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Environmental Health and Toxicology

Kyoung-Mu Lee, Sanghyuk Bae, Jonghyuk Choi, Jiae Lim, Sang-Yong Eom, Seol Han, Huyeon Lee, Hojang Kwon, Mina Ha
The Environmental Health Study in the Korean National Industrial Complexes (EHSNIC) is a project that aims to monitor the exposure and health effects of environmental pollution among residents of national industrial complexes, as well as propose appropriate environmental health measures. Since its launch in 2003, this project has been initiated in eight national industrial complexes. Currently, it is necessary to review the accomplishments and limitations of the phases 1 and 2 of this project, and establish the direction of the upcoming the phase 3...
December 2018: Environmental Health and Toxicology
Doyun Shin, Youngyeon Kim, Hee Sun Moon
We reviewed the chemical/physical properties, toxicity, environmental fate, and ecotoxicity of strong acids in soil and groundwater environments. We recommend that sulfuric acid and hydrofluoric acid be classified as chemicals of priority control based on volumes used, toxicity, carcinogenicity, and past significant spill events. Understanding the behavior and transport of spilled strong acids in soil and groundwater environments requires a multi-disciplinary approach, as they can undergo a variety of geochemical and biochemical reactions with complex geomedia...
December 2018: Environmental Health and Toxicology
Jaewoong Lee, Seung Hyuck Bang, Yang-Hoon Kim, Jiho Min
The objective of this study was to determine toxicities of four parabens (methyl paraben, MP; ethyl paraben, EP; n-propyl paraben, PP; and n-butyl paraben; BP) and their mixtures to two aquatic microorganisms, Daphnia magna and Aliivibrio fischeri. Parabens are one of the widely used preservatives for personal care products, such as cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and food also. First, each paraben was treated to D. magna to measure the toxicity levels as LC20 and LC50. The results showed their value of MP (25.2 mg/L, 73...
December 2018: Environmental Health and Toxicology
Su-Yeon Hwang, Eun-Sil Choi, Young-Sun Kim, Bo-Eun Gim, Mina Ha, Hae-Young Kim
The purpose of this review is to summarize the results of studies on of the association between exposure to dental X-rays and health risk. To perform the systematic review, We searched the PUBMED, EMBASE, and MEDLINE databases for papers published before December 15, 2016. A total of 2 158 studies, excluding duplicate studies, were found. Two reviewers independently evaluated the eligibility of each study. The final 21 studies were selected after application of exclusion criteria. In terms of health outcomes, there were 10 studies about brain tumors, 5 about thyroid cancer, 3 about tumors of head and neck areas, and 3 related to systemic health...
December 2018: Environmental Health and Toxicology
Byeonghak Moon, Wonchan Kim, Cho Hee Park, Seung Min Oh
Ginkgo biloba is a dioecious tree that has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for about 5,000 years. In previous studies on ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761) using in vitro systems, we confirmed that EGb761 has biphasic effects on estrogenicity. In this study, we evaluated the agonistic and antagonistic activities of EGb761 using a uterotrophic assay in immature female rats. To evaluate agonistic and antagonistic effects of EGb761 on uterus, 21-day-old immature Sprague-Dawley (SD) female rats were treated with EGb761 (100, 200, or 400 mg/kg) by oral gavage, 10 μg/kg of estradiol (E2) or 1 mg/kg tamoxifen (TM) by subcutaneous injection, or with EGb761 plus E2 or TM for 3 consecutive days...
September 2018: Environmental Health and Toxicology
Nivedita Chatterjee, Jiwan Gim, Jinhee Choi
Epigenetics, potentially heritable changes in genome function that occur without alterations to DNA sequence, is an important but understudied component of ecotoxicology studies. A wide spectrum of environmental challenge, such as temperature, stress, diet, toxic chemicals, are known to impact on epigenetic regulatory mechanisms. Although the role of epigenetic factors in certain biological processes, such as tumourigenesis, has been heavily investigated, in ecotoxicology field, epigenetics still have attracted little attention...
September 2018: Environmental Health and Toxicology
Ha Ryong Kim, Da Young Shin, Kyu Hyuck Chung
Several studies showed that the inflammatory and fibrotic responses induced by polyhexamethylene guanidine phosphate (PHMG-p) were similar to those observed for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in South Korea in 2011. "Omic" technologies can be used to understand the mechanisms underlying chemical-induced diseases. Studies to determine the toxicity of chemicals may facilitate understanding of the mechanisms underlying the development of pulmonary fibrosis at a molecular level; thus, such studies may provide information about the toxic characteristics of various substances...
September 2018: Environmental Health and Toxicology
Hyun-Joong Kang, Hee-Jin Park, Oh-Kyung Kwon, Won-Seok Lee, Dong-Hwan Jeong, Byoung-Kyu Ju, Jung-Hwan Kwon
Municipal sewage treatment plants (STPs) are thought to be important point sources of microplastics in freshwater systems and many peer-reviewed articles have been published on this issue since mid-2010s. In this review, we summarize existing literature on the occurrence of microplastics in STPs and experimental methods used for isolation and identification of microplastics. The number concentrations of microplastics in STP influents were 15.1-640 L-1 , whereas those in the STP effluents were highly variable and ranged from not detectable to 65 L-1 ...
September 2018: Environmental Health and Toxicology
Yong-Hyun Kim, Young-Ji An, Seongwon Jo, Sang-Hyub Lee, Sang Jin Lee, Seong-Jin Choi, Kyuhong Lee
Cigarette smoke is a major risk factor for several diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases. The toxicity of the cigarette smoke can be determined in vitro. The cytotoxicity test of the cigarette smoke is commonly conducted using the cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) and cigarette smoke extract (CSE). The CSC and CSE methods are well known for sampling of the particles and water-soluble compounds in the cigarette smoke, respectively. In this study, the CSC and CSE were analyzed by using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) system equipped with a wax column for separation of the volatile organic compounds...
September 2018: Environmental Health and Toxicology
Yong-Hwa Kim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Environmental Health and Toxicology
Eun Seon Hong, Seung Hyuck Bang, Yang-Hoon Kim, Jiho Min
A method of rapidly decaying livestock carcasses is sought through Corine glutamicum , and furthermore, lysosomes are used to remove toxic microorganisms from livestock carcasses. The landfill was constructed on a laboratory scale. Optimized growth conditions of C. glutamicum that could quickly decay livestock carcasses were determined. Lysosomes were extracted from egg whites and used to treat contaminated soil to confirm their antimicrobial activities. Condition of C. glutamicum was activated, regardless both anaerobic and aerobic conditions, soil exists and, to be close to the optimum conditions as possible temperatures, moisture content was about 1/10 of the culture...
2018: Environmental Health and Toxicology
Hamidreza Jamaati, Mirsaeed Attarchi, Somayeh Hassani, Elham Farid, Seyed Mohammad Seyedmehdi, Pegah Salimi Pormehr
Studies on the trend of air pollution in Tehran, Iran, as one of the most polluted metropolis in the world are scant, and today Tehran is known for its high levels of air pollutants. In this study, the trend of air pollution concentration was evaluated over the past 10 years (2004-2015). The data were collected from 22 stations of the Air Quality Control Company. Daily concentrations of CO, NO2 , SO2 , O3 , PM10 were analyzed using SPSS 16 based on the statistical method, repeated measures, and intra-group test to determine the pattern of each pollutant changes...
2018: Environmental Health and Toxicology
Sanghyuk Bae, Jonghyuk Choi, Geunbae Kim, Sanghwan Song, Mina Ha, Hojang Kwon
The industrial complexes built during the course of economic development in South Korea played a pivotal role in the country's rapid economic growth. However, this growth was accompanied by health problems due to the pollutants released from the industrial complexes inevitably located near residential areas, given the limited land area available in South Korea. This study was conducted to evaluate the exposure to each pollutant emanating from industrial complexes for residents living in nearby areas, and to determine the substances requiring priority attention in future surveys...
2018: Environmental Health and Toxicology
Amber B Trueblood, Daikwon Han, Eva M Shipp, Leslie H Cizmas
There is limited literature on the frequency and distribution of pesticide exposures, specifically with respect to demographic and environmental factors in the United States. The purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate geographic trends and factors associated with unintentional pesticide exposures in children and adolescents in Texas. The study used an ecological design with secondary data. A spatial scan statistic, based on a Poisson regression model, was employed to identify spatial clusters of unintentional pesticide-related poison center exposures...
2018: Environmental Health and Toxicology
Ji-Yeon Roh, Pil-Gon Kim, Jung-Hwan Kwon
Oxidative stress was evaluated for anthracene (Ant) and alkyl-Ants (9-methylanthracene [9-MA] and 9,10-dimethylanthracene [9,10-DMA]) in Caenorhabditis elegans to compare changes in toxicity due to the degree of alkylation. Worms were exposed at 1) the same external exposure concentration and 2) the maximum water-soluble concentration. Formation of reactive oxygen species, superoxide dismutase activity, total glutathione concentration, and lipid peroxidation were determined under constant exposure conditions using passive dosing...
2018: Environmental Health and Toxicology
Joon Sang Lee, Jung Kyung Yoo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Environmental Health and Toxicology
Sang-Yong Eom, Jonghyuk Choi, Sanghyuk Bae, Ji-Ae Lim, Guen-Bae Kim, Seung-Do Yu, Yangho Kim, Hyun-Sul Lim, Bu-Soon Son, Domyung Paek, Yong-Dae Kim, Heon Kim, Mina Ha, Ho-Jang Kwon
Several epidemiological studies have reported an association between environmental pollution and various health conditions in individuals residing in industrial complexes. To evaluate the effects of pollution from industrial complex on human health, we performed a pooled analysis of environmental epidemiologic monitoring data for residents living near national industrial complexes in Korea. The respiratory and allergic symptoms and the prevalence of acute and chronic diseases, including cancer, were used as the outcome variables for health effects...
2018: Environmental Health and Toxicology
Ji Hyun Park, Sungim Whang, Hyun Young Lee, Cheol-Min Lee, Dae Ryong Kang
Radon, the primary constituent of natural radiation, is the second leading environmental cause of lung cancer after smoking. To confirm a relationship between indoor radon exposure and lung cancer, estimating cumulative levels of exposure to indoor radon for an individual or population is necessary. This study sought to develop a model for estimate indoor radon concentrations in Korea. Especially, our model and method may have wider application to other residences, not to specific site, and can be used in situations where actual measurements for input variables are lacking...
2018: Environmental Health and Toxicology
Jaeseong Jeong, Jinhee Choi
Amid revolutionary changes in toxicity assessment brought about by increasing regulation of chemicals, adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) have emerged as a useful framework to assess adverse effect of chemicals using molecular level effect, which aid in setting environmental regulation policies. AOPs are biological maps that describe mechanisms linking molecular initiating event to adverse outcomes (AOs) at an individual level. Each AOP consists of a molecular initiating event, key events, and an AO. AOPs use molecular markers to predict endpoints currently used in risk assessment, promote alternatives to animal model-based test methods, and provide scientific explanations for the effects of chemical exposures...
2017: Environmental Health and Toxicology
Hyung-Nam Myung, Hoo-Young Lee
The purpose of this study is to introduce the establishment process, policy target, and projects for "Chungnam's master plan on environmental health policy (2017-2020)" as the local government's role in addressing local environmental health challenges. We first analyzed existing studies and social issues on the media related to "Chungnam's master plan" to understand Chungnam's environmental health status and discussed domestic and international policy trends and related plans. An environmental health perception questionnaire survey and a Delphi expert questionnaire survey were conducted among provincial residents to collect various actors' opinions on Chungnam's environmental health issues and policy...
2017: Environmental Health and Toxicology
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