perception holds irrespectively of their position relative to image. This is the Mona Lisa effect named after the subject of Leonardo's famous painting La Gioconda . The effect occurs reliably but was not tested with Mona Lisa herself. Remarkably, viewers judged Mona Lisa's gaze as directed to their right-hand side irrespectively of the image zoom, its horizontal position on screen, and the distance of the ruler that was used for measuring the gaze direction...
January 2019: I-Perception
Jason M Haberman, Lauren Ulrich
Humans can recognize faces in the presence of environmental noise. Here, we explore whether ensemble perception of faces is similarly robust. Is summary statistical information available from crowds of faces that are visually incomplete? Observers viewed sets of faces varying in identity or expression and adjusted a test face to match the perceived average. In one condition, faces amodally completed behind horizontal bars. In another condition, identical facial information was presented, but in the foreground (i...
January 2019: I-Perception
Kunihiro Hasegawa, Shin'ya Takahashi
The present article reports a new illusory colour phenomenon. There have been previous reports of illusory colours that spread to an area in contact with a coloured object (e.g., neon-like spreading). However, according to our informal observations as well as the experiments reported here, illusory colour spreads even if the coloured and noncoloured areas are separated by a gap. The contour-based perception account as well as the interaction of some components of surround suppression in the visual cortex were discussed as possibilities to account for the present illusion...
November 2018: I-Perception
Hideki Tamura, Shigeki Nakauchi
We report a novel illusion in which a rotating transparent and refractive triangular prism (glass object) is perceived as being made of a specular reflective material (mirror), and simultaneously, its direction of rotation (clockwise or anticlockwise) is also misperceived. Our findings suggest that physical motion strongly influences viewers' judgements of material in some situations.
November 2018: I-Perception
Vebjørn Ekroll, Evy De Bruyckere, Lotte Vanwezemael, Johan Wagemans
In their quest for creating magical experiences, magicians rely on a host of psychological factors. Here, we compare tricks based on attentional misdirection with tricks based on amodal completion. Based on the notion that amodal completion is a cognitively impenetrable perceptual phenomenon, we predicted that the tricks based on this perceptual effect should-to a much larger extent than tricks based on attentional misdirection-retain their deceptive power when the tricks are repeated. The results of an experiment with four magic tricks involving attentional misdirection and four magic tricks based on amodal completion lend strong support to this prediction...
November 2018: I-Perception
Richard Wiseman, Will Houstoun
Past research has used the phi phenomenon to create the illusion of one object moving through another. This article presents three optical illusions that are conceptually similar, yet little known within academic psychology. Two of the illusions have been developed within the magic community and involve the performer appearing to make a finger jump from one hand to another and a cup penetrate through another cup. The article explores the factors underpinning these illusions and describes how these factors were used to enhance a similar illusion developed outside of magic (the penetration of one hand through another)...
November 2018: I-Perception
Takahiro Kawabe
When a transparent liquid flows, the background image behind the flow dynamically deforms due to light refraction. The dynamic deformations of a background image (dynamic image deformations) are one of the visual features used by the visual system to infer the existence of a transparent liquid flow. Although previous studies have discussed the role of the narrow band components of the spatiotemporal deformation frequency, it was still unclear whether motion signals, one of the constituents of dynamic image deformations, were the determinant of the perception of a transparent liquid...
November 2018: I-Perception
Stuart Anstis
Lines in the café wall illusion, and motion trajectories in the furrow illusion, appear to be tilted away from their true orientations. We adapted to moving versions of both illusions and found that the resulting motion aftereffects were appropriate to their perceptual, not their physical, orientations.
November 2018: I-Perception
Gerald Westheimer
Strasburger et al.'s welcome translation of Hering's seminal paper, and reminder of what Hering actually said about eye movements and spatial averaging in vernier acuity, is supplemented by references to further trends on how the subject has evolved to the present state of knowledge.
November 2018: I-Perception
Sachiyo Ueda, Ayane Mizuguchi, Reiko Yakushijin, Akira Ishiguchi
To overcome limitations in perceptual bandwidth, humans condense various features of the environment into summary statistics. Variance constitutes indices that represent diversity within categories and also the reliability of the information regarding that diversity. Studies have shown that humans can efficiently perceive variance for visual stimuli; however, to enhance perception of environments, information about the external world can be obtained from multisensory modalities and integrated. Consequently, this study investigates, through two experiments, whether the precision of variance perception improves when visual information (size) and corresponding auditory information (pitch) are integrated...
November 2018: I-Perception
Yoshie Kiritani, Akane Kawasaki, Ikjoon Chang
Amodal completion has various functional effects, including an apparent slimming effect achieved by clothes. Local and global completion factors have been examined in previous studies, which also apply to the apparent slimming effect. Exposed parts of the body constitute the local factor at the junction area, while the shape or cut of the clothes is concerned with the whole configuration. This study investigated which is more important, the local or whole factors, for amodal completion in relation to the apparent slimming effect using drawings as stimuli...
November 2018: I-Perception
M A B Brinkhuis, J W Brascamp, Á Kristjánsson
During visual search, selecting a target facilitates search for similar targets in the future, known as search priming. During bistable perception, in turn, perceiving one interpretation facilitates perception of the same interpretation in the future, a form of sensory memory. Previously, we investigated the relation between these history effects by asking: can visual search influence perception of a subsequent ambiguous display and can perception of an ambiguous display influence subsequent visual search? We found no evidence for such influences, however...
November 2018: I-Perception
Fumio Kanbe
A previous study by the author found that discrimination latencies for figure pairs with the same topological structure (isomorphic pairs) were longer than for pairs with different topological structures (nonisomorphic pairs). These results suggest that topological sensitivity occurs during figure recognition. However, sameness was judged in terms of both shape and orientation. Using this criterion, faster discrimination of nonisomorphic pairs may have arisen from the detection of differences in the corresponding locations of the paired figures, which is not a topological property...
November 2018: I-Perception
Kelly L Whiteford, Karen B Schloss, Nathaniel E Helwig, Stephen E Palmer
When people make cross-modal matches from classical music to colors, they choose colors whose emotional associations fit the emotional associations of the music, supporting the emotional mediation hypothesis . We further explored this result with a large, diverse sample of 34 musical excerpts from different genres, including Blues, Salsa, Heavy metal, and many others, a broad sample of 10 emotion-related rating scales, and a large range of 15 rated music-perceptual features. We found systematic music-to-color associations between perceptual features of the music and perceptual dimensions of the colors chosen as going best/worst with the music (e...
November 2018: I-Perception
Jan Koenderink, Andrea van Doorn, Karl Gegenfurtner
RGB-display space, that is, the 'RGB-cube', was sampled at 3,000 locations, uniformly and randomly distributed. Fifty observers contributed 60 samples each. At each location, participants synthesised a copy of the target, using a generic colour picker. The statistical distributions of errors as a function of location are used to define an overall measure of graininess. A smooth field of interpolated three-dimensional covariance ellipsoids represents an explicit, empirical Riemannian metric. The unit step size is about 20 times larger than the size of the classical MacAdam ellipses...
September 2018: I-Perception
Umi Keezing, Frank H Durgin
In a series of seven experiments (total N  = 220), it is shown that explicit angular declination judgments are influenced by the presence of a ground plane in the background. This is of theoretical importance because it bears on the interpretation of the relationship between angular declination and perceived distance on a ground plane. Explicit estimates of ground distance are consistent with a simple 1.5 gain in the underlying perceived angular declination function. The experiments show that, in general, functions of estimates of perceived angular declination have a slope of 1...
September 2018: I-Perception
Gunnar Wendt, Franz Faul
Previous results suggest that the glossiness of a surface is systematically underestimated when adjacent highlights from different light sources overlap to such an extent that they appear as a single, expanded highlight. Here we investigated how the availability of color- and motion-induced information, which may help to unravel such merged highlights, affects gloss constancy. We used images of computer-generated scenes where a complex 3D object made of glossy material was illuminated by three point light sources, which had varying distances to each other...
September 2018: I-Perception
Stuart Anstis, Patrick Cavanagh
A spot moves vertically across a large grating of oblique parallel lines. When viewed peripherally, the motion path looks oblique, close to the orientation of the background grating. Even when the grating's orientation is concealed by crowding , it can still deflect the spot's perceived motion path.
September 2018: I-Perception
Marta Suárez-Pinilla, Anil K Seth, Warrick Roseboom
Visual experience appears richly detailed despite the poor resolution of the majority of the visual field, thanks to foveal-peripheral integration. The recently described uniformity illusion (UI), wherein peripheral elements of a pattern take on the appearance of foveal elements, may shed light on this integration. We examined the basis of UI by generating adaptation to a pattern of Gabors suitable for producing UI on orientation. After removing the pattern, participants reported the tilt of a single peripheral Gabor...
September 2018: I-Perception
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