Read by QxMD icon Read

GM Crops & Food

Manikandan Ramasamy, Victoria Mora, Mona B Damaj, Carmen S Padilla, Ninfa Ramos, Denise Rossi, Nora Solís-Gracia, Carol Vargas-Bautista, Sonia Irigoyen, Jorge A DaSilva, T Erik Mirkov, Kranthi K Mandadi
Sugarcane and energycane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) are prominent sources of sugar, ethanol, as well as high-value bioproducts globally. Genetic analysis for trait improvement of sugarcane is greatly hindered by its complex genome, limited germplasm resources, long breeding cycle, as well as recalcitrance to genetic transformation. Here, we present a biolistic-based transformation and bioreactor-based micro-propagation system that has been utilized successfully to transform twelve elite cane genotypes, yielding transformation efficiencies of up to 39%...
December 17, 2018: GM Crops & Food
Henry I Miller, Gregory Conko
During the early 2000s, delegates to the U.N.-sponsored Convention on Biological Diversity negotiated a "biosafety protocol" to regulate the international movement of organisms genetically modified with the newest, most precise techniques, which they dubbed "living modified organisms," or LMOs. The protocol is based on the bogus "precautionary principle," which dictates that every new product or technology - including, in this case, an improvement over less-precise technologies - must be proven completely safe before it can be used...
December 10, 2018: GM Crops & Food
Manish Shukla, Khair Tuwair Al-Busaidi, Mala Trivedi, Rajesh K Tiwari
A large number of genetically modified (GM) crops, including both food and non-food crops carrying novel traits have been developed and released for commercial agriculture production. Soybean, maize, canola and cotton for the traits insect resistance and herbicide tolerance are the main crops under commercial cultivation worldwide. In addition, many other GM crops are under development and not yet released commercially. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) in its report, the State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2017, highlights the severity of food security and malnourishment problem in most of the Asian and developing countries...
October 22, 2018: GM Crops & Food
Flávia R Costa, Rafael Rech, Stephen O Duke, Leonardo B Carvalho
Whether herbicides used in transgenic, herbicide-resistant crops have negative effects on those crops has been controversial. Most all of the data on this topic has been on glyphosate-resistant (GR) soybean, with little information available on GR and glufosinate-resistant (GluR) maize. A GR plus GluR maize variety was evaluated in the greenhouse and the field for effects of glyphosate and glufosinate on growth, mineral content, and yield. Treatments were: 1) a herbicide-free control; 2) 980 g acid equivalent (a...
October 16, 2018: GM Crops & Food
Colton O'Brien, H S Arathi
Intensive agricultural practices resulting in large scale habitat loss ranks as the top contributing factors in the global bee decline. Growing Genetically Modified Herbicide Tolerant (GMHT) crops as large monocultures has resulted extensive applications of herbicides leading to the degradation of natural habitats surrounding farmlands. Herbicide tolerance trait is beneficial for crops such as Canola (Brassica napus) that are extremely vulnerable to weed competition. While the trait in itself does not harm pollinators, growing genetically modified herbicide tolerant cultivars indirectly contributes towards pollinator declines through habitat loss...
January 2, 2018: GM Crops & Food
Scott Biden, Stuart J Smyth, David Hudson
Incorporating socio-economic considerations (SECs) into national biosafety regulations regarding genetically modified (GM) crops have opportunity costs. Australia approved the cultivation of GM canola through a science-based risk assessment in 2003, but allowed state moratoria to be instituted based on potential trade impacts over the period 2004 to 2008 and 2010 in the main canola growing states. This analysis constructs a counterfactual assessment using Canadian GM canola adoption data to create an S-Curve of adoption in Australia to measure the environmental and economic opportunity costs of Australia's SEC-based moratoria between 2004 and 2014...
January 2, 2018: GM Crops & Food
Rhodora R Aldemita, Randy A Hautea
The global area of biotech crops in 2016 increased from 179.7 million hectares to 185.1 million hectares, a 3% increase equivalent to 5.4 million hectares. Some 26 countries planted biotech crops, 19 of which were developing countries and seven were industrial. Information and data collected from various credible sources showed variations from the previous year. Fluctuations in biotech crop area (both increases and decreases) are influenced by factors including, among others, acceptance and commercialization of new products, demand for meat and livestock feeds, weather conditions, global market price, disease/pest pressure, and government's enabling policies...
January 2, 2018: GM Crops & Food
Dennis Eriksson, Sevasti Chatzopoulou
Plant research and breeding has made substantial technical progress over the past few decades, indicating a potential for tremendous societal impact. Due to this potential, the development of policies and legislation on plant breeding and the technical progress should preferably involve all relevant stakeholders. However, we argue here that there is a substantial imbalance in the European Union (EU) regarding the influence of the various stakeholder groups on policy makers. We use evidence from three examples in order to show that the role of science is overlooked: 1) important delays in the decision process concerning the authorization of genetically modified (GM) maize events, 2) the significance attributed to non-scientific reasons in new legislation concerning the prohibition of GM events in EU member states, and 3) failure of the European Commission to deliver legal guidance to new plant breeding techniques despite sufficient scientific evidence and advisory reports...
January 2, 2018: GM Crops & Food
Henry I Miller
In spite of the lack of scientific justification for skepticism about crops modified with molecular techniques of genetic engineering, they have been the most scrutinized agricultural products in human history. The assumption that "genetically engineered" or "genetically modified" is a meaningful - and dangerous - classification has led to excessive and dilatory regulation. The modern molecular techniques are an extension, or refinement, of older, less precise, less predictable methods of genetic modification, but as long as today's activists and regulators remain convinced that so called "GMOs" represent a distinct and dangerous category of research and products, genetic engineering will fall short of its potential...
January 2, 2018: GM Crops & Food
Mayra Teresa Garcia Ruiz, Aaron N Knapp, Hernan Garcia-Ruiz
Mexico is a center of origin for several economically important plants including maize, cotton, and cocoa. Maize represents more than a food crop, has been declared a biological, cultural, agricultural and economic patrimony, and is linked to the national identity of Mexicans. In this review, we describe the historic and current use of genetically modified plants in Mexico and factors that contributed to the development of the biosafety regulation. We developed a database containing all permit applications received by the government to release genetically modified plants...
2018: GM Crops & Food
Graham Brookes
This study assesses the economic and environmental impacts that have arisen from the adoption and use of genetically modified (GM) herbicide tolerant (HT) and insect resistant (IR) soybeans in South America in the five years since first planted in 2013/14. A total of 73.6 million hectares have been planted to soybeans containing these traits since 2013/14, with farmers benefiting from an increase in income of $7.64 billion. For every extra $1 spent on this seed relative to conventional seed, farmers have gained an additional $3...
2018: GM Crops & Food
Graham Brookes, Peter Barfoot
This paper estimates the value of using genetically modified (GM) crop technology in agriculture at the farm level. It follows and updates earlier annual studies which examined impacts on yields, key variable costs of production, direct farm (gross) income and impacts on the production base of the four main crops of soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. The commercialisation of GM crops has occurred at a rapid rate since the mid 1990s, with important changes in both the overall level of adoption and impact occurring in 2016...
2018: GM Crops & Food
Graham Brookes, Peter Barfoot
This paper updates previous assessments of the environmental impacts associated with using crop biotechnology in global agriculture. It focuses on the environmental impacts associated with changes in pesticide use and greenhouse gas emissions arising from the use of GM crops since their first widespread commercial use over 20 years ago. The adoption of GM insect resistant and herbicide tolerant technology has reduced pesticide spraying by 671.4 million kg (8.2%) and, as a result, decreased the environmental impact associated with herbicide and insecticide use on these crops (as measured by the indicator, the Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ)) by 18...
2018: GM Crops & Food
Henry I Miller, Brenda Silva
The genetic engineering of plants over the past two decades has led to significant scientific, commercial and humanitarian successes, with more than 2.1 billion hectares cultivated worldwide. The vast majority of cultivation has been huge-scale commodity crops - corn, cotton, canola, soybean, sugar beet and alfalfa - while specialty crops such as fruits, nuts, vegetables and ornamental plants have been underrepresented. The commercialization of genetically engineered (GE) flowers has been especially neglected...
2018: GM Crops & Food
Jagroop Gill Kahlon, Hans-Jörg Jacobsen, Syama Chatterton, Fathi Hassan, Robyne Bowness, Linda M Hall
Fusarium root rot is a major pea disease in Canada and only partial tolerance exists in germplasm. Transgenic technologies may hold promise but the economic benefits of genetically modified (GM) pea will need to surpass the regulatory costs, time and labor involved in bringing a GM crop to market. European pea (Pisum sativum L.) cultivars expressing four antifungal genes, 1-3 β glucanase (G), endochitinase (C) (belonging to PR proteins family), polygalacturonase inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) (P) and stilbene synthase (V) have been transformed for disease tolerance and showed disease tolerance under laboratory conditions...
2018: GM Crops & Food
Shawn F Dorius, Carolyn J Lawrence-Dill
Biotech news coverage in English-language Russian media fits the profile of the Russian information warfare strategy described in recent military reports. This raises the question of whether Russia views the dissemination of anti-GMO information as just one of many divisive issues it can exploit as part of its information war, or if GMOs serve more expansive disruptive purposes. Distinctive patterns in Russian news provide evidence of a coordinated information campaign that could turn public opinion against genetic engineering...
2018: GM Crops & Food
Ruchir Raman
Genetic modification in plants was first recorded 10,000 years ago in Southwest Asia where humans first bred plants through artificial selection and selective breeding. Since then, advancements in agriculture science and technology have brought about the current GM crop revolution. GM crops are promising to mitigate current and future problems in commercial agriculture, with proven case studies in Indian cotton and Australian canola. However, controversial studies such as the Monarch Butterfly study (1999) and the Séralini affair (2012) along with current problems linked to insect resistance and potential health risks have jeopardised its standing with the public and policymakers, even leading to full and partial bans in certain countries...
October 2, 2017: GM Crops & Food
Giovanni Tagliabue
The expression "Genetically Modified Organisms" was coined to indicate a group of agricultural products (mostly crops and vegetables), modified through direct DNA recombination in order to obtain useful phenotypic traits or to inhibit undesirable characteristics. But the border between rDNA ("GMO") and other biotech methods is blurred. Moreover, the ill-assorted group is frequently charged with having peculiar, negative characteristics: many activists, part of the public and a few social science scholars think that "GMOs" are all dubious, even inherently dangerous...
October 2, 2017: GM Crops & Food
Graham Brookes, Farzad Taheripour, Wallace E Tyner
This study assesses the potential economic and environmental impacts that would arise if restrictions on glyphosate use resulted in the world no longer planting genetically modified herbicide tolerant (GM HT) crops. 'First round' impacts are the loss of farm level and aggregate impacts associated with the widespread use of GM HT crops (tolerant to glyphosate). There would be an annual loss of global farm income gains of $6.76 billion and lower levels of global soybean, corn and canola production equal to 18...
October 2, 2017: GM Crops & Food
Ryan C Hill, Xiujuan Wang, Barry W Schafer, Satyalinga Srinivas Gampala, Rod A Herman
Endogenous allergenicity evaluation is a required part of the risk assessment for genetically engineered (GE) crops. Although maize is not considered a major allergenic food, a lipid transfer protein (Zea m 14) in maize grain has been identified as a potential IgE-mediated food allergen. Currently, the relationship between allergen exposure and risk of sensitization is not well understood. Hence, reliable quantitative methods are useful for determining the natural range and variability of allergen levels across multiple geographies and genetic backgrounds...
October 2, 2017: GM Crops & Food
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"