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Case Reports in Infectious Diseases

Arthur Cacacho, Umair Ashraf, Arsalan Rehmani, Masooma Niazi, Misbahuddin Khaja
Background: Cryptococcus infection is an opportunistic infection that occurs primarily among immunocompromised patients, and the morbidity and mortality of this infection is high if left unrecognized and untreated. There are no clinical or radiographic characteristics typical of cryptococcal pneumonia, and its clinical and radiological presentations often overlap with other diagnoses. Case Presentation: We present a case of a 25-year-old man from Ghana admitted for an altered mental state, weight loss, neck pain, fever, and photophobia...
2019: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Surasak Puvabanditsin, Marianne Jacob, Maaz Jalil, Samhita Bhattarai, Qaiser Patel, Mehrin Sadiq, Rajeev Mehta
We report a case of a 12-day-old term neonate with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) meningitis and cerebral abscess. The patient received a 7-day course of antibiotics just few days prior to the infection. The incidence of infections from ESBL-producing E. coli is increasingly emerging. Antimicrobial agents must be vigilantly utilized to prevent the new highly resistant bacteria.
2019: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Tatiana Bekker, Anusha Govind, Devin M Weber
Infective endocarditis due to Gram-negative, non-HACEK bacteria is a rare clinical entity. Even moreso, isolated pulmonic valve endocarditis accounts for less than 1.5-2% of all cases of infective endocarditis. These disease pathologies commonly occur in the setting of intravenous drug abuse, indwelling catheters or cardiac devices, or underlying structural heart disease. We present a unique case of pulmonic valve endocarditis in the setting of persistent polymicrobial bacteremia with Klebsiella pneumoniae and Citrobacter koseri with recent gastrointestinal instrumentation evolving into isolated pulmonic valve endocarditis...
2019: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Jana K Dickter, LiYing Cai, David S Snyder
A 69-year-old immunocompromised man developed mitral valve endocarditis due to Salmonella enterica serotype Mbandaka, contracted from the cereal outbreak. The patient had a history of HLA-matched related hematopoietic stem cell transplant with persistent graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). This case report discusses prior international outbreaks that occurred due to Salmonella enterica subtype Mbandaka, the risks of developing endovascular infections from salmonellosis, and persistent infections that may develop more frequently with S...
2019: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Aditya S Shah, Prakhar Vijayvargiya, Sarah Jung, John W Wilson
Introduction: Kytococcus schroeteri is an infrequently isolated Gram-positive coccus often encountered as a commensal bacterium. Only eighteen cases of human infection associated with this organism have been previously reported. Most of these cases involved patients with implanted prosthetic materials or patients with immunosuppressive conditions. It has been described in prosthetic valve endocarditis and in select patients with hematologic diseases but only one prior report as being involved in osteoarticular infections...
2019: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Pathik Desai, Prachi Mayenkar, Thomas F Northrup, Vijaya Mallela
This is a case report regarding a patient who presented with 6 months of dysphagia and subsequent 40-pound weight loss. The patient underwent imaging, suggestive of pulmonary TB. Further workup of his dysphagia with esophagogastroduodenoscopy and bronchoscopy revealed two bronchoesophageal fistulas. Tuberculosis is an important differential diagnosis of prolonged dysphagia in immunocompetent patients.
2019: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
A G T A Kariyawasam, D R Palangasinghe, C L Fonseka, P U T De Silva, T E Kanakkahewa, N J Dahanayaka
Background: Rickettsial illnesses are a group of arthropod-borne remerging diseases. They are subdivided into three groups as typhus, spotted fever, and scrub typhus group. Complications such as reversible bilateral deafness due to spotted fever rickettsioses are infrequently reported in the literature. Case Presentation: We present a young pregnant female who developed bilateral sensorineural deafness on the fifth day of an acute febrile illness with a maculopapular rash...
2019: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
A K Li, M Barton, J A Delport, D Ashok
Crohn's disease exacerbations can often be associated with bacterial infections causing gastroenteritis. We report a child who experienced exacerbation of his Crohn's disease associated with a positive stool culture for Edwardsiella tarda (E. tarda) . Endoscopy showed features of moderate inflammation similar to exacerbation of Crohn's disease. The patient was treated simultaneously with intravenous steroids and antibiotics, and his symptoms resolved. This case report highlights the importance of clinicians being able to promptly recognize and treat concurrent bacterial infections in Crohn's disease exacerbations...
2019: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Zanthia Wiley, Sujan Reddy, Kara M Jacobs Slifka, David C Brandon, John Jernigan, Gilbert J Kersh, Paige A Armstrong
Q fever is a zoonotic bacterial infection caused by Coxiella burnetii . Chronic Q fever comprises less than five percent of all Q fever cases and, of those, endocarditis is the most common presentation (up to 78% of cases), followed by vascular involvement. Risk factors for chronic Q fever with vascular involvement include previous vascular surgery, preexisting valvular defects, aneurysms, and vascular prostheses. The most common symptoms of chronic Q fever with vascular involvement are nonspecific, including weight loss, fatigue, and abdominal pain...
2019: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Chukwunonso Chime, Charbel Ishak, Kishore Kumar, Muhammad Kamal, Srinivasan Krishna, Paul Kelly, Sridhar Chilimuri
Immune deficiency is usually the underlying predisposing factor for cryptococcal meningitis, though there have been case reports of immunocompetent patients presenting with same. The portal of entry for Cryptococcus neoformans is the respiratory tract, and by hematogenous spread, it causes systemic symptoms. The presence of CSF leak is described to have predisposed our immunocompetent patient to infection by this organism possibly through direct spread. The gold standard for diagnosing CSF leak is by cisternography...
2019: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Sonika Patel, Marla Jalbut, Kimberly S Esham, David Stone
Bone marrow cryptococcosis has been rarely reported in the literature, and there are no established treatment guidelines specific to this AIDS-related complication. The recommended treatment for AIDS-related invasive fungal treatments include amphotericin B and flucytosine which are associated with an array of complications making optimal treatment recommendations difficult. This case presentation represents an example of a patient with newly diagnosed AIDS and bone marrow cryptococcosis, which was successfully managed with an antifungal regimen adjusted to her comorbidities...
2019: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Shujuan Luo, Huaping Rao
Pulmonary artery sling is a rare cause of respiratory distress created by compression of the lower trachea and right mainstem bronchus due to an aberrant origin of the left pulmonary artery. The condition is frequently associated with recurrent respiratory infections and other congenital malformations including tracheal rings. We present the case of an infant presenting with pulmonary distress and a history of recurrent respiratory infection. The infant underwent surgery to remove a foreign object; however, the symptoms did not resolve...
2019: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Mahsaw N Motlagh, Cameron G Javid
Purpose: The ocular sequelae of syphilis are devastating and may cause blindness. The ambiguous nature of its ocular manifestations makes syphilis difficult to detect. Though uncommon, the rise of syphilis in the United States requires a renewed understanding of its ophthalmic presentation to prevent devastating outcomes. We present this case to raise awareness for the increasing prevalence of ocular syphilis and appropriate serologic testing. Observations: We describe a 65-year-old HIV-positive male with worsening retinitis, uveitis, and rapid visual loss...
2019: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Binoy Yohannan, Mark Feldman
Balamuthia mandrillaris is a rare cause of granulomatous meningoencephalitis associated with high mortality. We report a 69-year-old Caucasian female who presented with a 3-day history of worsening confusion and difficulty with speech. On admission, she was disoriented and had expressive dysphasia. Motor examination revealed a right arm pronator drift. Cerebellar examination showed slowing of finger-nose testing on the left. She was HIV-negative, but the absolute CD4 count was low. Neuroimaging showed three cavitary, peripherally enhancing brain lesions, involving the right frontal lobe, the left basal ganglia, and the left cerebellar hemisphere...
2019: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
James Ebot, W D Freeman, Robert Wharen, Mark Anthony Diaz, Claudia Libertin
Spinal epidural abscess caused by MRSA, a life-threatening organism resistant to methicillin and other antibiotics, is a rare but important infectious pathology due to its potential damage to the spinal cord. We present the case of a 74-year-old man who hematogenously seeded his entire epidural spinal canal from C1 to sacrum with MRSA bacteria and remained infected even after maximal treatment with vancomycin and daptomycin. Ceftaroline, a new 5th generation antibiotic with recently described clearance of widespread MRSA infection in epidural complex spine infections, was added to vancomycin as dual therapy for his MRSA infection...
2019: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Si-Hai Zou, Lu-Ying Zhu, Yong Li, Fu-Gui Zhang
Introduction: Kluyvera ascorbata infection is rare, but it has been extensively studied because of its potential to cause a wide range of infections and its ability to transfer the gene encoding for CTX-M-type extended spectrum β -lactamases (ESBLs) to other Enterobacteriaceae. Case Presentation: The authors report a case of a 61-year-old Chinese male with a persistent postoperative infection caused by a multidrug-resistant ESBL-producing K. ascorbata . Following antimicrobial susceptibility testing, he was aggressively treated with gentamicin and levofloxacin with a favorable outcome...
2019: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Naoufal Elghoul, Youssef Jalal, Ayoub Bouya, Ali Zine, Abdeloihab Jaafar
Almost 2% of all emergency admissions involve an animal bite. While horses bite humans very rarely, their bites are mostly associated with fatalities. Herein, we report the case of a 23-year old bitten by a domestic horse causing a crush injury to his fourth finger with fracture dislocation of the proximal interphalangeal joint. The patient benefited upon arrival at the emergency department from copious irrigation with saline serum, tetanus toxoid, postexposure rabies vaccination, and prophylactic antibiotic therapy...
2019: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Rajesh Arani, S N H Afsar Shareef, H M Khuthija Khanam
Osteomyelitis is an inflammatory process of bone and marrow contents. These changes in bone are primarily seen in soft tissue followed by calcified tissue. It is an opportunistic infection due to the complication of some other conditions rendering the host susceptible to disease. Consequences of this infection range from draining tract to malignant transformation. Various etiological factors are involved in origin of the disease; among them, fungal origin is rare. Specific feature in fungal osteomyelitis is the involvement of maxillary sinus with a complaint of sinusitis associated with diabetes mellitus...
2019: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Fatemeh Mehrabian, Zahra Abdi Layaee, Zahra Ahmadinejad
Brucellosis, as a systemic infection with potential to involving virtually all organ systems, is an endemic zoonosis in Iran. This is the history of a 17-year-old boy with a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt who presented with prolonged fever, constipation, and abdominal pain. Laboratory studies, including cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood tests, revealed a VP shunt infection with Brucella spp. We treated the patient with rifampicin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (cotrimoxazole), and ceftriaxone. Also, the shunt was temporarily replaced with an extraventricular drain until the CSF culture was sterile and a new permanent VP shunt could be inserted...
2019: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Morouge Alramadhan, Gloria P Heresi, Anthony R Flores
Invasive group A Streptococcus infections are associated with diverse presentations. We report a severe, rare case of GAS infection with dissemination including endocarditis and STSS. While whole genome sequencing of blood and pharyngeal isolates did not reveal any unique features attributable to the severe presentation, our approach serves as a template for investigation of severe manifestations of common infections.
2019: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
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