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Frontiers in Plant Science

Christof Bigler, Yann Vitasse
The timing of leaf unfolding in temperate woody species is predominantly controlled by the seasonal course of temperature in late winter and early spring. However, quantifying lagged temperature effects on spring phenology is still challenging. Here, we aimed at investigating lagged and potentially non-linear effects of daily maximum temperatures on the probability of leaf unfolding in temperate woody species growing across large elevational gradients. We analyzed 5280 observations of leaf-out time of four tree species (European beech, horse chestnut, European larch, Norway spruce) and one shrub species (common hazel) that were recorded by volunteers over 40 years at 42 locations in Switzerland...
2019: Frontiers in Plant Science
Vadim Timerbaev, Tatiana Mitiouchkina, Alexander Pushin, Sergey Dolgov
The presence of antibiotic resistance and other marker genes in genetically modified plants causes concern in society because of perceived risks for the environment and human health. The creation of transgenic plants that do not contain foreign genetic material, especially that of bacterial and viral origin, largely alleviates the tension and makes the plants potentially more attractive for consumers. To produce marker-free transgenic apple plants, we used the pMF1 vector, which combines Zygosaccharomyces rouxii recombinaseR and a CodA-nptII bifunctional selectable gene...
2019: Frontiers in Plant Science
Per Snell, Åsa Grimberg, Anders S Carlsson, Per Hofvander
High accumulation of storage compounds such as oil and starch are economically important traits of most agricultural crops. The genetic network determining storage compounds composition in crops has been the target of many biotechnological endeavors. Especially WRINKLED1 (WRI1), a well-known key transcription factor involved in the allocation of carbon into oil, has attracted much interest. Here we investigate the presence of an autoregulatory system involving WRI1 through transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves...
2019: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ivelina Zaharieva, Holger Dau
Understanding energetic and kinetic parameters of intermediates formed in the course of the reaction cycle ( S -state cycle) of photosynthetic water oxidation is of high interest and could support the rationale designs of artificial systems for solar fuels. We use time-resolved measurements of the delayed chlorophyll fluorescence to estimate rate constants, activation energies, free energy differences, and to discriminate between the enthalpic and the entropic contributions to the decrease of the Gibbs free energy of the individual transitions...
2019: Frontiers in Plant Science
Martin Kohler, Jörg Kunz, Johannes Herrmann, Peter Hartmann, Lelde Jansone, Heike Puhlmann, Klaus von Wilpert, Jürgen Bauhus
In response to a wide-spread decline in forest vitality associated with acid rain in the 1980s, liming of soils has been implemented in many federal states in Germany to buffer further acid deposition and improve availability of nutrients such as calcium and magnesium. As a consequence, it may also increase vitality and depth of fine-root systems and hence improve the drought tolerance of species such as Norway spruce [ Picea abies (L.) Karst.], which occurs mostly on acidic forest soils. However, the influence of repeated liming on drought tolerance of trees has never been studied...
2019: Frontiers in Plant Science
Sebastian Schneider, Reinhard Turetschek, Rita Wedeking, Monika A Wimmer, Stefanie Wienkoop
Most crop plants are exposed to intermittent drought periods. To cope with these continuous changes, plants need strategies to prevent themselves from exhaustive adjustment maneuvers. Drought stress recovery has been shown to be an active process, possibly involved in a drought memory effect allowing plants to better cope with recurrent aridity. An integrated understanding of the molecular processes of enhanced drought tolerance is required to tailor key networks for improved crop protection. During summer, prolonged periods of drought are the major reason for economic yield losses of sugar beet ( Beta vulgaris ) in Europe...
2019: Frontiers in Plant Science
Bipei Zhang, Martin Hülskamp
The MBW complex consisting of the three proteins R2R3MYB, bHLH and WDR regulates five traits in Arabidopsis thaliana including trichome and root hair patterning, seed coat color, anthocyanidin production and seed coat mucilage release. The WDR gene TTG1 regulates each trait in specific combinations with different bHLH and R2R3MYB proteins. In this study we analyze to what extent the biochemical properties of the MBW proteins contribute to trait specificity by expressing them in appropriate A. thaliana mutants...
2019: Frontiers in Plant Science
Zunaira Afzal Naveed, Shaheen Bibi, Gul Shad Ali
In plants, subcellular fluctuations in Ca2+ ion concentration are among the earliest responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Calmodulin, which is a ubiquitous Ca2+ ion sensor in eukaryotes, plays a major role in translating these Ca2+ signatures to cellular responses by interacting with numerous proteins located in plasma membranes, cytoplasm, organelles and nuclei. In this report, we show that one of the Phytophthora RXLR effector, Avrblb2, interacts with calmodulin at the plasma membrane of the plant cells...
2019: Frontiers in Plant Science
Hari P Poudel, Millicent D Sanciangco, Shawn M Kaeppler, C Robin Buell, Michael D Casler
Low-temperature related abiotic stress is an important factor affecting winter survival in lowland switchgrass when grown in northern latitudes in the United States. A better understanding of the genetic architecture of freezing tolerance in switchgrass will aid the development of lowland switchgrass cultivars with improved winter survival. The objectives of this study were to conduct a freezing tolerance assessment, generate a genetic map using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers, and identify QTL (quantitative trait loci) associated with freezing tolerance in a lowland × upland switchgrass population...
2019: Frontiers in Plant Science
Kasper Johansen, Mitchell J L Morton, Yoann M Malbeteau, Bruno Aragon, Samir K Al-Mashharawi, Matteo G Ziliani, Yoseline Angel, Gabriele M Fiene, Sónia S C Negrão, Magdi A A Mousa, Mark A Tester, Matthew F McCabe
With salt stress presenting a major threat to global food production, attention has turned to the identification and breeding of crop cultivars with improved salt tolerance. For instance, some accessions of wild species with higher salt tolerance than commercial varieties are being investigated for their potential to expand food production into marginal areas or to use brackish waters for irrigation. However, assessment of individual plant responses to salt stress in field trials is time-consuming, limiting, for example, longitudinal assessment of large numbers of plants...
2019: Frontiers in Plant Science
Peng Yu, Frank Hochholdinger, Chunjian Li
Extensively branched root systems can efficiently capture soil resources by increasing their absorbing surface in soil. Lateral roots are the roots formed from pericycle cells of other roots that can be of any type. As a consequence, lateral roots provide a higher surface to volume ratio and are important for water and nutrients acquisition. Discoveries from recent studies have started to shed light on how plant root systems respond to environmental changes in order to improve capture of soil resources. In this Mini Review, we will mainly focus on the spatial distribution of lateral roots of maize and their developmental plasticity in response to the availability of water and nutrients...
2019: Frontiers in Plant Science
Siddique I Aboobucker, Walter P Suza
A direct role for cholesterol signaling in mammals is clearly established; yet, the direct role in signaling for a plant sterol or sterol precursor is unclear. Fluctuations in sitosterol and stigmasterol levels during development and stress conditions suggest their involvement in signaling activities essential for plant development and stress compensation. Stigmasterol may be involved in gravitropism and tolerance to abiotic stress. The isolation of stigmasterol biosynthesis mutants offers a promising tool to test the function of sterol end products in signaling responses to developmental and environmental cues...
2019: Frontiers in Plant Science
Olbert Nicolas, Marie Thérèse Charles, Sylvie Jenni, Vicky Toussaint, Serge-Étienne Parent, Carole Beaulieu
Bacterial leaf spot (BLS) caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians ( Xcv ) places a major constraint on lettuce production worldwide. The most sustainable strategy known to date for controlling BLS is the use of resistant cultivars. The nutrient elemental signature (ionome) of ten lettuce cultivars with three levels of resistance was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) to determine which nutrient balances are linked to resistance to BLS, and to assess the effect of Xcv infection on the ionome...
2019: Frontiers in Plant Science
Fangmeng Duan, Wenwen Song
Black shank caused by Phytophthora nicotianae is one of the most devastating diseases in tobacco production. In this study, we characterized a novel cytochromic resistance gene, SoCYP85A1 , from spinach, which was upregulated in response to P. nicotianae infection. Overexpression of SoCYP85A1 in tobacco resulted in remarkable resistance to pathogen inoculation, with diverse resistance levels in different transgenic lines. Meanwhile, a significant accumulation of castasterone (CS) was detected in transgenic plants when challenged with the pathogen...
2019: Frontiers in Plant Science
Andreas Perrakis, Craita E Bita, Stilianos Arhondakis, Afrodite Krokida, Khansa Mekkaoui, Dusan Denic, Konstantinos N Blazakis, Dimitrios Kaloudas, Panagiotis Kalaitzis
The tomato pedicel abscission zone (AZ) is considered a model system for flower and fruit abscission development, activation, and progression. O-glycosylated proteins such as the Arabidopsis IDA (INFLORESCENCE DEFICIENT IN ABSCISSION) peptide and Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) which undergo proline hydroxylation were demonstrated to participate in abscission regulation. Considering that the frequency of occurrence of proline hydroxylation might determine the structure as well the function of such proteins, the expression of a tomato prolyl 4 hydroxylase, SlP4H3 ( Solanum lycopersicum Prolyl 4 Hydroxylase 3) was suppressed in order to investigate the physiological significance of this post-translational modification in tomato abscission...
2019: Frontiers in Plant Science
Hans J De Boeck, Erika Hiltbrunner, Anke Jentsch, Vigdis Vandvik
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2019: Frontiers in Plant Science
Andrea Bueno, Karin Pritsch, Judy Simon
The outcome of competition for nitrogen (N) between native and invasive tree species is a major concern when considering increasing anthropogenic N deposition. Our study investigated whether three native (i.e., Fagus sylvatica, Quercus robur , and Pinus sylvestris ) and two invasive woody species (i.e., Prunus serotina and Robinia pseudoacacia ) showed different responses regarding morphological and physiological parameters (i.e., biomass and growth indices, inorganic vs. organic N acquisition strategies, and N allocation to N pools) depending on the identity of the competing species, and whether these responses were mediated by soil N availability...
2019: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jianrong Guo, Xinxiu Dong, Guoliang Han, Baoshan Wang
Halophytes are adapted to saline environments and demonstrate optimal reproductive growth under high salinity. To gain insight into the salt tolerance mechanism and effects of salinity in the halophyte Suaeda salsa , the number of flowers and seeds, seed size, anther development, ion content, and flower transcript profiles, as well as the relative expression levels of genes involved in ion transport, were analyzed in S. salsa plants treated with 0 or 200 mM NaCl. The seed size, flower number, seed number per leaf axil, and anther fertility were all significantly increased by 200 mM NaCl treatment...
2019: Frontiers in Plant Science
Patricia Corral-Martínez, Azeddine Driouich, Jose M Seguí-Simarro
Microspore embryogenesis is a manifestation of plant cell totipotency whereby new cell walls are formed as a consequence of the embryogenic switch. In particular, the callose-rich subintinal layer created immediately upon induction of embryogenesis was recently related to protection against stress. However, little is currently known about the functional significance of other compositional changes undergone by the walls of embryogenic microspores. We characterized these changes in Brassica napus at different stages during induction of embryogenic microspores and development of microspore-derived embryos (MDEs) by using a series of monoclonal antibodies specific for cell wall components, including arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs), pectins, xyloglucan and xylan...
2019: Frontiers in Plant Science
Min Chen, Xiao-An Zuo
Haloxylon ammodendron (C. A. Mey.) Bunge is an ecologically important species in arid regions. Pollen limitation may decrease plant reproduction due to low levels of pollen transfer and inadequate pollen receipt. In arid regions, pollen limitations of many plant species may be influenced by habitat fragmentation. However, whether pollen limitation and pollinator visitation affect the pollination success of H. ammodendron (Amaranthaceae) in fragmented habitats still needs further study. In this study, we calculated the pollen limitation in natural and fragmented habitats to estimate the effect of habitat fragmentation on pollen limitation...
2019: Frontiers in Plant Science
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