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European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology

Andreas Enz, Annett Klinder, Hannah Mittelmeier, Günther Kundt, Wolfram Mittelmeier, Sarah Zaatreh
Introduction: To prevent surgical site infections (SSIs) during operation, the use of sterile surgical latex gloves is common. The aim of this study was to examine the damage of the gloves in surgeries with different mechanical stress and the influence on the kind of damages. Gloves were collected during primary arthroplasty, revision arthroplasty (hip and knee), and arthroscopy (shoulder, hip, and knee). Materials and methods: Surgical latex operation gloves were collected from surgeons after the operation and were tested with watertightness test (ISO EN 455-1:2000)...
December 23, 2018: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel, Luis Francisco Sánchez-Anguiano, Jesús Hernández-Tinoco, Agar Ramos-Nevarez, Sergio Estrada-Martínez, Sandra Margarita Cerrillo-Soto, Miriam Alejandra Mijarez-Hernández, Carlos Alberto Guido-Arreola, Alma Rosa Pérez-Álamos, Isabel Beristain-Garcia, Elizabeth Rábago-Sánchez
We determined the association between having a history of surgery and the seroreactivity to T. gondii. An age- and gender-matched case-control study of 391 subjects with a history of surgery and 391 subjects without this history was performed. Sera of subjects were analyzed for detection of anti- T. gondii immunoglobulin G (IgG) and M (IgM) antibodies using enzyme-linked immunoassays. Anti- T. gondii IgG antibodies were found in 25 (6.4%) of the 391 cases and in 21 (5.4%) of the 391 controls (odds ratio [OR] = 1...
December 23, 2018: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
Carlos Florindo, Cinthia Alves Barroco, Inês Silvestre, Vera Damião, João Paulo Gomes, Barbara Spellerberg, Ilda Santos-Sanches, Maria José Borrego
Extracellular deoxyribonucleases (DNases) contribute to the spread of pathogenic bacteria through the evasion from host innate immunity. Our main objective was to evaluate the production of extracellular DNases by human and bovine Streptococcus agalactiae clinical strains and perform a correlation of genetic lineages and DNase activity with capsular type, genetic determinants, clinical origin (colonization and infection), and host (human or bovine). DNase activity was evaluated by qualitative and quantitative assays for a collection of 406 human ( n = 285) and bovine ( n = 121) strains...
December 23, 2018: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
K Hoenes, M Hess, P Vatter, B Spellerberg, M Hessling
Photoinactivation of bacteria with visible light has been reported in numerous studies. Radiation around 405 nm is absorbed by endogenous porphyrins and generates reactive oxygen species that destroy bacteria from within. Blue light in the spectral range of 450-470 nm also exhibits an antibacterial effect, but it is weaker than 405 nm radiation, and the photosensitizers involved have not been clarified yet, even though flavins and porphyrins are possible candidates. There are significantly fewer photoinactivation studies on fungi...
December 23, 2018: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
Annalena Reitz, Sven Poppert, Melanie Rieker, Hagen Frickmann
Background: The study assessed a spectrum of previously published in-house fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) probes in a combined approach regarding their diagnostic performance with incubated blood culture materials. Methods: Within a two-year interval, positive blood culture materials were assessed with Gram and FISH staining. Previously described and new FISH probes were combined to panels for Gram-positive cocci in grape-like clusters and in chains, as well as for Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria...
December 23, 2018: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
Katja Fischer, Jan-Moritz Doehn, Christian Herr, Carolin Lachner, Annina Heinrich, Olivia Kershaw, Meike Voss, Max H Jacobson, Achim D Gruber, Matthias Clauss, Martin Witzenrath, Robert Bals, Birgitt Gutbier, Hortense Slevogt
In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), acute exacerbations and emphysema development are characteristics for disease pathology. COPD is complicated by infectious exacerbations with acute worsening of respiratory symptoms with Moraxella catarrhalis as one of the most frequent pathogens. Although cigarette smoke (CS) is the primary risk factor, additional molecular mechanisms for emphysema development induced by bacterial infections are incompletely understood. We investigated the impact of M. catarrhalis on emphysema development in CS exposed mice and asked whether an additional infection would induce a solubilization of pro-apoptotic and pro-inflammatory endothelial monocyte-activating-protein-2 (EMAPII) to exert its activities in the pulmonary microvas-culature and other parts of the lungs not exposed directly to CS...
December 23, 2018: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
Hagen Frickmann, Caroline Klenk, Philipp Warnke, Sylvio Redanz, Andreas Podbielski
Background: The effects of cell-free culture supernatants of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Streptococcus salivarius K12 on replication and biofilm forming of Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis were assessed in vitro. Methods: S. aureus and S. epidermidis strains were exposed to cell-free culture supernatants of L. rhamnosus GG and S. salivarius K12 at different concentrations starting at 0, 4, and 24 h after the onset of incubation. Bacterial amplification was measured on microplate readers, as well as biofilm growth after safranine staining...
December 23, 2018: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
Hans Kollenda, Ralf Matthias Hagen, Miriam Hanke, Sandra Rojak, Rebecca Hinz, Lars Wassill, Sven Poppert, Egbert Tannich, Hagen Frickmann
Background: The objective of this study was to assess an in-house loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) platform for malaria parasite detection and identification on species level. Methods: LAMP primers specific for the human Plasmodium spp., namely, P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, P. malariae , and P. knowlesi , as well as genus-specific primers, were tested against a composite gold standard comprising microscopy from thick and thin blood films, commercial genus-specific Meridian illumigene Malaria LAMP, in-house real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and commercial fast-track diagnostics (FTD) Malaria differentiation PCR...
December 23, 2018: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
Donata Grimm, Linn Woelber, Katharina Prieske, Barbara Schmalfeldt, Sascha Kürti, Chia-Jung Busch, Ingo Teudt, Oliver Brummer, Volkmar Mueller, Thomas Meyer
A subgroup of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) are causally linked to infection with high-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPVs). To evaluate the prevalence of simultaneous oral HPV infection in females with cervical high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), tonsillar- and cervical smears were collected simultaneously from 73 patients and analyzed for HPV using two commercial assays, PapilloCheck (Greiner-Bio-One) and Linear Array (Roche). Only 3/73 (4.1%) tonsillar smears were HPV positive (HPV+), with HPV types 16, 35, and 45, respectively, detected by both assays (100% agreement)...
December 23, 2018: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
Ahmed Elfiky, Agnes Bonifacius, Joern Pezoldt, Maria Pasztoi, Paweena Chaoprasid, Pooja Sadana, Nagla El-Sherbeeny, Magda Hagras, Andrea Scrima, Petra Dersch, Jochen Huehn
Adaptive immunity is essentially required to control acute infection with enteropathogenic Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (Yptb). We have recently demonstrated that Yptb can directly modulate naïve CD4+ T cell differentiation. However, whether fully differentiated forkhead box protein P3 (Foxp3+ ) regulatory T cells (Tregs), fundamental key players to maintain immune homeostasis, are targeted by Yptb remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that within the CD4+ T cell compartment Yptb preferentially targets Tregs and injects Yersinia outer proteins (Yops) in a process that depends on the type III secretion system and invasins...
December 23, 2018: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
Sabiha Jahan Liya, Romana Siddique
Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) is a worldwide phenomenon in modern times, in which the dependency on antibiotics for its treatment is increasing. The current study was conducted in order to find alternatives to antibiotics by investigating some commercial fruits for their antimicrobial activity. The fruits in this study included green apple ( Malus domestica ), papaya ( Carica papaya ), lemon ( Citrus limon ), and strawberry ( Fragaria ananassa ), which were used to prepare methanolic and ethanolic extracts through Soxhlet extraction technique...
September 28, 2018: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
Kouassi N'Guessan, Timothée Ouassa, Anna S Dean, Riccardo Alagna, Guy Damien Adagra, Valeri Ibode, Daniela M Cirillo, Jacquemin Kouakou
Setting: Tuberculosis (TB) drug resistance survey was conducted in 2016-2017 to estimate the burden of drug-resistant TB in Côte d'Ivoire. Design: A cross-sectional cluster-based survey was conducted. All eligible smear positive patients were interviewed using a structured questionnaire to collect clinical and sociodemographic information and tested by the Xpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis /rifampicin (MTB/RIF) assay. If resistant to rifampicin, solid and liquid cultures were performed...
September 28, 2018: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
Anabel Cruz-Romero, Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel, Dora Romero-Salas, Ángel Osvaldo Alvarado-Félix, Sokani Sánchez-Montes, Jesús Hernández-Tinoco, Luis Francisco Sánchez-Anguiano
Purpose: This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence and correlates of Leptospira IgG antibodies in backyard pigs in the northern Mexican state of Durango. We performed a cross-sectional study of 305 backyard pigs. Anti- Leptospira IgG antibodies were detected using microscopic agglutination assay (MAT) with a panel of 12 Leptospira antigens. Results: Overall, antibodies against Leptospira (any of the 12 Leptospira serovars examined) were found in 186 (61.0%) of the 305 pigs studied...
September 28, 2018: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
Markus Krohn, Thomas Wanek, Marie-Claude Menet, Andreas Noack, Xavier Declèves, Oliver Langer, Wolfgang Löscher, Jens Pahnke
ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are of major importance for the restricted access of toxins and drugs to the human body. At the body's barrier tissues like the blood-brain barrier, these transporters are highly represented. Especially, ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein) has been a priority target of pharmaceutical research, for instance, to aid chemotherapy of cancers, therapy resistant epilepsy, and lately even neurodegenerative diseases. To improve translational research, the humanization of mouse genes has become a popular tool although, like recently seen for Abcb1 , not all approaches were successful...
September 28, 2018: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
Manja Boehm, Daniel Simson, Ulrike Escher, Anna-Maria Schmidt, Stefan Bereswill, Nicole Tegtmeyer, Steffen Backert, Markus M Heimesaat
Campylobacter jejuni is a major food-borne zoonotic pathogen, responsible for a large proportion of bacterial gastroenteritis cases, as well as Guillian-Barré and Miller-Fisher syndromes. During infection, tissue damage is mainly caused by bacteria invading epithelial cells and traversing the intestinal barrier. C. jejuni is able to enter the lamina propria and the bloodstream and may move into other organs, such as spleen, liver, or mesenteric lymph nodes. However, the involved molecular mechanisms are not fully understood...
September 28, 2018: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
Trudy M Wassenaar, Kurt Zimmermann
The fever-inducing effect of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) is well known, and human blood is extremely responsive to this pyrogen. Recently, the safety of LPS-containing food supplements and probiotic drugs as immune-stimulants has been questioned, although these products are orally taken and do not reach the bloodstream undigested. The concerns are understandable, as endotoxaemia is a pathological condition, but the oral uptake of probiotic products containing LPS or Gram-negative bacteria does not pose a health risk, based on the available scientific evidence, as is reviewed here...
September 28, 2018: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
Markus M Heimesaat, Ulrike Escher, Anne Grunau, Ulrike Fiebiger, Stefan Bereswill
Within 1 week following high-dose Toxoplasma gondii infection, mice develop lethal necrotizing ileitis. However, data from a subacute T. gondii-induced ileitis model are scarce. Therefore, mice harboring a human gut microbiota were perorally infected with one cyst of T. gondii. Within 9 days post-infection, the intestinal microbiota composition shifted towards higher loads of commensal enterobacteria and enterococci. Following T. gondii infection, mice were clinically only mildly affected, whereas ≈60% of mice displayed fecal blood and mild-to-moderate ileal histopathological changes...
June 25, 2018: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
Andreas Hahn, Rebecca Hinz, Thomas Meyer, Ulrike Loderstädt, Ottmar Herchenröder, Christian G Meyer, Norbert Georg Schwarz, Hagen Frickmann
Introduction: German sex workers have illegally established a prevention strategy, which consists of testing potential sexual partners with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) prior to engaging in unprotected sexual intercourse eventually performed in case of a negative test result. Based on a recently established modeling approach, the effectiveness of this strategy regarding the risk of HIV exposure was compared with protection provided by condom use...
June 25, 2018: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
Christian Zimmermann, Marius Schild, Clemens Kunz, Kurt Zimmermann, Sabine Kuntz
Probiotics are considered to have a beneficial impact on humans, but in some cases, administration of live microorganisms might be risky. In the present study, immunomodulatory effects of different Escherichia coli strains and their super-natants were examined under different inflammatory conditions with living and heat-inactivated strains. HT-29 cells were incubated with E. coli strains (S2-G1, S2-G3, S2-G4 and S2-G8) and their supernatants with or without stimulation with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) or interleukin (IL)-1β...
June 25, 2018: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
Ulrike Escher, Eliezer Giladi, Ildikò R Dunay, Stefan Bereswill, Illana Gozes, Markus M Heimesaat
The octapeptide NAP is well known for its neuroprotective properties. We here investigated whether NAP treatment could alleviate pro-inflammatory immune responses during experimental subacute ileitis. To address this, mice with a human gut microbiota were perorally infected with one cyst of Toxoplasma gondii (day 0) and subjected to intraperitoneal synthetic NAP treatment from day 1 until day 8 postinfection (p.i.). Whereas placebo (PLC) control animals displayed subacute ileitis at day 9 p.i., NAP-treated mice exhibited less pronounced pro-inflammatory immune responses as indicated by lower numbers of intestinal mucosal T and B lymphocytes and lower interferon (IFN)- γ concentrations in mesenteric lymph nodes...
June 25, 2018: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
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