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ISRN Pharmacology

Kennedy K E Kukuia, Priscilla K Mante, Eric Woode, Elvis O Ameyaw, Donatus W Adongo
Objective. Hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Mallotus oppositifolius (MOE), a plant used for CNS conditions in Ghana, was investigated for acute antidepressant effects in the forced swimming (FST) and tail suspension tests (TST). Results. In both FST and TST, MOE (10, 30, and 100 mg kg(-1)) significantly decreased immobility periods and frequencies. A 3-day pretreatment with 200 mg kg(-1), i.p., para-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA), a tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor, reversed the decline in immobility and the increase of swimming score induced by MOE in the modified FST...
2014: ISRN Pharmacology
Kirankumar Shivasharanappa, Ramesh Londonkar
The present study was carried out to investigate the thrombolytic and antimitotic potentiality of various extracts of fruits of Ficus glomerata, a traditional medicinal plant, using an in vitro assay method. Three crude extracts such as petroleum ether (FGPE), chloroform (FGCE), and methanol (FGME) were used for the study, with a standard (streptokinase) and negative control (sterile distilled water) to validate the method. The thrombolytic nature of the plant was found significant with methanol extract and chloroform and petroleum ether extracts have recorded mild activity, when compared with the negative control (sterile distilled water)...
2014: ISRN Pharmacology
Sahil Kakkar, Souravh Bais
Flavonoids and polyphenols are heterocyclic molecules that have been associated with beneficial effects on human health, such as reducing the risk of various diseases like cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular and brain diseases. Protocatechuic acid (PCA) is a type of widely distributed naturally occurring phenolic acid. PCA has structural similarity with gallic acid, caffeic acid, vanillic acid, and syringic acid which are well-known antioxidant compounds. More than 500 plants contain PCA as active constituents imparting various pharmacological activity and these effects are due to their antioxidant activities, along with other possible mechanisms, such as anti-inflammatory properties and interaction with several enzymes...
2014: ISRN Pharmacology
Mohammed Azeemuddin, Gollapalle Lakshminarayanashastry Viswanatha, Mohamed Rafiq, Agadi HireMath Thippeswamy, Mirza Rizwan Baig, Kethaganahalli Jayaramaiah Kavya, Pralhad Sadashiv Patki, Ramakrishnan Shyam
Objective. To improve the existing experimental model of croton oil-induced hemorrhoids in rats by using Evans Blue (EB) dye extravasation technique. Further, an herbal formulation (Pilex) was evaluated for its antihemorrhoidal activity in this model. Methods. Two sets of experiments were carried out: first to improve the experimental model and to validate the same using Pilex and second to evaluate the effect of Pilex on cytoarchitecture of rectoanal tissue in croton oil-induced hemorrhoids. In both sets, hemorrhoids were induced to all the animals, except normal controls, by applying croton oil via rectoanal region and the effect of Pilex ointment (PO), Pilex granules (PG), and combination of PG and PO was evaluated...
2014: ISRN Pharmacology
Manisha Bisht, Shruti Singh, D C Dhasmana
In India, the pharmacovigilance program is still in its infancy. National Pharmacovigilance Program of India was started for facilitating the pharmacovigilance activities. The ADR reporting rate is still below satisfactory in India. This cross-sectional questionnaire based study was carried out in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Uttarakhand, which is a peripheral ADR monitoring centre to assess the level of knowledge, attitude, and the practices of pharmacovigilance among the doctors and to compare it with the group of doctors attending educational CME for improving awareness of pharmacovigilance...
2014: ISRN Pharmacology
Hossein Mahmoudvand, Seyyed Amin Ayatollahi Mousavi, Asghar Sepahvand, Fariba Sharififar, Behrouz Ezatpour, Fatemeh Gorohi, Ebrahim Saedi Dezaki, Sareh Jahanbakhsh
In this study, in vitro antidermatophytic activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis, and Microsporum gypseum was studied by disk diffusion test and assessment of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using CLSI broth macrodilution method (M38-A2). Moreover, antileishmanial and cytotoxicity activity of B. vulgaris and berberine against promastigotes of Leishmania major and Leishmania tropica were evaluated by colorimetric MTT assay. The findings indicated that the various extracts of B...
2014: ISRN Pharmacology
Mohammed Safwan Ali Khan, Abdul Manan Mat Jais, Javeed Hussain, Faiza Siddiqua, A Gopala Reddy, P Shivakumar, D Madhuri
Channa striata (Bloch.) is a fresh water fish belonging to the family Channidae. The stripped snakehead fish possesses wide range of medicinal properties. In view of traditional use of C. striata for wound healing, the present study was undertaken to investigate the beneficial effects of orally administered freeze dried aqueous extract of Channa striata (AECS) in experimentally induced gastric ulcers in Wistar rats. Aspirin induced ulcerogenesis in pyloric ligation model was used for the assessment of antiulcer activity and Ranitidine (50 mg/kg) was employed as the standard drug...
2014: ISRN Pharmacology
Fawzy Elbarbry, Anke Vermehren-Schmaedick, Agnieszka Balkowiec
Background. We investigated the effects of sulforaphane (SF), the main active isothiocyanate in cruciferous vegetables, on arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism in the kidney and its effect on arterial blood pressure, using spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) as models. Methods. Rats were treated for 8 weeks with either drinking water alone (control) or SF (20 or 40 mg/kg) added to drinking water. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was measured at 7-day intervals throughout the study. At the end of treatment rats were euthanized, and kidneys were harvested to prepare microsomes and measure enzymes involved in regulation of vasoactive metabolites: CYP4A, the key enzyme in the formation of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, and the soluble epoxide hydrolase, which is responsible for the degradation of the vasodilator metabolites such as epoxyeicosatetraenoic acids...
2014: ISRN Pharmacology
Muhsin A Aldhalimi, Najah R Hadi, Fadaa A Ghafil
Recently topical use of 2% Ketoconazole solution has been reported to have a therapeutic effect on androgenic alopecia. Minoxidil is a vasodilatory medication used primarily as antihypertensive drug. It was discovered to have the side effect of hair growth and reversing baldness. Tretinoin is commonly used topically for acne treatment and in the treatment of photoaging. It is used by some as hair loss treatment. Objective. To compare the stimulatory effect of Ketoconazole, Minoxidil, and Minoxidil with Tretinoin on hair growth in a mouse model...
2014: ISRN Pharmacology
Bilal A Zargar, Mubashir H Masoodi, Bahar Ahmed, Showkat A Ganie
The present study was intended to evaluate the effects of Paeonia emodi rhizome extracts on serum triglycerides (TGs), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), atherogenic index (AI), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). The plant was extensively examined for its in vitro antioxidant activity, and the preliminary phytochemical screening was carried out using standard protocols. Male Wistar rats were induced with hyperlipidemia using high-fat diet and were treated orally with hydroalcoholic and aqueous extracts at the dose of 200 mg/kg bw for 30 days...
2014: ISRN Pharmacology
Brahm Kumar Tiwari, Dileep Kumar, A B Abidi, Syed Ibrahim Rizvi
Oxidative stress plays a vital role in diabetic complications. To suppress the oxidative stress mediated damage in diabetic pathophysiology, a special focus has been given on composite extract (CE) and making small dose of naturally occurring antidiabetic plants leaf and fruits. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the beneficial role of CE against alloxan- (ALX-) induced diabetes of Wistar strain rats. A dose-dependent study for CE (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight) was carried out to find the effective dose of the composite compound in ALX-induced diabetic rats...
2014: ISRN Pharmacology
Najah R Hadi, Fadhil G Yusif, Maitham Yousif, Karrar K Jaen
Although reperfusion of an ischemic organ is essential to prevent irreversible tissue damage, it may amplify tissue injury. This study investigates the role of endogenous testosterone in myocardial ischemia reperfusion and apoptosis in male rats. Material and method. Twenty four male rats were randomized into 4 equal groups: Group (1), sham group, rats underwent the same anesthetic and surgical procedure as the control group except for LAD ligation; Group (2), Active control group, rats underwent LAD ligation; Group (3), castrated, rats underwent surgical castration, left 3wks for recovery, and then underwent LAD ligation; and Group (4), Goserelin acetate treated, rats received 3...
2014: ISRN Pharmacology
Hiroyuki Kitamura, Hiroko Urano, Toshiaki Ara
Periodontal disease is accompanied by inflammation of the gingiva and destruction of periodontal tissues, leading to alveolar bone loss in severe clinical cases. The chemical mediator prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and cytokines such as interleukin- (IL-)6 and IL-8 have been known to play important roles in inflammatory responses and tissue degradation. In the present study, we investigated the effects of a kampo medicine, kakkonto (TJ-1), on the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), IL-6, and IL-8 by human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Porphyromonas gingivalis...
2014: ISRN Pharmacology
Dinesh Dhingra, Deepak Lamba, Ramesh Kumar, Pashupati Nath, Satyaprakash Gauttam
The present study was designed to investigate antihyperlipidemic activity of dried pulp of Aloe succotrina leaves in Wistar albino rats. Hyperlipidemia was induced in rats by feeding them high fat diet (HFD) or D-fructose (25% w/v) for 4 successive weeks. From 15th to 28th day, dried pulp (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o) and atorvastatin (10 mg/kg, p.o.) per se were administered 2 h prior to feeding rats with HFD or fructose. Aloe succotrina did not significantly decrease the body weight of rats. The dried pulp and atorvastatin per se significantly decreased relative liver weight but did not significantly affect relative heart weight...
2014: ISRN Pharmacology
Aadesh Upadhyay, Pronobesh Chattopadhyay, Danswrang Goyary, Papiya Mitra Mazumder, Vijay Veer
Background. Ixora coccinea L. (Rubiaceae) has been documented for traditional use in hypertension, menstrual irregularities, sprain, chronic ulcer, and skin diseases. In the present study, I. coccinea was subjected to in vitro and in vivo wound healing investigation. Methods. Petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol, and water sequential I. coccinea leaves extracts were evaluated for in vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial, and fibroblast proliferation activities. The promising I. coccinea methanol extract (IxME) was screened for in vivo wound healing activity in Wistar rat using circular excision model...
2014: ISRN Pharmacology
Felice Iasevoli, Elisabetta F Buonaguro, Massimo Marconi, Emanuela Di Giovambattista, Maria Paola Rapagnani, Domenico De Berardis, Giovanni Martinotti, Monica Mazza, Raffaele Balletta, Nicola Serroni, Massimo Di Giannantonio, Andrea de Bartolomeis, Alessandro Valchera
Background. Antipsychotic polypharmacy is used in several psychiatric disorders, despite poor evidence existing to support this practice. Aim. We evaluated whether psychotic patients in acute relapse exposed to antipsychotic polypharmacy (AP + AP) showed different demographic, clinical, or psychopathological features compared to those exposed to one antipsychotic (AP) and whether AP + AP patients showed significantly higher improvement compared to AP patients after a 4-week treatment. Methods. Inpatients were subdivided into AP + AP and AP ones...
2014: ISRN Pharmacology
Miracle Oluebubechukwu Obiagwu, Chibueze Peter Ihekwereme, Daniel Lotanna Ajaghaku, Festus Basden Chinedu Okoye
Folkloric use of root-bark extract of Alstonia boonei in the treatment and management of many disease conditions may be associated with free radical scavenging as part of its mechanisms of action. We therefore evaluated the ability of different solvent fractions of the methanol extract, crude precipitate from the extract, and isolated compound from the crude precipitate for scavenging 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of useful phytocompounds. Ethyl acetate fraction showed better antioxidant activity with IC50 of 54...
2014: ISRN Pharmacology
Leila Safaeian, Hadi Zabolian
Dexamethasone- (Dex-) induced hypertension is associated with enhanced oxidative stress. Lactoferrin (LF) is an iron-binding glycoprotein with antihypertensive properties. In this study, we investigated the effect of chronic administration of LF on oxidative stress and hypertension upon Dex administration. Male Wistar rats were treated by Dex (30  μ g/kg/day subcutaneously) or saline for 14 days. Oral bovine LF (30, 100, 300 mg/kg) was given from day 8 to 14 in a reversal study. In a prevention study, rats received 4 days of LF treatment followed by Dex and continued during the test period...
2014: ISRN Pharmacology
Pradeep Tyagi, Mahendra P Kashyap, Naoki Kawamorita, Tsuyoshi Yoshizawa, Michael Chancellor, Naoki Yoshimura
Purpose. The following review focuses on the recent advancements in intravesical drug delivery, which brings added benefit to the therapy of detrusor overactivity and interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS). Results. Intravesical route is a preferred route of administration for restricting the action of extremely potent drugs like DMSO for patients of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) and botulinum toxin for detrusor overactivity. Patients who are either refractory to oral treatment or need to mitigate the adverse effects encountered with conventional routes of administration also chose this route...
2014: ISRN Pharmacology
Pradeep R Jadhav, Vijay V Moghe, Yeshwant A Deshmukh
In view of the advancement in drug development and availability of new ocular therapeutics in the discipline of ophthalmology, we attempted to study the drug utilization and describe the prescribing practices of ophthalmologists in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Method. A prospective, cross-sectional, observational study was conducted on patients attending Outpatient Department of Ophthalmology for curative complaints. Prescriptions of 600 patients treated were analyzed by the WHO prescribing indicators and additional indices...
December 22, 2013: ISRN Pharmacology
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