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Adipocyte

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30686106/maintaining-mitochondria-in-beige-adipose-tissue
#1
Xiaodan Lu
Individual cell types vary enormously in the amount of different organelles they contain. One such organelle is the mitochondrion. Understanding how mitochondrial levels are controlled is essential since so many disease states seem to involve mitochondrial function. The beige adipocyte is an inducible form of adipocyte that emerges in response to cold exposure and some other external stimuli. To perform its thermogenic function, its level of mitochondria increases dramatically. If the stimuli are removed the mitochondrial levels return to base line...
January 27, 2019: Adipocyte
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30676233/higher-lactate-production-from-glucose-in-cultured-adipose-nucleated-stromal-cells-than-for-rat-adipocytes
#2
Floriana Rotondo, Ana-Cecilia Ho-Palma, María Del Mar Romero, Xavier Remesar, José Antonio Fernández-López, Marià Alemany
White adipose tissue (WAT) nucleated stromal cells (NSC) play important roles in regulation, defense, regeneration and metabolic control. In WAT sites, the proportions and functions of NSC change under diverse physiological or pathologic conditions. We had previously observed the massive anaerobic wasting of glucose to lactate and glycerol in rat epididymal adipocytes. To test site variability, and whether the adipocyte extensive anaerobic metabolism of glucose was found in NSC, we analyzed, in parallel, subcutaneous, mesenteric and epididymal WAT of male adult Wistar rats...
January 24, 2019: Adipocyte
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30676227/leptin-stimulates-autophagy-lysosome-related-degradation-of-long-lived-proteins-in-adipocytes
#3
Nir Goldstein, Yulia Haim, Pamela Mattar, Sapir Hadadi-Bechor, Nitzan Maixner, Peter Kovacs, Matthias Blüher, Assaf Rudich
Obesity, a condition most commonly associated with hyper-leptinemia, is also characterized by increased expression of autophagy genes and likely autophagic activity in human adipose tissue (AT). Indeed, circulating leptin levels were previously shown to positively associate with the expression levels of autophagy genes such as Autophagy related gene-5 (ATG5). Here we hypothesized that leptin could act in an autocrine-paracrine manner to increase autophagy in two major AT cell populations, adipocytes and macrophages...
January 24, 2019: Adipocyte
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30474469/breast-cancer-released-exosomes-trigger-cancer-associated-cachexia-to-promote-tumour-progression
#4
Qi Wu, Si Sun, Zhiyu Li, Qian Yang, Bei Li, Shan Zhu, Lijun Wang, Juan Wu, Jingping Yuan, Changhua Yang, Juanjuan Li, Shengrong Sun
Emerging evidence supports the pivotal roles of cancer-associated cachexia in biological behaviour of breast cancer. However, the mediators and mechanisms that mediate cancer-induced cachexia remain unclear. Here, we show that breast cancer-derived exosomes alter adipocytes and muscle cells in terms of increased catabolism characterized by the release of metabolites. Likewise, tumour cells cocultivated with mature adipocytes or C2C12 exhibit an aggressive phenotype through inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition...
November 24, 2018: Adipocyte
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30463471/brown-adipose-tissue-and-glucose-homeostasis-the-link-between-climate-change-and-the-global-rise-in-obesity-and-diabetes
#5
Michael E Symonds, Grace Farhat, Peter Aldiss, Mark Pope, Helen Budge
There is increasing evidence that the global rise in temperature is contributing to the onset of diabetes, which could be mediated by a concomitant reduction in brown fat activity. Brown (and beige) fat are characterised as possessing a unique mitochondrial protein uncoupling protein (UCP)1 that when activated can rapidly generate large amounts of heat. Primary environmental stimuli of UCP1 include cold-exposure and diet, leading to increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system and large amounts of lipid and glucose being oxidised by brown fat...
November 21, 2018: Adipocyte
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30318987/elucidating-the-role-of-lkb1-and-mtor-in-adipose-tissue
#6
Ziye Xu, Wenjing You, Fengqin Wang, Yizhen Wang, Tizhong Shan
Adipose tissues, function as energy metabolism and endocrine organ, are closely associated with metabolic diseases such as obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes. Liver kinase B1 (Lkb1) and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) play crucial roles in regulating energy metabolism and cell growth in adipose tissue. Our recent study generated an adipocyte-specific Lkb1 and mTOR double knockout (DKO) mouse model and found that DKO of Lkb1 and mTOR caused reduction of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT) mass but increase of liver mass...
October 14, 2018: Adipocyte
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30269635/proliferation-of-nutrition-sensing-preadipocytes-upon-short-term-hfd-feeding
#7
Elisabeth Kulenkampff, Christian Wolfrum
Adipose tissue is highly dynamic and increases its size dependent on the status of nutrition. Generally, an increase of adipose tissue mass is attributed to two mechanisms, namely hypertrophy (increase in adipocyte size) and hyperplasia (increase in adipocyte number). Here, we analyzed the proliferation capacity of a pool of nutrition sensing preadipocytes after short-term high fat diet (HFD) feeding. We show that this process is age independent and that adipocyte hyperplasia seems not to be dependent on adipocyte hypertrophy...
September 29, 2018: Adipocyte
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30265180/acylated-and-unacylated-ghrelin-directly-regulate-%C3%A3-3-stimulated-lipid-turnover-in-rodent-subcutaneous-and-visceral-adipose-tissue-ex-vivo-but-not-in-vivo
#8
Daniel T Cervone, Justin Sheremeta, Emily N Kraft, David J Dyck
Ghrelin has garnered interest as a gut-derived regulator of lipid metabolism, beyond its classical roles in driving appetite and growth hormone release. Ghrelin's circulating concentrations follow an ultradian rhythm, peak immediately before a meal and point towards a potential metabolic role in reducing the mobilization of fatty acid stores in preparation for the storage of ingested food. Here, we demonstrate that both acylated and unacylated ghrelin have physiological roles in attenuating lipolysis in mature subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue depots of rats...
September 28, 2018: Adipocyte
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29620433/what-activates-thermogenesis-when-lipid-droplet-lipolysis-is-absent-in-brown-adipocytes
#9
Hyunsu Shin, Hang Shi, Bingzhong Xue, Liqing Yu
Cold exposure activates the sympathetic nervous system. It is generally thought that this sympathetic activation induces heat production by stimulating lipolysis of cytosolic lipid droplets (LDs) in brown adipocytes. However, this concept was not examined in vivo due to lack of appropriate animal models. Recently, we and others have demonstrated that LD lipolysis in brown adipocytes is not required for cold-induced nonshivering thermogenesis. Our studies uncovered an essential role of white adipose tissue (WAT) lipolysis in fueling thermogenesis during fasting...
April 5, 2018: Adipocyte
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29676668/in-this-issue-of-adipocyte
#10
Azaam M Samad
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2, 2018: Adipocyte
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29400609/adipose-tissue-autophagy-related-gene-expression-is-associated-with-glucometabolic-status-in-human-obesity
#11
Qing Xu, Edwin C M Mariman, Nadia J T Roumans, Roel G Vink, Gijs H Goossens, Ellen E Blaak, Johan W E Jocken
Adipose tissue autophagy (AT) is associated with human obesity and increased metabolic risk. Recent findings establish a role for autophagy in lipid metabolism. Here, we compared the expression of autophagy-related and lipolysis genes in human abdominal subcutaneous AT (SCAT) in overweight/obese subjects (n = 17) with or without impaired glucose tolerance in comparison with lean normal glucose tolerant individuals (n = 9), and investigated the association between AT autophagy and lipolysis. Human multipotent adipose-derived stem cells (hMADS) were used to investigate the effect of pharmacological HSL inhibition on changes in the autophagic flux...
January 2, 2018: Adipocyte
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29283284/endothelial-dysfunction-occurs-independently-of-adipose-tissue-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance-in-ovariectomized-yucatan-miniature-swine
#12
Thomas J Jurrissen, T Dylan Olver, Nathan C Winn, Zachary I Grunewald, Gabriela S Lin, Jessica A Hiemstra, Jenna C Edwards, Michelle L Gastecki, Rebecca J Welly, Craig A Emter, Victoria J Vieira-Potter, Jaume Padilla
In rodents, experimentally-induced ovarian hormone deficiency increases adiposity and adipose tissue (AT) inflammation, which is thought to contribute to insulin resistance and increased cardiovascular disease risk. However, whether this occurs in a translationally-relevant large animal model remains unknown. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that ovariectomy would promote visceral and perivascular AT (PVAT) inflammation, as well as subsequent insulin resistance and peripheral vascular dysfunction in female swine...
January 2, 2018: Adipocyte
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29271697/loading-and-firing-the-brown-adipocyte
#13
Mohammed K Hankir
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized to both store and expend chemical energy making it an ideal therapeutic target for various metabolic diseases. Fatty acids derived from lipid droplets within brown adipocytes acting on mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) were long thought to be essential for non-shivering thermogenesis. Here, the roles of white adipose tissue and the liver in the provision of fuel to BAT as part of a coordinated response to temperature and dietary challenges are described. UCP1-independent modes of brown adipocyte heat production are also highlighted...
January 2, 2018: Adipocyte
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29261404/hypothalamic-grp78-a-new-target-against-obesity
#14
Cristina Contreras, Marcos F Fondevila, Miguel López
The chaperone GRP78 (glucose related protein 78), also called BiP (binding immunoglobulin protein) is a key regulator of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. We recently described that over-expression of GRP78 specifically in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) releases hypothalamic ER stress in rodent obese models leading to weight loss, reduced hepatic steatosis and improved insulin and leptin sensitivity. The action of GRP78 is mediated by a feeding-independent mechanism involving increased sympathetic tone, augmented brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis and induction browning of white adipose tissue (WAT)...
January 2, 2018: Adipocyte
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29226756/voluntary-wheel-running-improves-adipose-tissue-immunometabolism-in-ovariectomized-low-fit-rats
#15
Terese M Zidon, Young-Min Park, Rebecca J Welly, Makenzie L Woodford, Rebecca J Scroggins, Steven L Britton, Lauren G Koch, Frank W Booth, Jaume Padilla, Jill A Kanaley, Victoria J Vieira-Potter
Loss of ovarian hormones is associated with increased adiposity, white adipose tissue (WAT) inflammation, and insulin resistance (IR). Previous work demonstrated ovariectomized (OVX) rats bred for high aerobic fitness (HCR) are protected against weight gain and IR compared to rats bred for low aerobic fitness (LCR) yet wheel running prevents OVX-induced IR in LCR rats. The purpose of this study was to determine whether adipose tissue immunometabolic characteristics from female HCR and LCR rats differs before or after OVX, and whether wheel running mitigates OVX-induced adipose tissue immunometabolic changes in LCR rats...
January 2, 2018: Adipocyte
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29205099/adiponectin-leptin-ratio-a-promising-index-to-estimate-adipose-tissue-dysfunction-relation-with-obesity-associated-cardiometabolic-risk
#16
Gema Frühbeck, Victoria Catalán, Amaia Rodríguez, Javier Gómez-Ambrosi
Obesity is currently the most extended metabolic disturbance worldwide favoring the development of cardiometabolic alterations such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Obesity and the metabolic syndrome (MS) are characterized by an increase in circulating leptin concentrations, in parallel to a decrease in blood levels of adiponectin. Consequently, the adiponectin/leptin ratio has been suggested as a maker of adipose tissue dysfunction. This emerging biomarker correlates with insulin resistance better than adiponectin or leptin alone, or even HOMA and is decreased with increasing number of metabolic risk factors having been proposed as a predictive marker for the MS...
January 2, 2018: Adipocyte
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29172946/postprandial-gut-microbiota-driven-choline-metabolism-links-dietary-cues-to-adipose-tissue-dysfunction
#17
Rebecca C Schugar, Belinda Willard, Zeneng Wang, J Mark Brown
The human body is an integrated circuit between microbial symbionts and our Homo sapien genome, which communicate bi-directionally to maintain homeostasis within the human meta-organism. There is now strong evidence that microbes resident in the human intestine can directly contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity and associated cardiometabolic disorders. In fact, gut microbes represent a filter of our greatest environmental exposure - the foods we consume. It is now clear that we each experience a given meal differently, based on our unique gut microbial communities...
January 2, 2018: Adipocyte
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29095087/elucidating-the-role-of-adipose-tissue-secreted-factors-in-malignant-transformation
#18
Debrup Chakraborty, Vanessa Benham, Jamie J Bernard
Although there is a growing number of incidences of obesity and obesity-linked cancers, how excess adiposity actually causes cancer has not been fully explained. Our previous study showed that removal of visceral adipose tissue significantly reduced the number of ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-initiated, high-fat diet-promoted skin cancers. This commentary focuses on our recently published study (Chakraborty, et al., 2017) which demonstrated that fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) released from visceral adipose tissue is a key factor in the malignant transformation of epithelial cells...
January 2, 2018: Adipocyte
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30246599/adipose-tissue-and-body-composition-in-women-six-years-after-gestational-diabetes-factors-associated-with-development-of-type-2-diabetes
#19
Henrik Svensson, Louise Wetterling, Ulrika Andersson-Hall, Eva Jennische, Staffan Edén, Agneta Holmäng, Malin Lönn
Factors differentiating women at highest risk of progression to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) after gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are incompletely known. Our aim was to characterize adipose tissue and body composition in relation to glucose metabolism in women with a history of GDM and to identify factors associated with development of T2DM. We examined glucose tolerance (OGTT), insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IR), body composition (anthropometry, air displacement plethysmography), and blood chemistry in 39 women 6 years after GDM...
2018: Adipocyte
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30231671/cd24-is-required-for-regulating-gene-expression-but-not-glucose-uptake-during-adipogenesis
#20
Nicole C Smith, Viswanathan Swaminathan, Nikitha K Pallegar, Christopher Cordova, Sean C Buchanan, Sherri L Christian
Adipose tissue dysfunction in obesity and lipodystrophy results in major health complications such as heart disease and stroke, and is associated with an increased risk of some cancers. We have previously found that the cell surface receptor CD24 regulates adipogenesis as measured by lipid accumulation and gene expression in mature adipocytes. How CD24 regulates these processes remains unknown. To begin answering this question, we first determined that CD24 does not affect glucose uptake in differentiating adipocytes in vitro...
2018: Adipocyte
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