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Chemotherapy Research and Practice

Amit Joshi, Vanita Noronha, Vijay M Patil, Anuradha Chougule, Atanu Bhattacharjee, Rajiv Kumar, Supriya Goud, Sucheta More, Anant Ramaswamy, Ashay Karpe, Nikhil Pande, Arun Chandrasekharan, Alok Goel, Vikas Talreja, Abhishek Mahajan, Amit Janu, Nilendu Purandare, Kumar Prabhash
Background: It is unknown whether the outcomes of second-line pemetrexed-carboplatin chemotherapy administered after progression on gefitinib are dependent on type of EGFR mutation present at baseline. Method: Adult non-small-cell lung cancer patients, with exon 19 deletion or exon 21 L858R mutation, who progressed on gefitinib and received pemetrexed-carboplatin chemotherapy were selected for this analysis. Result: 55 patients received pemetrexed-carboplatin as second-line treatment...
2017: Chemotherapy Research and Practice
Taj Ali Khan, Humaira Mazhar, Shamim Saleha, Hamid Nawaz Tipu, Niaz Muhammad, Muhammad Nasser Abbas
Background. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) that causes tuberculosis (TB) kills millions of infected people annually especially multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). On infection, macrophages recognize the mycobacteria by toll-like receptor (TLR) followed by phagocytosis and control of mycobacteria. In addition, macrophages also secrete IL-12 to induce IFN-γ production by T, which, in turn, increases the phagocytosis and oxidative burst. Individuals with defects in innate or adaptive immunity exhibit increased susceptibility to M...
2016: Chemotherapy Research and Practice
Govind Babu, Smitha Carol Saldanha, Lakshmaiah Kuntegowdanahalli Chinnagiriyappa, Linu Abraham Jacob, Suresh Babu Mallekavu, Loknatha Dasappa, Pretesh Rohan Kiran, Aparna Sreevatsa, Sandhya Appachu, Vineetha Unnikrishnan, Venugopal Arroju
Background. The efficacy, safety, and cost benefit of olanzapine (OLN) when compared to aprepitant (APR) in the prevention of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC) were evaluated. Methods. A prospective pilot study was done in chemotherapy-naive patients receiving HEC to compare OLN versus APR along with palonosetron and dexamethasone. 100 patients consented to the protocol and were randomized and evaluated for Complete Response (CR) (no emesis, no rescue)...
2016: Chemotherapy Research and Practice
Mohammad Ali Sheikhi, Ahmad Ebadi, Abdolhassan Talaeizadeh, Hossein Rahmani
Chemotherapy Induced Nausea and Vomiting (CINV) is among the most intensive side effects and critical concerns for patients with cancer. Most of these patients experience nausea and vomiting after chemotherapy. Sometimes, this is so annoying that it may prevent them from continuing the therapy. With the recent advances, a variety of therapeutic methods are innovated and applied to control CINV. Among them, the main methods include medicinal therapy, relaxation, and herbal therapy. Yet, using dexamethasone together with massage therapy and ginger is identified as the most effective method...
2015: Chemotherapy Research and Practice
Brandi Anders, Alexandra Shillingburg, Michael Newton
The study was undertaken to determine the length of time between when a prescription for an oral antineoplastic agent is written by the provider and when the medication is received by the patient and to identify risk factors that significantly increase time to medication receipt. First-time fill prescriptions for oral antineoplastic agents were identified. The date the prescription was written and received by the patient was determined. A retrospective review was completed to gather additional information, including prescribed medication, indication, insurance coverage, patient assistance program use, dispensing pharmacy, and prior authorization requirements...
2015: Chemotherapy Research and Practice
Matthew Trendowski
Sonodynamic therapy (SDT) is a form of ultrasound therapy in which specialized chemotherapeutic agents known as sonosensitizers are administered to increase the efficacy of ultrasound-mediated preferential damage of neoplastic cells. Multiple in vitro and in vivo studies have indicated that SDT has the ability to exhibit profound physical and chemical changes on cellular structure. As supportive as the data have been, assessment of this method at the clinical level has been limited to only solid tumors. Although SDT has shown efficacy against multiple adherent neoplastic cell lines, it has also shown particular promise with leukemia-derived cell lines...
2015: Chemotherapy Research and Practice
Mehdi Goudarzi, Maryam Fazeli, Mehdi Azad, Sima Sadat Seyedjavadi, Reza Mousavi
Objective. Aloe vera is an herbal medicinal plant with biological activities, such as antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic ones, and immunomodulatory properties. The purpose of this study was investigation of in vitro antimicrobial activity of A. vera gel against multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from patients with burn wound infections. Methods. During a 6-month study, 140 clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa were collected from patients admitted to the burn wards of a hospital in Tehran, Iran...
2015: Chemotherapy Research and Practice
Kanwardeep Kaur Tiwana, Sarita Nibhoria, Manmeet Kaur, Tanvi Monga, Ratika Gupta
Ovarian carcinomas are conventionally treated with primary debulking surgery followed by chemotherapy. Nowadays neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery is an upcoming treatment modality for ovarian carcinoma. This study highlights the histopathological changes observed after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Present study is a 40-case study stressing five histological parameters: residual tumour, fibrosis, necrosis, inflammation, and psammoma bodies. All these parameters carry prognostic significance and they are easily reproducible...
2015: Chemotherapy Research and Practice
Lidia Zueva, Yomarie Rivera, Lilia Kucheryavykh, Serguei N Skatchkov, Misty J Eaton, Priscila Sanabria, Mikhail Inyushin
Cisplatin is a widely used, effective anticancer drug. Its use, however, is associated with several side effects including nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity. It is known that cisplatin is accumulated in cells by the organic cation transport system and reacts with nucleotides, damaging them, but the precise target of cisplatin-induced neurotoxicity remains obscure. Here we report direct visualization of cisplatin inside brain cells using in vivo "cisplatin staining," a technique that takes advantage of the high electron density of cisplatin, which contains platinum (atomic mass = 195)...
2014: Chemotherapy Research and Practice
Ebenezer Tunde Olayinka, Ayokanmi Ore, Olaniyi Solomon Ola, Oluwatobi Adewumi Adeyemo
One major challenge with the use of anticancer agents is the phenomenon of drug-induced toxicity. Melphalan (MPLN) is an alkylating anticancer agent, while quercetin (QCT) is an antioxidant. We investigated the protective role of quercetin against MPLN-induced toxicity. Twenty-five male Wistar rats (160-170 g) were randomized into five treatment groups; (I) control, (II) MPLN (0.2 mg/kg b.w.), (III) pre-treated with QCT (20 mg/kg b.w.) for 7 days followed by MPLN (0.2 mg/kg b.w.) for 7 days, (IV) cotreated with QCT (20 mg/kg b...
2014: Chemotherapy Research and Practice
Vanita Noronha, Amit Joshi, Anant Gokarn, Vibhor Sharma, Vijay Patil, Amit Janu, Nilendu Purandare, Anuradha Chougule, Nirmala Jambhekar, Kumar Prabhash
Introduction. Brain metastasis is a poor prognostic marker in lung cancer. However it is not known whether amongst patients with EGFR mutation those with brain metastases have a worse outcome. Methods. We compared the survival outcomes between EGFR mutation positive patients with and without brain metastases. In this retrospective analysis of prospective database of all metastatic lung cancer patients at our centre between July 2009 and December 2012, patients were treated with either combination chemotherapy or oral TKI...
2014: Chemotherapy Research and Practice
Hamid Reza Mirzaei, Fatemeh Nasrollahi, Ladan Mohammadi Yeganeh, Sepideh Jafari Naeini, Pegah Bikdeli, Parastoo Hajian
Background. Adding taxanes to anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy has shown significant improvement in node-positive breast cancer patients but the optimal dose schedule has still remained undetermined. Objectives. The feasibility of dose-dense epirubicin in combination with cyclophosphamide (EC) followed by weekly paclitaxel as adjuvant chemotherapy in node-positive breast cancer patients was investigated. Methods. All patients were treated with epirubicin (100 mg/m(2)) and cyclophosphamide (600 mg/m(2)) every two weeks for four cycles with daily Pegfilgrastim (G-CSF) that was administered 3-10 days after each cycle of epirubicin and cyclophosphamide infusion which followed by (80 mg/m(2)) paclitaxel for twelve consecutive weeks...
2014: Chemotherapy Research and Practice
Atul Khajuria, Ashok Kumar Praharaj, Mahadevan Kumar, Naveen Grover
Objective. To detect genes encoding carbapenem resistance among Enterobacter species in a tertiary care hospital in central India. Methods. Bacterial identification of Enterobacter spp. isolates from various clinical specimens in patients admitted to intensive care units was performed by routine conventional microbial culture and biochemical tests using standard recommended techniques. Antibiotic sensitivity test was performed by standard Kirby Bauer disc diffusion technique. PCR amplification and automated sequencing was carried out...
2014: Chemotherapy Research and Practice
Nida Iqbal, Naveed Iqbal
Deregulated protein tyrosine kinase activity is central to the pathogenesis of human cancers. Targeted therapy in the form of selective tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has transformed the approach to management of various cancers and represents a therapeutic breakthrough. Imatinib was one of the first cancer therapies to show the potential for such targeted action. Imatinib, an oral targeted therapy, inhibits tyrosine kinases specifically BCR-ABL, c-KIT, and PDGFRA. Apart from its remarkable success in CML and GIST, Imatinib benefits various other tumors caused by Imatinib-specific abnormalities of PDGFR and c-KIT...
2014: Chemotherapy Research and Practice
Vanita Noronha, Vijay Maruti Patil, Amit Joshi, Muddu Vamshi Krishna, Sachin Dhumal, Shashikant Juvekar, P Pai, Pankaj Chatturvedi, Devendra Arvind Chaukar, Jai Prakash Agarwal, Sarbani Ghosh, Vedang Murthy, Anil D'cruz, Kumar Prabhash
Background. Locally advanced carcinoma of maxillary sinus has been historically reported to have poor prognosis. We evaluated the role of NACT in improving the outcome in these patients. Methods. 41 patients with locally advanced technically unresectable (stage IVa) or unresectable maxillary carcinoma (stage IVb) were treated with induction chemotherapy between 2008 and 2011. The demographic profile, response and toxicity of chemotherapy, definitive treatment received, progression free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were analyzed...
2014: Chemotherapy Research and Practice
Jorge Eduardo Toblli, Carlos Rivas, Gabriel Cao, Jorge Fernando Giani, Felix Funk, Lee Mizzen, Fernando Pablo Dominici
Since anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity (AIC), a complication of anthracycline-based chemotherapies, is thought to involve iron, concerns exist about using iron for anaemia treatment in anthracycline-receiving cancer patients. This study evaluated how intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) modulates the influence of iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) and doxorubicin (3-5 mg per kg body weight [BW]) on oxidative/nitrosative stress, inflammation, and cardiorenal function in spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone (SHR-SP) rats...
2014: Chemotherapy Research and Practice
Lydia M Dreosti, Alicia McMaster, Rashem Mothilal
Oxaliplatin is a standard first-line treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer. The objectives were to document the therapeutic management of oxaliplatin in South Africa, determine the incidence and severity of sensory neuropathy, and record the 2-year survival rate. Meccelox was a prospective, noncontrolled, open label, multicentre, observational survey of adult patients with stage IV metastatic colorectal cancer treated with oxaliplatin-based chemotherapeutic regimens. The study was conducted from August 2007 to November 2011 in 29 sites in South Africa by 66 participating treating physicians...
2014: Chemotherapy Research and Practice
Nusrat Bano, Rahila Najam, Ahmed Mateen
The study is designed to assess the frequency and severity of few dose limiting neurological adverse effects of four different schedules of FOLFOX. Patients with histologically confirmed advanced colorectal carcinoma (CRC) were included in the study. Toxicity was graded according to CTC v 2.0. The frequency of grade 3 and 4 adverse effects was comparatively assessed in each treatment arm. The difference in the pattern of toxicity between the treatment schedule was evaluated. The most frequent adverse symptom of neurological adverse effect was grade 1 paresthesia in the patients treated with FOLFOX4 schedule...
2013: Chemotherapy Research and Practice
Cindy Tofthagen, Laura Gonzalez, Constance Visovsky, Alex Akers
Purpose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate medications that cancer survivors with oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy take to control neuropathic symptom, and to explore self-management techniques used at home to provide temporary relief of painful neuropathy. This was a mixed methods, descriptive, cross-sectional study using self-reported data from colorectal cancer survivors previously treated with oxaliplatin. We analyzed demographic and medication data obtained from participants, along with written comments from an open-ended question regarding methods participants had tried to self-manage symptoms of neuropathy...
2013: Chemotherapy Research and Practice
Andreas N Mbah, Raphael D Isokpehi
Resistance to methicillin by Staphylococcus aureus is a persistent clinical problem worldwide. A mechanism for resistance has been proposed in which methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates acquired a new protein called β -lactam inducible penicillin binding protein (PBP-2'). The PBP-2' functions by substituting other penicillin binding proteins which have been inhibited by β -lactam antibiotics. Presently, there is no structural and regulatory information on PBP-2' protein. We conducted a complete structural and functional regulatory analysis of PBP-2' protein...
2013: Chemotherapy Research and Practice
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