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ISRN Pharmaceutics

Alejandro Sosnik
Pharmaceutical research and development aims to design products with ensured safety, quality, and efficacy to treat disease. To make the process more rational, coherent, efficient, and cost-effective, the field of Pharmaceutical Materials Science has emerged as the systematic study of the physicochemical properties and behavior of materials of pharmaceutical interest in relation to product performance. The oral route is the most patient preferred for drug administration. The presence of a mucus layer that covers the entire gastrointestinal tract has been exploited to expand the use of the oral route by developing a mucoadhesive drug delivery system that showed a prolonged residence time...
2014: ISRN Pharmaceutics
Teresa Nabais, Grégoire Leclair
Substituted amylose (SA) polymers were produced from high-amylose corn starch by etherification of its hydroxyl groups with chloroacetate. Amorphous high-amylose sodium carboxymethyl starch (HASCA), the resulting SA polymer, was spray-dried to obtain an excipient (SD HASCA) with optimal binding and sustained-release (SR) properties. Tablets containing different percentages of SD HASCA and tramadol hydrochloride were produced by direct compression and evaluated for dissolution. Once-daily and twice-daily SD HASCA tablets containing two common dosages of tramadol hydrochloride (100 mg and 200 mg), a freely water-soluble drug, were successfully developed...
2014: ISRN Pharmaceutics
Lovleen Kaur, Rajni Bala, Neha Kanojia, Manju Nagpal, Gitika Arora Dhingra
The current research work involves preparation of fast dissolving tablets of Aceclofenac by direct compression method using different concentrations of Lepidium sativum mucilage as natural superdisintegrant. A two-factor three-level (3(2)) factorial design is being used to optimize the formulation. Nine formulation batches (D1-D9) were prepared accordingly. Two factors as independent variables (X 1-amount of β-cyclodextrin and X 2-amount of Lepidium sativum mucilage) were taken with three levels (+1, 0, -1)...
2014: ISRN Pharmaceutics
Sudarshan Singh, Sunil B Bothara
Mucilage isolated from seeds of Manilkara zapota (Linn.) P. Royen syn. is a plant growing naturally in the forests of India. This mucilage is yet to be commercially exploited, and characterized as polymer. Various physicochemical methods like particle size analysis, scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis, gel permeation chromatography, X-ray diffraction spectrometry, zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy have been employed to characterize this gum in the present study...
2014: ISRN Pharmaceutics
Houman Savoji, Amir Mehdizadeh, Ahmad Ramazani Saadat Abadi
Nitroglycerin (TNG) transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDSs) with different acrylic pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs) and chemical permeation enhancers (CPEs) were prepared. The effects of PSAs and CPEs types and concentrations on skin permeation and in vitro drug release from devices were evaluated using the dissolution method as well as the modified-jacketed Franz diffusion cells fitted with excised rat abdominal skin. It was demonstrated that the permeation rate or steady state flux (J ss) of the drug through the excised rat skin was dependent on the viscosity and type of acrylic PSA as well as the type of CPE...
2014: ISRN Pharmaceutics
Shweta Gupta, Rajesh Kesarla, Abdelwahab Omri
Poorly water-soluble drug candidates are becoming more prevalent. It has been estimated that approximately 60-70% of the drug molecules are insufficiently soluble in aqueous media and/or have very low permeability to allow for their adequate and reproducible absorption from the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) following oral administration. Formulation scientists have to adopt various strategies to enhance their absorption. Lipidic formulations are found to be a promising approach to combat the challenges. In this review article, potential advantages and drawbacks of various conventional techniques and the newer approaches specifically the self-emulsifying systems are discussed...
December 26, 2013: ISRN Pharmaceutics
Dhrubojyoti Mukherjee, Srinivasan Bharath
The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of formulation variables on different evaluation properties such as cumulative percentage release and swelling index in development of two layered buccal mucoadhesive system consisting of a highly water soluble drug risedronate sodium. The mucoadhesive systems were developed with varied concentrations of the polymers (1-2%) using plasticizer/permeation enhancer (25-50% w/w of polymer). Two layered films comprised of risedronate sodium with chitosan (85% deacetylated) and hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC 4KM) interpolymer complex of different ratios were prepared by solvent casting method...
December 19, 2013: ISRN Pharmaceutics
Harshal Ashok Pawar, Pooja Ramchandra Gharat, Rachana Vivek Dhavale, Pooja Rasiklal Joshi, Pushpita Pankajkumar Rakshit
The aim of the present work was to develop a gastroretentive floating tablet of Atenolol and investigate the effects of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic retardant on in vitro release. Atenolol is an antihypertensive drug with an oral bioavailability of only 50% because of its poor absorption from lower gastrointestinal tract. The floating tablets of Atenolol were prepared to increase the gastric retention, to extend the drug release, and to improve the bioavailability of the drug. The floating tablets were formulated using hydrophilic polymers as Hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC K4M and HPMC K15M), hydrophobic retardant as a hydrogenated cottonseed oil (HCSO), and sodium bicarbonate as a gas generating agent to reduce floating lag time...
December 18, 2013: ISRN Pharmaceutics
Venkatesh Teja Banala, Bharath Srinivasan, Deveswaran Rajamanickam, Basavaraj Basappa Veerbadraiah, Madhavan Varadarajan
Asymmetric membrane capsules (AMCs) are one of the novel osmotic delivery devices which deliver a wide range of drugs in controlled manner. In the present work, we developed and validated a semiautomatic process by fabricating a hydraulic assisted bench top model for manufacturing AMCs. The capsule walls of AMCs were prepared by dip coating phase inversion process using cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) as coating polymer and propylene glycol (PG) as plasticizer and pore former. The comparative examination of physical parameters confirmed the consistency, efficiency, and reproducibility of the semiautomatic process over the manual procedure...
2013: ISRN Pharmaceutics
Elham Khodaverdi, Fatemeh Kheirandish, Farnaz Sadat Mirzazadeh Tekie, Bibi Zahra Khashyarmanesh, Farzin Hadizadeh, Hamideh Moallemzadeh Haghighi
In situ forming delivery systems composed of block copolymers are attracting substantial attention due to their ease of use, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. In this study, the thermoresponsive triblock copolymer PLGA-PEG-PLGA was studied as a dexamethasone delivery system. Dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid, is used clinically to improve inflammation, pain, and the hyperemesis of chemotherapy, and it is applied experimentally as a differentiation factor in tissue engineering. PLGA-PEG-PLGA was synthesised under microwave irradiation for 5 min...
2013: ISRN Pharmaceutics
Laura D Simionato, Leonardo Ferello, Sebastián Stamer, Patricia D Zubata, Adriana I Segall
Simple, sensitive, and economical simultaneous volumetric and HPLC methods for the determination of pridinol mesylate in raw material have been developed. The volumetric method is based on the reaction of pridinol with sodium lauryl sulphate in diluted sulphuric acid. Dimethyl yellow was used as indicator to detect the end point of the titration in aqueous/organic layer. The HPLC method for the determination of pridinol mesylate employs a reverse phase C18 column at ambient temperature with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile: 0...
2013: ISRN Pharmaceutics
Iqbal Ahmad, Kefi Iqbal, Muhammad Ali Sheraz, Sofia Ahmed, Tania Mirza, Sadia Hafeez Kazi, Mohammad Aminuddin
The polymerization of 1-3 M 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) initiated by riboflavin/triethanolamine system has been studied in the pH range 6.0-9.0. An approximate measure of the kinetics of the reaction during the initial stages (~5% HEMA conversion) has been made to avoid the effect of any variations in the volume of the medium. The concentration of HEMA in polymerized solutions has been determined by a UV spectrophotometric method at 208 nm with a precision of ±3%. The initial rate of polymerization of HEMA follows apparent first-order kinetics and the rates increase with pH...
2013: ISRN Pharmaceutics
Archana Pandita, Pooja Sharma
In the arena of solubility enhancement, several problems are encountered. A novel approach based on lipid drug delivery system has evolved, pharmacosomes. Pharmacosomes are colloidal, nanometric size micelles, vesicles or may be in the form of hexagonal assembly of colloidal drug dispersions attached covalently to the phospholipid. They act as befitting carrier for delivery of drugs quite precisely owing to their unique properties like small size, amphiphilicity, active drug loading, high entrapment efficiency, and stability...
2013: ISRN Pharmaceutics
Kenneth Chibuzor Ofokansi, Franklin Chimaobi Kenechukwu
Colon-targeted drug delivery systems (CTDDSs) could be useful for local treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). In this study, various interpolyelectrolyte complexes (IPECs), formed between Eudragit RL100 (EL) and chitosan (CS), by nonstoichiometric method, and tablets based on the IPECs, prepared by wet granulation, were evaluated as potential oral CTDDSs for ibuprofen (IBF). Results obtained showed that the tablets conformed to compendial requirements for acceptance and that CS and EL formed IPECs that showed pH-dependent swelling properties and prolonged the in vitro release of IBF from the tablets in the following descending order: 3 : 2 > 2 : 3 > 1 : 1 ratios of CS and EL...
2013: ISRN Pharmaceutics
Ashwani Mittal, Preeti Kadyan, Anjum Gahlaut, Rajesh Dabur
High performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer was used for separation and identification of phenolic and other compounds in the water extracts of Saraca asoca (Roxb.), De. Wilde. The aim of the study was to identify and evaluate the distribution of phenolic compounds in the different parts of the plant. The identity of compounds was established through the comparison with standards and characteristic base peaks as well as other daughter ions. In crude extracts, 34 catechin derivatives, 34 flavonoids, and 17 other compounds were identified...
2013: ISRN Pharmaceutics
Shikha Bhalla, Manju Nagpal
The aim of the current research work was to prepare and evaluate different generations of superporous hydrogels (SPH) of acrylamide and chitosan using gas blowing technique and evaluate them for swelling, mechanical properties, FTIR, SEM, XRD, and in vitro drug release. The ingredients used were acrylamide, N,N'-methylene bisacrylamide, chitosan, Pluronic F127, ammonium per sulfate-N,N,N',N'-tetramethylenediamine, and sodium bicarbonate. All ingredients were mixed sequentially with thorough stirring. The effect of different drying conditions on properties of SPH was also evaluated...
2013: ISRN Pharmaceutics
Deepak Sharma
Recent developments in fast disintegrating tablets have brought convenience in dosing to pediatric and elderly patients who have trouble in swallowing tablets. The objective of the present study was to prepare the fast disintegrating tablet of salbutamol sulphate for respiratory disorders for pediatrics. As precision of dosing and patient's compliance become important prerequisites for a long-term treatment, there is a need to develop a formulation for this drug which overcomes problems such as difficulty in swallowing, inconvenience in administration while travelling, and patient's acceptability...
2013: ISRN Pharmaceutics
Rahul Rama Hegde, Anurag Verma, Amitava Ghosh
Delivery of drugs into eyes using conventional drug delivery systems, such as solutions, is a considerable challenge to the treatment of ocular diseases. Drug loss from the ocular surface by lachrymal fluid secretion, lachrymal fluid-eye barriers, and blood-ocular barriers are main obstacles. A number of ophthalmic drug delivery carriers have been made to improve the bioavailability and to prolong the residence time of drugs applied topically onto the eye. The potential use of microemulsions as an ocular drug delivery carrier offers several favorable pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical properties such as their excellent thermodynamic stability, phase transition to liquid-crystal state, very low surface tension, and small droplet size, which may result in improved ocular drug retention, extended duration of action, high ocular absorption, and permeation of loaded drugs...
2013: ISRN Pharmaceutics
P Díaz-Rodríguez, A Pérez-Estévez, R Seoane, P González, J Serra, M Landin
The present work is aimed at getting a new insight into biomorphic silicon carbides (bioSiCs) as bone replacement materials. BioSiCs from a variety of precursors were produced, characterized, and loaded with a broad-spectrum antibiotic. The capacity of loaded bioSiCs for preventing and/or treating preformed S. aureus biofilms has been studied. The differences in precursor characteristics are maintained after the ceramic production process. All bioSiCs allow the loading process by capillarity, giving loaded materials with drug release profiles dependent on their microstructure...
2013: ISRN Pharmaceutics
Mirza Akram Hossain, Stéphanie Boily, Natasha Beauregard, Jean-Marc Forest, Grégoire Leclair
Betaine is used to treat homocystinuria and is not available in Canada as a formulated drug. In order to facilitate the administration of this compound to patients, a capsule formulation and an evaluation of its stability were required. Capsule formulations of betaine were developed (160 mg and 625 mg of betaine per capsule). As betaine has no chromophore, an HPLC-ELSD analytical method was also developed. The critical quality attributes of these formulations were evaluated (content assay, content uniformity, and dissolution) as well as their stability...
2013: ISRN Pharmaceutics
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