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British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research

Sameer Khan, Florence Dasrath, Sara Farghaly, Emamuzo Otobo, Muhammad Safwan Riaz, Jason Rogers, Anabella Castillo, Ashish Atreja
AIMS: In order to develop an application that addresses the most significant challenges facing IBD patients, this qualitative study explored the major hurdles of living with IBD, the information needs of IBD patients, and how application technology may be used to improve quality of life. METHODS: 15 IBD patients participated in two focus groups of 120 minutes each. Data collection was achieved by combining focus groups with surveys and direct observation of patients looking at a patient-engaged app (HealthPROMISE) screenshots...
2016: British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research
Jung Hye Sung, Joseph Yeboah, Jae Eun Lee, Che L Smith, James G Terry, Mario Sims, Tandaw Samdarshi, Solomon Musani, Ervin Fox, Yaorong Ge, James G Wilson, Herman A Taylor, J Jeffery Carr
BACKGROUND: The role of coronary artery calcium (CAC) as a screening tool for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in African Americans (AAs) is unclear. We compared the diagnostic accuracy for CVD prevalence using the CAC score and the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) in an adult population of AAs. METHODS: CAC was measured in 2944 participants AAs. Approximately 8% of this cohort had known CVD defined as prior myocardial infarction, stroke, percutaneous coronary intervention, coronary artery bypass grafting and peripheral artery disease...
2016: British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research
Sunmoo Yoon, Jose Gutierrez
PURPOSE: Disability is a potential risk for stroke survivors. This study aims to identify disability risk factors associated with stroke and their relative importance and relationships from a national behavioral risk factor dataset. METHODS: Data of post-stroke individuals in the U.S (n=19,603) including 397 variables were extracted from a publically available national dataset and analyzed. Data mining algorithms including C4.5 and linear regression with M5s methods were applied to build association models for post-stroke disability using Weka software...
2016: British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research
Vichuda Lousuebsakul-Matthews, Donna Thorpe, Raymond Knutsen, W Larry Beeson, Gary E Fraser, Synnove F Knutsen
AIMS: The beneficial effect of physical activity on reducing hip fracture risk has been supported in many previous studies. The present cohort study explores the relationship between total daily physical activity expressed as MET-hour/day and hip fracture risk among men over 50 years of age and postmenopausal women (n=22,836). METHODOLOGY: Associations between self-reported hip fracture incidence and total daily physical activity and selected lifestyle factors were assessed using Cox proportional hazard regression...
2015: British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research
Michal Dishi, Karin Hevner, Chunfang Qiu, Neway G Fida, Dejene F Abetew, Michelle A Williams, Daniel A Enquobahrie
AIMS: We investigated associations of serum hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) with risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We also examined whether pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity status or leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) modify these associations. METHODS: In a nested case-control study (173 GDM cases and 187 controls) among participants of a pregnancy cohort, early pregnancy (16 weeks of gestation, on average) serum HGF was measured using enzyme-linked immunoassay...
2015: British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research
Lu Guang Luo, Fang Xiong, Philippe Ravassard, John Zq Luo
AIMS: Allogeneic bone marrow (BM) has been shown to support human islet survival and function in long-term culture by initiating human islet vascularization and β-cell regeneration. Various BM subpopulations may play different roles in human islet functions and survival. In this paper we investigated the effects of BM and its subpopulations, endothelial progenitor cells (E) and mesenchymal (M) cells on human islet's β-cell function and regeneration. STUDY DESIGN: Isolation and identification of subpopulations from human bone marrow and culture with allogeneic human islet to investigate effects of different cell population on human islet function and regeneration...
2015: British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research
Vahid Mohsenin
Exposure to high altitude imposes significant strain on cardiopulmonary system and the brain. As a consequence, sojourners to high altitude frequently experience sleep disturbances, often reporting restless and sleepless nights. At altitudes above 3,000 meters (9,800 ft) almost all healthy subjects develop periodic breathing especially during NREM sleep. Sleep architecture gradually improves with increased NREM and REM sleep despite persistence of periodic breathing. The primary reason for periodic breathing at high altitude is a hypoxic-induced increase in chemoreceptor sensitivity to changes in PaCO2 - both above and below eupnea, leading to periods of apnea and hyperpnea...
2015: British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research
Jamileh Farokhzadian, Nahid Dehghan Nayeri, Fariba Borhani, Mohmmad Reza Zare
INTRODUCTION: Evidence-based practice (EBP) has been recognized as the gold standard for safe and high quality care. Nurse leaders have a strategic position in terms of initiating changes in clinical settings for successfully implementing EBP. Therefore, the factors that influence implementing EBP must be measured. AIMS: To examine nurse leaders' attitudes, self-efficacy, and training needs for implementing evidence-based practice. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Four teaching hospitals affiliated to Kerman University of Medical Sciences in the southeast of Iran from January to April 2014...
2015: British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research
Jose F Duda, Jose G Castro
AIMS: To report on a case of bilateral retrobulbar optic neuritis in a patient with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) caused by varicella-zoster virus (VZV); and to review the literature focusing on: cases reported, epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 38-year-old woman with AIDS presented with a 10-day history of progressive bilateral visual loss and ocular pain. She had bilateral dilated pupils with no light perception; the fundoscopic examination was normal...
2015: British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research
Odessa Addison, Gregory Steinbrenner, Andrew P Goldberg, Leslie I Katzel
Aging is associated with a decline in maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max ) that may be attenuated by chronic endurance exercise. This case study chronicles the changes in marathon times in a 91 year old man who completed 627 marathons and 117 ultramarathons over 42 years. He began running marathons at age 48. His yearly best times remained fairly constant at ~240 minutes from age 50 - 64 years and then gradually rose to about 260 minutes in his early seventies followed by a curvilinear deterioration as he approached his ninth decade...
2015: British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research
David Lagoro Kitara, Paul Okot Bwangamoi, Henry Wabinga, Michael Odida
AIM: To determine the prevalence of malnutrition and its association with primary pyomyositis among patients and controls who were age and sex matched. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A case-control study was conducted at Gulu Regional, Lacor, Kalongo, Kitgum and St. Joseph's Hospitals in Northern Uganda. STUDY DURATION: Study was conducted from September 2011 to November 2013. METHODS: Primary pyomyositis patients were consecutively recruited to these Hospitals and were age and sex-matched with controls selected during the same period...
2015: British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research
Amos Song, Jeffrey N Katz, Laurence D Higgins, Joel Newman, Andreas Gomoll, Nitin B Jain
AIMS: To assess short and longer-term outcomes of ultrasound-guided glenohumeral corticosteroid injections for adhesive capsulitis. STUDY DESIGN: A mixed prospective and retrospective study design. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, between June 2011 and July 2012. METHODOLOGY: Using medical records, we first retrospectively identified patients who had received ultrasound-guided injections of lidocaine and triamcinolone for adhesive capsulitis We then assessed short-term follow-up outcomes (within 3 months of procedure) using medical record review and phone interviews...
September 25, 2014: British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research
Moses Galukande, Florence Mirembe, Henry Wabinga
AIMS: To assess patient delay differences between early and late stage breast cancer among women in Uganda. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective analytical study. PLACE AND DURATION OF THE STUDY: A study conducted at a tertiary teaching hospital. Selected patients' data available for the period between 2008 and 2011 were included in this study. METHODOLOGY: We included 201 women with histologically confirmed breast cancer. The variables analysed included age, residence, histological subtype, stage at presentation and time delays...
May 1, 2014: British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research
Zoreh Davanipour, Eugene Sobel, Argyrios Ziogas, Carey Smoak, Thomas Bohr, Keith Doram, Boleslaw Liwnicz
AIMS: To evaluate the hypothesis that sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) may be transmitted through ocular tonometry. BACKGROUND: The infectious agent of sCJD may be present in the cornea prior to clinical symptoms. Cornea infectiousness has been documented by cornea transplants in guinea pigs and humans. sCJD is resistant to complete inactivity by conventional sterilization techniques. Thus contact tonometry equipment is not disinfected sufficiently to kill sCJD...
April 30, 2014: British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research
Zoreh Davanipour, Eugene Sobel, Argyrios Ziogas, Carey Smoak, Thomas Bohr, Keith Doram, Boleslaw Liwnicz
AIMS: This study's primary purpose was to determine whether earlier findings suggesting an association between sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of humans and specific dietary components could be replicated. The a priori hypotheses were that consumption of (i) foods likely to contain organ tissue and (ii) raw/rare meat are associated with increased sCJD risk. STUDY DESIGN: Population-based case-control study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, USA; 4 years...
April 21, 2014: British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research
Zoreh Davanipour, Chiu-Chen Tseng, Pey-Jiuan Lee, Kyriakos S Markides, Eugene Sobel
AIMS: This report is the first study of the possible relationship between extremely low frequency (50-60 Hz, ELF) magnetic field (MF) exposure and severe cognitive dysfunction. Earlier studies investigated the relationships between MF occupational exposure and Alzheimer's disease (AD) or dementia. These studies had mixed results, depending upon whether the diagnosis of AD or dementia was performed by experts and upon the methodology used to classify MF exposure. STUDY DESIGN: Population-based case-control...
April 16, 2014: British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research
Hoa B Appel, Bu Huang, Allison Cole, Rosalina James, Amy L Ai
PURPOSE: Starting the Conversation was a pilot project to test an intervention for childhood obesity, a major public health epidemic, using a free smartphone application (app). The primary aim was to assess students' knowledge of nutritional indicators, physical exercise and use of screen time before and after the intervention. METHODS: The study was conducted in 2011-2012. The sample, recruited from seven high schools in Snohomish County, Washington, was 65.3% minority participants...
April 1, 2014: British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research
Dhananjay Vaidya, Lisa R Yanek, Rasika A Mathias, Taryn F Moy, Diane M Becker, Lewis C Becker
AIMS: In single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) scans, SNP-phenotype association hypotheses are tested, however there is biological interpretation only for genes that span multiple SNPs. We demonstrate and validate a method of combining gene-wide evidence using data for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC). METHODOLOGY: In a family based study (N=1782 from 482 families), we used 1000 phenotype-permuted datasets to determine the correlation of z-test statistics for 592 SNP-HDLC association tests comprising 14 genes previously reported to be associated with HDLC...
March 2014: British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research
Stephen P Glasser, Martha Hovater, Todd M Brown, George Howard, Monika M Safford
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Aspirin for primary prophylaxis is controversial. This study evaluated associations between prophylactic aspirin use and incident acute coronary heart disease (CHD) events. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study was accessed for aspirin use examining black and white hazards for incident CHD, for men and women, each adjusting incrementally for sampling, sociodemographics, and CHD risk factors...
2014: British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research
Demian F Obregon, Yuyan Zhu, Antoinette R Bailey, Samantha M Portis, Huayan Hou, Jin Zeng, Saundra L Stock, Tanya K Murphy, Michael A Bengtson, Jun Tan
AIMS: Implicated in autoimmune encephalitis, neuromyotonia and genetic forms of autism, here we report that contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CNTNAP2) contains a potential autoepitope within the extracellular region. METHODOLOGY: CNTNAP2 sequence-similar regions (CSSRs) from human pathogens were identified. Sera from autistic and control children were obtained and analyzed for the presence of antibodies able to bind CSSRs. One such candidate CSSR was evaluated for evidence of autoimmune responses to CNTNAP2 in a mouse model of acute infection...
January 1, 2014: British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research
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