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Journal of Pathogens

Toshi Horie, Megumi Inomata, Takeshi Into
Subgingival bacteria are continually exposed to gingival crevicular fluids that are derived from serum, which contain various bactericidal agents. The periodontopathic bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis has been demonstrated to possess a variety of abilities to resist bactericidal agents, due to which it is able to propagate in the subgingival environment. We previously demonstrated that the major surface glycoproteins of P. gingivalis -Pgm6 and Pgm7, also called outer membrane protein A-like proteins (OmpALPs)-mediate resistance to the bactericidal activity of human serum, but their precise role remains unknown...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
Voravuth Somsak, Awatsada Damkaew, Pinanong Onrak
The search for new antimalarial drugs has become an urgent requirement due to resistance to the available drugs and the lack of an effective vaccine. In this respect, the present study aimed to evaluate the antimalarial activity of kaempferol against Plasmodium berghei infection in mice as an in vivo model. Chronic toxicity and antimalarial activities of kaempferol alone and in combination with chloroquine were investigated in P. berghei ANKA infected ICR mice using standard procedures. The results showed that chronic administration of 2,000 mg/kg of kaempferol resulted in no overt signs of toxicity as well as no hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, or hematotoxicity...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
Olaolu T Olufemi, Danjuma B Dantala, Paul A Shinggu, Umesi A Dike, Gbeminiyi R Otolorin, Jivini A Nwuku, Eyiojo B T Baba-Onoja, Tenmuso D Jatau, Francis I Amama
A cross-sectional study was conducted in Wukari, Taraba state, Nigeria, to determine the prevalence of Brucella antibodies and the risk factors associated with brucellosis in indigenous breeds of goats. A total of 386 goats were sampled from three political wards: Puje, Avyi, and Hospital: harvested sera samples were subjected to Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT). GraphPad Prism version 7.03 for Windows (GraphPad Software, La Jolla California, USA) was used to analyse the association between seroprevalence of brucellosis and age, sex, breed, location, and management system by using Chi square and Fisher's exact test as appropriate...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
Sarayut Pittarate, Malee Thungrabeab, Supamit Mekchay, Patcharin Krutmuang
Ctenocephalides felis is an ectoparasitic flea species commonly found on dogs and cats. The current study verified the in vitro virulence of conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana produced under different color LED light (red, blue, purple, green, yellow, and white) to adults of C. felis . The fungal isolates were cultivated on malt extract agar (MEA). Bioassay treatments used aerial conidia in test tubes. Adult fleas were obtained from a house cat in Chiang Mai province, Thailand. The experiments were composed of one control and eleven treatment groups...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
Amandeep Kaur, Satnam Singh
This study was conducted with an objective to find the prevalence of extended spectrum betalactamase (ESBL) and metallobetalactamase (MBL) in P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii isolates obtained from various clinical samples. It was conducted in the Department of Microbiology, Adesh Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Bathinda, over a period of two years from July 2014 to June 2016. Clinical specimens including urine, pus, blood, high vaginal swabs, respiratory samples, and various body fluids were processed and P...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
Babatunde Olanrewaju Motayo, Adedayo Omotayo Faneye, Johnson Adekunle Adeniji
Rotavirus induced acute gastroenteritis AGE has been a major disease burden in Nigeria, since it was first reported in 1985. Prevalence rates have increased with severe public health consequences particularly among children. The vaccine Rotarix® has been introduced and is commercially available in Nigeria. However routine rotavirus vaccination is yet to be introduced into the National Immunization Program. Molecular epidemiology of rotavirus in Nigeria has shown the presence of various genotypes, with genotype G12P[8] being the most recent introduction...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
Neil N Patel, Alan D Workman, Noam A Cohen
Evidence is emerging that shows taste receptors serve functions outside of taste sensation of the tongue. Taste receptors have been found in tissue across the human body, including the gastrointestinal tract, bladder, brain, and airway. These extraoral taste receptors appear to be important in modulating the innate immune response through detection of pathogens. This review discusses taste receptor signaling, focusing on the G-protein-coupled receptors that detect bitter and sweet compounds in the upper airway epithelium...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
Laura A Onyango, Mousa M Alreshidi
Staphylococci are highly successful at colonizing a variety of dynamic environments, both nonpathogenic and those of clinical importance, and comprise the list of pathogens of global public health significance. Their remarkable survival and persistence can be attributed to a host of strategies, one of which is metabolic versatility-their ability to rapidly alter their metabolism in the presence of transient or long-term bacteriostatic and bactericidal conditions and facilitate cellular homeostasis. These attributes contribute to their widespread dissemination and challenging eradication particularly from clinical settings...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
Amit Karmakar, Debarati Jana, Kunal Dutta, Parimal Dua, Chandradipa Ghosh
Panton-Valentine leukocidin ( luk-pv ) is a cytotoxin that causes leukocyte destruction and tissue necrosis. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of the pv1 , mecA , and nuc genes in Staphylococcus aureus isolates obtained from anterior nares and superficial infection sites of skin in a slum population of West Bengal, India. Expression level of pv1 gene was also analysed. Twenty-two S. aureus strains were isolated, and phenotype and genotype specific examinations for S. aureus isolates were carried out...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
Nafi'u Lawal, Mohd Hair-Bejo, Siti Suri Arshad, Abdul Rahman Omar, Aini Ideris
Two Malaysian very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) strains UPM0081 (also known as B00/81) and UPM190 (also known as UPM04/190) isolated from local IBD outbreaks in 2000 and 2004, respectively, were separately passaged for 12 consecutive times in 11-day-old specific pathogen free (SPF) chicken embryonated eggs (CEE) via the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) route. The CEE passage 8 (EP8) isolates were passaged once in BGM-70 cell line yielding UPM0081EP8BGMP1 and UPM190EP8BGMP1, while the EP12 isolates were passaged 15 times in BGM-70 cell line yielding UPM0081EP12BGMP15 and UPM190EP12BGMP15 using T25 tissue culture flask...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
Jamilu Abubakar Bala, Krishnan Nair Balakrishnan, Ashwaq Ahmed Abdullah, Tay Kimmy, Yusuf Abba, Ramlan Bin Mohamed, Faez Firdaus Abdullah Jesse, Abd Wahid Haron, Mustapha Mohamed Noordin, Asinamai Athliamai Bitrus, Idris Umar Hambali, Mohd Azmi Mohd Lila
Orf is a clinical manifestation of parapoxvirus infection often fatal in goats and sheep especially when they are under stress or influenced by unfavorable environment. This study investigated the pathogenicity of two Orf virus isolates (ORFV UPM1/14 and UPM2/14) and host response in mouse model by using different inoculation sites with/without prior exposure to dexamethasone. Treatments with dexamethasone served as an immunosuppressant that may mimic stress situation in affected animals. Groups of five mice were given intradermal injection of 0...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
Benjamin Kwame Senya, Nketiah Bernard Anim, Bright Segu Kobena Domson, Patrick Adu
Background: Charcoal production is a significant economic activity in Ghana. However, there is scarcity of data on the risk of acquiring Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection among charcoal producers in Ghana, even though persistent smoke exposure is a known predisposition factor. Methods: This cross-sectional study recruited 40 charcoal producers: 6 males and 34 females. Two sets of early morning sputum samples were collected from each participant and examined for the presence of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) using fluorescent microscopy...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
Carol E Muenks, Patrick G Hogan, Carey-Ann D Burnham, Stephanie A Fritz
Given the lack of standardization of methodologies for microbial recovery from built environments, we sought to compare the yield of Staphylococcus aureus with a broth enrichment method when incubated in agitated versus static conditions. Five unique strains of S. aureus at five different concentrations were cultured to compare direct plating, agitated broth enrichment, and static broth enrichment culture methods. All samples were incubated at 35° in ambient air. The lowest concentration recovered across three replicates and five strains did not differ between culture methods (Fisher's exact test, p=0...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
Obiora Shedrach Ejiofor, Onyinye Mercy Ajunwa, Chijioke Elias Ezeudu, George Ogonna Emechebe, Kenneth Nchekwube Okeke, Christian Chukwuemeka Ifezulike, Ifeoma Mercy Ekejindu, Jude Nnaemeka Okoyeh, Eunice Ogonna Osuala, Angus Nnamdi Oli
Background: Neonatal infection refers to the infection of the newborn during the first twenty-eight days of life. It is one of the causes of infant morbidity and mortality worldwide. The aim of the study is to determine the relative contribution of the different pathogens to the overall disease burden. It will also determine the mechanisms of virulence of these pathogens that cause neonatal infections at Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University Teaching Hospital (COOUTH), Awka. Methods: Biological samples were collected from 30 neonates admitted at the special care baby unit (SCBU) of COOUTH and cultured using selective media and nutrient agar...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
Tuhina Banerjee, Anwita Mishra, Arghya Das, Swati Sharma, Hiranmay Barman, Ghanshyam Yadav
The increasing emergence of Acinetobacter spp. with healthcare associated infections (HCAI) in intensive care units (ICU) is alarming. This study was a laboratory-based audit to determine the prevalence of Acinetobacter spp. associated with HCAI in the adult ICU of a tertiary care hospital in Varanasi, north India, with special reference to antimicrobial resistance and resistance determinants over a period of 5 years. A total of 993 cases of HCAI were analyzed. Isolates were characterized as multidrug resistance and extended drug resistance (MDR/XDR) based on antimicrobial susceptibility records...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
Pooja Sharma, Digvijay Singh, Kusum Sharma, Santwana Verma, Sanjay Mahajan, Anil Kanga
Objectives: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) incidences are on the rise worldwide, including the tuberculosis endemic areas. They should be identified rapidly to the species level and should be carefully differentiated as contamination, colonization, or disease. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence and clinicoepidemiological profile of mycobacteriosis cases. Materials and Methods: Cultures were made on liquid and solid media. NTM were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) restriction analysis (PRA) and gene sequencing...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
Babatunde Olanrewaju Motayo, Johnson Adekunle Adeniji, Adedayo Omotayo Faneye
Rotavirus has been identified as a major cause of gastroenteritis in Nigeria. There is limited information on the intragenotype diversity of Nigerian rotavirus isolates. We therefore investigated the molecular characteristics of some rotavirus gene sequences detected in sewage from Nigeria. Seven sewage samples, out of a total of 68, tested positive for rotavirus RNA (10.3%). Genotype G1P[4] was the most common genotype (5 isolates) and one isolate for genotypes G1P[8] and G3P[6]. Phylogenetic analysis of the partial VP7 gene of 3 G1P[4] isolates analyzed identified them as genotype G1 Lineage 2 along with Chinese strains with 99...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
Rahul Pal, Saif Hameed, Varatharajan Sabareesh, Parveen Kumar, Sarman Singh, Zeeshan Fatima
Many of the earlier studies involving the effect of isoniazid (INH) treatment have solely focused on the fatty acyl (FA) category of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) lipids. This motivated us with the major interest to examine the impact of INH on various other categories of MTB lipids. Towards this, we chose to interpret our mass spectral data (LC-ESI-MS) by a standalone software, MS-LAMP, in which "Mtb LipidDB" was integrated. Analysis by MS-LAMP revealed that INH treatment can alter the composition of "glycerolipids (GLs)" and "glycerophospholipids (GPLs)" categories of MTB lipids, in addition to the variations to FA category...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
Jackie K Obey, Moses M Ngeiywa, Paul Kiprono, Sabah Omar, Atte von Wright, Jussi Kauhanen, Carina Tikkanen-Kaukanen
There is an increasing need for innovative drug and prophylaxis discovery against malaria. The aim of the present study was to test in vivo antiplasmodial activity of Croton macrostachyus H. (Euphorbiaceae) stem bark extracts from Kenyan folkloric medicine. Inbred Balb/c mice were inoculated with erythrocytes parasitized with Plasmodium berghei (ANKA). Different doses (500, 250, and 100 mg/kg) of C. macrostachyus ethyl acetate, methanol, aqueous, and isobutanol extracts were administrated either after inoculation (Peters' 4-day suppressive test) or before inoculation (chemoprotective test) of the parasitized erythrocytes...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
Noel Jacques Awi, Sin-Yeang Teow
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) cases are on the rise globally. To date, there is still no effective measure to eradicate the causative agent, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is being used in HIV/AIDS management, but it results in long-term medication and has major drawbacks such as multiple side effects, high cost, and increasing the generation rate of escape mutants. In addition, HAART does not control HIV-related complications, and hence more medications and further management are required...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
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