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Journal of Functional Biomaterials

Katia Rubini, Elisa Boanini, Adriana Bigi
Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) is one of the mineral phases indicated as possible precursors of biological apatites and it is widely employed in the preparation of calcium phosphate bone cements. Herein, we investigated the possibility to functionalize DCPD with aspartic acid (ASP) and poly-aspartic acid (PASP), as models of the acidic macromolecules of biomineralized tissues, and studied their influence on DCPD hydrolysis. To this aim, the synthesis of DCPD was performed in aqueous solution in the presence of increasing concentrations of PASP and ASP, whereas the hydrolysis reaction was carried out in physiological solution up to three days...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
Dale S Feldman
Biomaterial enhanced regeneration (BER) falls mostly under the broad heading of Tissue Engineering: the use of materials (synthetic and natural) usually in conjunction with cells (both native and genetically modified as well as stem cells) and/or biological response modifiers (growth factors and cytokines as well as other stimuli, which alter cellular activity). Although the emphasis is on the biomaterial as a scaffold it is also the use of additive bioactivity to enhance the healing and regenerative properties of the scaffold...
January 26, 2019: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
Ana P Piedade
3D printing of polymers can now be considered as a common processing technology for the development of biomaterials. These can be constituted out of polymeric abiotic material alone or can be co-printed with living cells. However, the adaptive and shape-morphing characteristics cannot be developed with the rigid, pre-determined structures obtained by 3D printing. In order to produce functional engineered biomaterials, the dynamic properties/characteristics of the living cells must be attained. 4D printing can be envisaged as a route to achieve these goals...
January 22, 2019: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
Leon Bruder, Kerstin Brakmann, Valentin Stegner, Matthias Sigler, Felix Berger, Boris Schmitt
Due to human error, the authors included some of the experimental data in this article [...].
January 20, 2019: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
Igor de Oliveira Puttini, Pier Paolo Poli, Carlo Maiorana, Igor Rodrigues de Vasconcelos, Luis Eduardo Schmidt, Luara Teixeira Colombo, Henrique Hadad, Gabriel Mulinari Dos Santos, Paulo Sergio Perri de Carvalho, Francisley Ávila Souza
(1) Background: Evaluate the osteoconduction capability of a biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) ceramic composed of hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate 60%/40% in a rat model. (2) Methods: In the calvarial bone of 54 adult male rats, 7-mm diameter critical size defects were performed. The animals were randomly allocated to three experimental groups according to the type of material: blood clot (BCG), blood clot covered with a bovine-derived collagen membrane (MBCG), and BCP ceramic covered with a bovine-derived collagen membrane (BCPG)...
January 17, 2019: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
Carles Subirà-Pifarré, Cristina Masuet-Aumatell, Carlos Rodado Alonso, Ricardo Medina Madrid, Cosimo Galletti
Prescription of implant treatments is very widespread at present, mainly due to the low rate of annual loss and, to date, few studies have assessed their survival in the routine clinical practice of dentistry. The purpose of this observational study was to evaluate the effectiveness of dental implants with a calcium-phosphate surface in the daily practice of dental clinics. A multicenter, prospective, non-interventional, observational study was performed, in which three experienced practitioners (one maxillofacial and two oral surgeons) inserted implants using standard external and internal hexagon connections in adult patients requiring ≥1 osseointegrated implants to replace missing teeth...
January 11, 2019: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
Eleonora Calzoni, Alessio Cesaretti, Alice Polchi, Alessandro Di Michele, Brunella Tancini, Carla Emiliani
Polymer nanoparticles (NPs) represent one of the most innovative non-invasive approaches for drug delivery applications. NPs main objective is to convey the therapeutic molecule be they drugs, proteins, or nucleic acids directly into the target organ or tissue. Many polymers are used for the synthesis of NPs and among the currently most employed materials several biocompatible synthetic polymers, namely polylactic acid (PLA), poly lactic- co -glycolic acid (PLGA), and polyethylene glycol (PEG), can be cited...
January 8, 2019: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
Giorgio Iviglia, Saeid Kargozar, Francesco Baino
Periodontal diseases involve injuries to the supporting structures of the tooth and, if left untreated, can lead to the loss of the tooth. Regenerative periodontal therapies aim, ideally, at healing all the damaged periodontal tissues and represent a significant clinical and societal challenge for the current ageing population. This review provides a picture of the currently-used biomaterials for periodontal regeneration, including natural and synthetic polymers, bioceramics (e.g., calcium phosphates and bioactive glasses), and composites...
January 2, 2019: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
Barbora Smolková, Mariia Uzhytchak, Anna Lynnyk, Šárka Kubinová, Alexandr Dejneka, Oleg Lunov
Physics-based biomedical approaches have proved their importance for the advancement of medical sciences and especially in medical diagnostics and treatments. Thus, the expectations regarding development of novel promising physics-based technologies and tools are very high. This review describes the latest research advances in biomedical applications of external physical cues. We overview three distinct topics: using high-gradient magnetic fields in nanoparticle-mediated cell responses; non-thermal plasma as a novel bactericidal agent; highlights in understanding of cellular mechanisms of laser irradiation...
December 24, 2018: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
Robyn J Overby, Dale S Feldman
Chronic dermal lesions, such as pressure ulcers, are difficult to heal. Degradable tissue scaffold systems can be employed to serve as a provisional matrix for cellular ingrowth and facilitate regenerative healing during degradation. Degradable regenerative tissue scaffold matrices can be created by crosslinking albumin with functionalized poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) polymers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stability of PEG-albumin scaffold systems formed using PEG polymers with three different functionalized end chemistries by quantifying in vitro system swellability to determine the most promising PEG crosslinking polymer for wound healing applications...
December 24, 2018: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
Diana B Sequeira, Catarina M Seabra, Paulo J Palma, Ana Luísa Cardoso, João Peça, João Miguel Santos
BACKGROUND: The development of materials with bioregenerative properties is critically important for vital pulp therapies and regenerative endodontic procedures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytocompatibility and cytotoxicity of a new endodontic biomaterial, PulpGuard, in comparison with two other biomaterials widely used in endodontic procedures, ProRoot Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) and Biodentine. METHODS: Apical papilla cells (APCs) were isolated from third molars with incomplete rhizogenesis from patients with orthodontic indication for dental extraction...
December 16, 2018: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
Luis Vitetta, Andrea Leong, Joyce Zhou, Serena Dal Forno, Sean Hall, David Rutolo
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 ) has a central role in the generation of cellular bioenergy and its regulation. The hydrophobicity exhibited by the CoQ10 molecule leads to reports of poor absorption profiles, therefore, the optimization of formulations and modes of delivery is an ever-evolving therapeutic goal. The aim of this study was to investigate different CoQ10 formulations. The article summarizes the findings from an Australian comparative study involving adults administered CoQ10 through different oral delivery platforms...
December 15, 2018: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
Mark James-Bhasin, Peter M Siegel, Showan N Nazhat
No curative treatment options exist once breast cancer metastasizes to bone. This is due, in part, to an incomplete understanding of how osteolytic cancers interact with bone. Presented here is a novel approach to study the interactions between triple negative breast cancer cells and osteoblasts within a 3D collagenous environment. More specifically, a dense collagen hydrogel was employed to model interactions between MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts. Co-cultures with these two cell types, or MDA-MB-231-derived conditioned medium applied to MC3T3-E1 cells, were established in the context of plastically compressed dense collagen gel matrices...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
María Rizo-Gorrita, Irene Luna-Oliva, María-Angeles Serrera-Figallo, Daniel Torres-Lagares
(1) Background. Titanium is characterized by its biocompatibility, resistance to maximum stress, and fatigue and non-toxicity. The composition, surface structure, and roughness of titanium have a key and direct influence on the osseointegration processes when it is used in the form of dental implants. The objective of the present study is to characterize, at chemical, superficial, and biological levels, the result of the application of the sandblasted with large-grit and acid-etched (SLA) treatment consisting of coarse-grained and double-passivated acid blasting with subsequent decontamination with argon plasma on the surface of titanium implants type IV...
December 11, 2018: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
Denise A M Carvalho, Ana Rita O Rodrigues, Vera Faustino, Diana Pinho, Elisabete M S Castanheira, Rui Lima
Blood analogues have long been a topic of interest in biofluid mechanics due to the safety and ethical issues involved in the collection and handling of blood samples. Although the current blood analogue fluids can adequately mimic the rheological properties of blood from a macroscopic point of view, at the microscopic level blood analogues need further development and improvement. In this work, an innovative blood analogue containing giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) was developed to mimic the flow behavior of red blood cells (RBCs)...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
Ingo Sethmann, Cornelia Luft, Hans-Joachim Kleebe
Synthetic materials based on calcium phosphate (CaP) are frequently used as bone graft substitutes when natural bone grafts are not available or not suitable. Chemical similarity to bone guarantees the biocompatibility of synthetic CaP materials, whereas macroporosity enables their integration into the natural bone tissue. To restore optimum mechanical performance after the grafting procedure, gradual resorption of CaP implants and simultaneous replacement by natural bone is desirable. Mg and Sr ions released from implants support osteointegration by stimulating bone formation...
December 2, 2018: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
Dale S Feldman, Scott Osborne
There is a need for a strategy to reduce scarring in meshed skin graft healing leading to a better cosmetic result without a significant increase in cost. The strategy in this paper is to increase the closure rate of a meshed skin graft to reduce scarring, which should also decrease the infection rate. Specifically, we used fibrin glue to attach all parts of the graft to the wound bed and added in an angiogenic growth factor and made the fibrin porous to further help the growth of blood vessels from the wound bed into the graft...
November 26, 2018: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
Ingo Sethmann, Sabrina Völkel, Felicitas Pfeifer, Hans-Joachim Kleebe
Porous calcium phosphate (CaP) materials as bone graft substitutes can be prepared from Ca carbonate biomineral structures by hydrothermal conversion into pseudomorphic CaP scaffolds. The present study aims at furnishing such phosphatized Ca carbonate biomineral (PCCB) materials with antibacterial Ag ions in order to avoid perisurgical wound infections. Prior to this study, PCCB materials with Mg and/or Sr ions incorporated for stimulating bone formation were prepared from coral skeletons and sea urchin spines as starting materials...
November 23, 2018: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
Dale S Feldman
Degradable regenerative scaffolds usually require adjunctive treatment to meet the clinical healing performance requirements. This study was designed to look at pulsatile electromagnetic fields (PEMF) as an adjunctive therapy for these scaffolds in skin wounds; however, no scaffold was used in this study in order to isolate the effects of PEMF alone. In this study, New Zealand rabbits received four full-thickness defects with a size of 3 cm × 3 cm on the dorsolateral aspect. The rabbits in the treatment group were placed in a chamber and subjected to a PEMF at six different predetermined frequency and intensity combinations for 2 h a day for a 2-week period...
November 19, 2018: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
Dale S Feldman, John F McCauley
Pressure ulcers are one of the most common forms of skin injury, particularly in the spinal cord injured (SCI). Pressure ulcers are difficult to heal in this population requiring at least six months of bed rest. Surgical treatment (grafting) is the fastest recovery time, but it still requires six weeks of bed rest plus significant additional costs and a high recurrence rate. A significant clinical benefit would be obtained by speeding the healing rate of a non-surgical treatment to close to that of surgical treatment (approximately doubling of healing rate)...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
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