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Results in Immunology

Shengming Sun, Xianping Ge, Jian Zhu, Wuxiao Zhang, Fujun Xuan
De novo transcriptome sequencing is a robust method for microRNA (miRNA) target gene prediction, especially for organisms without reference genomes. Following exposure of Megalobrama amblycephala to ammonia (0.1 or 20 mg L(-1) ), two cDNA libraries were constructed from the fish gills and sequenced using Illumina HiSeq 2000. Over 90 million reads were generated and de novo assembled into 46, 615 unigenes, which were then extensively annotated by comparing to different protein databases, followed by biochemical pathway prediction...
2016: Results in Immunology
Luciana Bento-de-Souza, Jefferson R Victor, Luiz C Bento-de-Souza, Magaly Arrais-Santos, Andréia C Rangel-Santos, Érica Pereira-Costa, Elaine Raniero-Fernandes, Maria I Seixas-Duarte, João B Oliveira-Filho, Alberto J Silva Duarte
The thymus is the site of T cell maturation. Notch receptors (Notch1-4) and ligands (DLL1-3 and Jagged1-2) constitute one of several pathways involved in this process. Our data revealed differential constitutive expression of Notch genes and ligands in T lymphocytes and thymic dendritic cells (tDCs), suggesting their participation in human thymocyte maturation. nTreg analyses indicated that the Notch components function in parallel to promote maturation in the thymus.
2016: Results in Immunology
Kaartik Soota, Archana Kedar, Yana Nikitina, Evelyn Arendale, Vetta Vedanarayanan, Thomas L Abell
OBJECTIVE: Patients with generalized autoimmune dysautonomia may also present with gastroparesis. Immune dysfunction in such patients can be evaluated using antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and full thickness biopsy of stomach. In this study, we utilize immunotherapy for treatment of drug and Gastric Electrical Stimulation (GES) resistant gastroparetic patients with evidence of neuroinflammation on full thickness gastric biopsy and had positive GAD65 autoantibodies. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of 11 female patients with drug and device resistant gastroparesis...
2016: Results in Immunology
Mirelle J A J Huijskens, Will K W H Wodzig, Mateusz Walczak, Wilfred T V Germeraad, Gerard M J Bos
In this paper we demonstrate that patients treated with chemotherapy and/or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) have highly significant reduced serum ascorbic acid (AA) levels compared to healthy controls. We recently observed in in vitro experiments that growth of both T and NK cells from hematopoietic stem cells is positively influenced by AA. It might be of clinical relevance to study the function and recovery of immune cells after intensive treatment, its correlation to AA serum levels and the possible effect of AA supplementation...
2016: Results in Immunology
Kevin W Bruhn, Ken Dekitani, Travis B Nielsen, Paul Pantapalangkoor, Brad Spellberg
Antibody-mediated depletion of neutrophils is commonly used to study neutropenia. However, the mechanisms by which antibodies deplete neutrophils have not been well defined. We noticed that mice deficient in complement and macrophages had blunted neutrophil depletion in response to anti-Ly6G monoclonal antibody (MAb) treatment. In vitro, exposure of murine neutrophils to anti-Ly6G MAb in the presence of plasma did not result in significant depletion of cells, either in the presence or absence of complement...
2016: Results in Immunology
Kathrin Spendier
Biomembranes undergo extensive shape changes as they perform vital cellular functions or become diseased. To understand the mechanisms by which lipids and proteins control membrane curvature during various processes, researchers have identified and engineered many curvature-inducing and curvature-sensing proteins and peptides. In this paper, a simple experiment was performed to show qualitatively how membrane remodeling by N-terminal amphipathic helix of Amphiphysin affects the spatial distribution of the transmembrane Fc receptor protein (FcεRI) in mast cells...
2016: Results in Immunology
Luigi Cari, Erika Ricci, Marco Gentili, Maria Grazia Petrillo, Emira Ayroldi, Simona Ronchetti, Giuseppe Nocentini, Carlo Riccardi
Glucocorticoid-Induced Leucine Zipper (GILZ) is a glucocorticoid-inducible gene that mediates glucocorticoid anti-inflammatory effects. GILZ and the isoform L-GILZ are expressed in a variety of cell types, especially of hematopoietic origin, including macrophages, lymphocytes and epithelial cells, and strongly upregulated upon glucocorticoid treatment. A quantitative analysis of GILZ expression in mouse tissues is technically difficult to perform because of the presence of a pseudogene and the high homology of GILZ gene with other genes of TSC22 family...
2015: Results in Immunology
Giuseppe A Ramirez, Miriam Blasi, Clara Sciorati, Patrizia Rovere-Querini, Angelo A Manfredi
Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitides (AAV) are characterized by small vessel injury and in some cases granulomatous lesions and glomerular inflammation. The pathogenic bases of these clinical phenotypes are incompletely understood, but evidence from patients with AAV and other inflammatory diseases suggest a role for monocyte/macrophages in the perpetuation of tissue injury. Macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) is a promoter of monocyte recruitment and macrophage proliferation, involved in mesangial cell proliferation and experimental nephritis development...
2015: Results in Immunology
Alexander Puck, Regina Aigner, Madhura Modak, Petra Cejka, Dieter Blaas, Johannes Stöckl
Schlafen (SLFN/Slfn) family members have been investigated for their involvement in fundamental cellular processes including growth regulation, differentiation and control of viral replication. However, most research has been focused on the characterization of Slfns within the murine system or in human cell lines. Since little is known about SLFNs in primary human immune cells, we set out to analyze the expression and regulation of the six human SLFN genes in monocytes, monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs) and T cells...
2015: Results in Immunology
María Elena Soto, Nidia Hernández-Becerril, Ada Claudia Perez-Chiney, Alfredo Hernández-Rizo, José Eduardo Telich-Tarriba, Luis Eduardo Juárez-Orozco, Gabriela Melendez, Rafael Bojalil
INTRODUCTION: Determination of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) is usually the initial test for the diagnosis of systemic rheumatic diseases (SRD). Assigning predictive values to positive and negative results of the test is vital because lack of knowledge about ANAs and their usefulness in classification criteria of SRD leads to inappropriate use. METHODS: Retrospective study, ANA tests requested by different specialties, correlation to patients' final diagnosis...
2015: Results in Immunology
Sabrina S Campolina, Marcio S S Araujo, Tércia M R L Rezende, Leonardo Matoso, Humberto F O Quites, Andréa Teixeira-Carvalho, Olindo A Martins-Filho, Andrea Gazzinelli, Rodrigo Correa-Oliveira
In this work were investigated the relationship between Hookworm/Schistosoma mansoni infections and allergy related risk factors in two endemic areas with distinct prevalence of infections and co-infection. The intensity of infections, eosinophilia, allergy risk factors, infections status and anti-Der p1 IgE levels before and 2 years (population 1) and 3 years (population 2) after anthelmintic treatment, were evaluated. It was observed that the population with lower prevalence and intensity of infection (population 2) had lower eosinophils counts (>600/mm(3)) and higher animal contact than the population with higher parasites intensity (population 1)...
2015: Results in Immunology
Michael J Korrer, John M Routes
The expression of the Adenovirus serotype 2 or serotype 5 (Ad2/5) E1A gene in tumor cells upregulates ligands that are recognized by the NKG2D activating receptor, which is expressed on NK cells and T cells, and reduces their tumorigenicity, a process dependent on NK cells and T cells. In some model systems, the forced overexpression of NKG2D ligands on tumor cells induced antigen-specific CD8+ T cells that mediated anti-tumor immunity. We wanted to determine if the interaction of NKG2D ligands on tumor cells that express E1A with NKG2D on immune cells contributed to the ability of E1A to induce a CD8+ T cell anti-tumor response or reduce tumorigenicity...
2015: Results in Immunology
Hiroshi Kitani, Chisato Sakuma, Takato Takenouchi, Mitsuru Sato, Miyako Yoshioka, Noriko Yamanaka
We recently demonstrated in several mammalian species, a novel procedure to obtain liver-macrophages (Kupffer cells) in sufficient numbers and purity using a mixed primary culture of hepatocytes. In this study, we applied this method to the C57BL/6 mouse liver and established an immortalized Kupffer cell line from this mouse strain. The hepatocytes from the C57BL/6 adult mouse liver were isolated by a two-step collagenase perfusion method and cultured in T25 culture flasks. Similar to our previous studies, the mouse hepatocytes progressively changed their morphology into a fibroblastic appearance after a few days of culture...
2014: Results in Immunology
Takato Takenouchi, Shunichi Suzuki, Hiroki Shinkai, Mitsutoshi Tsukimoto, Mitsuru Sato, Hirohide Uenishi, Hiroshi Kitani
The P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) is an ATP-gated cation channel that is abundantly expressed in monocytes/macrophages. P2X7R activation by ATP results in various cellular responses including Ca(2+) influx, membrane pore formation, and cytokine secretion. Since P2X7R has low affinity for ATP, high concentrations of ATP (in the mM range) are generally required to activate this receptor in vitro. Functional expression of P2X7R has been detected in monocytes/macrophages obtained from different animal species including humans, rodents, dogs, and bovines, but so far it has not been detected in swine (Sus scrofa)...
2014: Results in Immunology
Francisco J Pérez, Carolina A Ponce, Diego A Rojas, Pablo A Iturra, Rebeca I Bustamante, Myriam Gallo, Karime Hananias, Sergio L Vargas
Fungal colonization with Pneumocystis is associated with increased airway mucus in infants during their primary Pneumocystis infection, and to severity of COPD in adults. The pathogenic mechanisms are under investigation. Interestingly, increased levels of hCLCA1 - a member of the calcium-sensitive chloride conductance family of proteins that drives mucus hypersecretion - have been associated with increased mucus production in patients diagnosed with COPD and in immunocompetent rodents with Pneumocystis infection...
2014: Results in Immunology
Eva Melin, Azita Sohrabian, Johan Rönnelid, Kristian Borg
OBJECTIVE: The pathophysiology of the postpolio syndrome is not fully understood. Increased cytokine levels in cerebrospinal fluid and peripheral blood indicate a systemic inflammatory process. Decreased cytokine levels and the clinical effect of intravenous immunoglobulin treatment further indicate an inflammatory/immunological pathogenesis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether an autoimmune process follows the initial infection, by means of analyzing immune complexes...
2014: Results in Immunology
Gajadhar Bhakta, Victor Nurcombe, Amarnath Maitra, Anju Shrivastava
The efficacy of pEGFP (plasmid expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein)-encapsulated PEGylated (meaning polyethylene glycol coated) magnesium phosphate nanoparticles (referred to as MgPi-pEGFP nanoparticles) for the induction of immune responses was investigated in a mouse model. MgPi-pEGFP nanoparticles induced enhanced serum antibody and antigen-specific T-lymphocyte responses, as well as increased IFN-? and IL-12 levels compared to naked pEGFP when administered via intravenous, intraperitoneal or intramuscular routes...
2014: Results in Immunology
Dorothy N Kakoola, Anita Curcio-Brint, Nataliya I Lenchik, Ivan C Gerling
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a multigenic disease caused by T-cell mediated destruction of the insulin producing pancreatic islet ß-cells. The earliest sign of islet autoimmunity in NOD mice, islet leukocytic infiltration or insulitis, is obvious at around 5 weeks of age. The molecular alterations that occur in T cells prior to insulitis and that may contribute to T1D development are poorly understood. Since CD4 T-cells are essential to T1D development, we tested the hypothesis that multiple genes/molecular pathways are altered in these cells prior to insulitis...
2014: Results in Immunology
Stephen M Cornish, Steven T Johnson
This research examined the changes in inflammatory cytokines interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-1ß, IL-10, as well as muscle force, muscle soreness, thigh circumference, and range of motion in response to 3 bouts of eccentric knee extension. Ten males were recruited to participate. The participants performed eccentric exercise on 3 consecutive days on the knee extensors on the right leg separated by 24??h. Participants performed 6 sets of 10 repetitions of isokinetic eccentric knee extension at 120° per second. Blood was sampled before and after each exercise bout and 24?h after the final exercise bout...
2014: Results in Immunology
Walid M Al-Ghoul, Margarita S Kim, Nadeem Fazal, Anser C Azim, Ashraf Ali
Simvastatin (SMV) has been shown to exhibit promising anti-inflammatory properties alongside its classic cholesterol lowering action. We tested these emerging effects in a major thermal injury mouse model (3rd degree scald, ~20% TBSA) with previously documented, inflammation-mediated intestinal defects. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) inflammation measurement methods were used alongside classic gut mucosa inflammation and leakiness measurements with exogenous melatonin treatment as a positive control...
2014: Results in Immunology
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