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Nutrition & Diabetes

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30944300/the-role-of-phosphate-containing-medications-and-low-dietary-phosphorus-protein-ratio-in-reducing-intestinal-phosphorus-load-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#1
REVIEW
Jiameng Li, Liya Wang, Mei Han, Yuqin Xiong, Ruoxi Liao, Yupei Li, Si Sun, Anil Maharjan, Baihai Su
Chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) is a common complication in patients experiencing end-stage renal disease (ESRD). It includes abnormalities in bone and mineral metabolism and vascular calcification. Hyperphosphatemia is a major risk factor leading to morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease. Increased mortality has been observed in patients with ESRD, with serum phosphorus levels of >5.5 mg/dL. Therefore, control of hyperphosphatemia is a major therapeutic goal in the prevention and treatment of CKD-MBD...
April 3, 2019: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30931934/fasting-differentially-alters-the-hypothalamic-proteome-of-chickens-from-lines-with-the-propensity-to-be-anorexic-or-obese
#2
Lingbin Liu, Jiaqing Yi, W Keith Ray, Lucas T Vu, Richard F Helm, Paul B Siegel, Mark A Cline, Elizabeth R Gilbert
BACKGROUND: The hypothalamus is the ultimate modulator of appetite and energy balance and therefore sensitive to changes in nutritional state. Chicks from lines selected for low (LWS) and high (HWS) body weight are hypophagic and compulsive eaters, respectively, and differ in their propensity to become obese and in their hypothalamic mRNA response to fasting. METHODS: As fasting-induced changes in hypothalamic proteins are unknown, we investigated the hypothalamic proteomes of 5-day old LWS and HWS chicks in the fed and fasted states using a label-free liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) approach...
April 1, 2019: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30918247/fat-redistribution-and-accumulation-of-visceral-adipose-tissue-predicts-type-2-diabetes-risk-in-middle-aged-black-south-african-women-a-13-year-longitudinal-study
#3
Asanda Mtintsilana, Lisa K Micklesfield, Elin Chorell, Tommy Olsson, Julia H Goedecke
BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional studies in South Africa (SA) have shown that black SA women, despite being more insulin resistant, have less visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and more subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) than white women. This study aimed to investigate whether baseline and/or change in body fat and its distribution predict type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk in middle-aged black SA women, 13 years later. METHODS: We studied 142 black SA women who are the caregivers of the Birth-to-Twenty plus cohort, and who had normal glucose tolerance (NGT) at baseline...
March 27, 2019: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30890694/pharmacologic-or-genetic-activation-of-sirt1-attenuates-the-fat-induced-decrease-in-beta-cell-function-in-vivo
#4
Tejas Desai, Khajag Koulajian, Aleksandar Ivovic, Danna M Breen, Lemieux Luu, Evangelia L Tsiani, Michael B Wheeler, Adria Giacca
BACKGROUND: There is evidence that sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a key regulator of nutrient metabolism, increases β-cell secretory function. Excess circulating fat, as seen in obesity, has been shown to decrease β-cell function, an effect that may involve decreased SIRT1 activity. Consequently, SIRT1 activation may increase β-cell function in conditions of elevated plasma-free fatty acid levels. Here we attempted to attenuate the lipid-induced decrease in β-cell function in vivo using pharmacological and genetic models of SIRT1 activation...
March 19, 2019: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30886140/responsiveness-of-hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal-axis-to-leptin-is-impaired-in-diet-induced-obese-rats
#5
Andrew C Shin, Sheba M J MohanKumar, Priya Balasubramanian, Madhu P Sirivelu, Katrina Linning, Andrew Woolcock, Michelle James, Puliyur S MohanKumar
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Diet-induced obese (DIO) rats have altered stress (HPA) axis activity compared to diet-resistant (DR) rats when chronically exposed to a high-fat (HF) diet. Since stress axis is tightly regulated by leptin, an adipocyte-secreted hormone that is important for controlling body weight, we hypothesized that leptin action is impaired in DIO rats leading to alterations in HPA axis activity. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We intraperitoneally injected selectively bred DIO and DR rats with either saline or recombinant rat leptin...
March 18, 2019: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30858378/endogenous-advanced-glycation-end-products-in-pancreatic-islets-after-short-term-carbohydrate-intervention-in-obese-diabetes-prone-mice
#6
Richard Kehm, Jana Rückriemen, Daniela Weber, Stefanie Deubel, Tilman Grune, Annika Höhn
Diet-induced hyperglycemia is described as one major contributor to the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) under inflammatory conditions, crucial in type 2 diabetes progression. Previous studies have indicated high postprandial plasma AGE-levels in diabetic patients and after long-term carbohydrate feeding in animal models. Pancreatic islets play a key role in glucose metabolism; thus, their susceptibility to glycation reactions due to high amounts of dietary carbohydrates is of special interest...
March 11, 2019: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30858355/vitamin-d-and-diabetic-foot-ulcer-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
REVIEW
Jiezhi Dai, Chaoyin Jiang, Hua Chen, Yimin Chai
We aimed to evaluate the association between vitamin D deficiency and diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) in patients with diabetes. Pubmed, EMBASE, BIOSIS, the Cochrane Library, and Web of Knowledge, last updated in July 2018, were searched. We assessed eligible studies for the association between vitamin D deficiency and DFU in diabetic patients. The mean difference (MD) or the odds ratio (OR) was calculated for continuous or dichotomous data respectively. Data were analyzed by using the Cochrane Collaboration's RevMan 5...
March 11, 2019: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30804324/comparison-of-visceral-fat-measurement-by-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-to-computed-tomography-in-hiv-and-non-hiv
#8
Lindsay T Fourman, Emma M Kileel, Jane Hubbard, Tara Holmes, Ellen J Anderson, Sara E Looby, Kathleen V Fitch, Meghan N Feldpausch, Martin Torriani, Janet Lo, Takara L Stanley, Steven K Grinspoon
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Individuals with HIV are susceptible to visceral fat accumulation, which confers an increased risk of cardiometabolic disease. Advanced software to ascertain visceral fat content from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has not been validated among this population. We sought to compare DXA with computed tomography (CT) in the measurement of visceral fat cross-sectional area (VAT) in HIV and non-HIV using Bland-Altman analyses. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Data were combined from five previously conducted studies of individuals with HIV (n = 313) and controls without HIV (n = 144) in which paired DXA and CT scans were available...
February 25, 2019: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30804320/vegetarian-diets-and-risk-of-hospitalisation-or-death-with-diabetes-in-british-adults-results-from-the-epic-oxford-study
#9
Keren Papier, Paul N Appleby, Georgina K Fensom, Anika Knuppel, Aurora Perez-Cornago, Julie A Schmidt, Tammy Y N Tong, Timothy J Key
BACKGROUND: The global prevalence of diabetes is high and rapidly increasing. Some previous studies have found that vegetarians might have a lower risk of diabetes than non-vegetarians. OBJECTIVE: We examined the association between vegetarianism and risk of hospitalisation or death with diabetes in a large, prospective cohort study of British adults. METHODS: The analysed cohort included participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Oxford study who were diabetes free at recruitment (1993-2001), with available dietary intake data at baseline, and linked hospital admissions and death data for diabetes over follow-up (n = 45,314)...
February 25, 2019: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30778042/association-between-serum-and-adipose-tissue-resistin-with-dysglycemia-in-south-asian-women
#10
Sulochana Wijetunge, R M C J Ratnayake, H M S R B Kotakadeniya, Shanthini Rosairo, Kembra Albracht-Schulte, Latha Ramalingam, Naima Moustaid-Moussa, Nishan Sudheera Kalupahana
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Mechanisms of obesity-associated insulin resistance and dysglycemia in South Asians remain relatively unknown. The objective of this study was to detect subcutaneous (SAT) vs. visceral (VAT) adipose tissue characteristics and adipocytokines associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and dysglycemia in South Asian women. SUBJECTS/METHODS: This was a hospital-based cross-sectional study conducted in Sri Lanka. Subjects comprised of 58 adult women who underwent routine abdominal surgeries...
February 18, 2019: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30728346/intestinal-electrical-stimulation-attenuates-hyperglycemia-and-prevents-loss-of-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-in-type-2-diabetic-goto-kakizaki-rats
#11
Xiaojun Ouyang, Shiying Li, Yan Tan, Lin Lin, Jieyun Yin, Jiande D Z Chen
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Recently, intestinal electrical stimulation (IES) has been reported to result in weight loss; however, it is unclear whether it has a therapeutic potential for diabetes. The aim of the present study was to explore the potential hypoglycemic effects of IES and its possible mechanisms involving β cells in diabetic rats. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats were chronically implanted with one pair of electrodes in the duodenum. The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and insulin tolerance test (ITT) were performed with or without IES, and plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and insulin level were measured...
February 6, 2019: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30692514/current-formula-for-calculating-body-mass-index-is-applicable-to-asian-populations
#12
EDITORIAL
Anoop Misra, Nikhil V Dhurandhar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 28, 2019: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30683848/the-effect-of-different-sources-of-fish-and-camelina-sativa-oil-on-immune-cell-and-adipose-tissue-mrna-expression-in-subjects-with-abnormal-fasting-glucose-metabolism-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Vanessa D de Mello, Ingrid Dahlman, Maria Lankinen, Sudhir Kurl, Leena Pitkänen, David E Laaksonen, Ursula S Schwab, Arja T Erkkilä
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Molecular mechanisms linking fish and vegetable oil intakes to their healthy metabolic effects may involve attenuation of inflammation. Our primary aim was to examine in a randomized controlled setting whether diets enriched in fatty fish (FF), lean fish (LF) or ALA-rich camelina sativa oil (CSO) differ in their effects on the mRNA expression response of selected inflammation-related genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in subjects with impaired fasting glucose...
January 9, 2019: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30683839/allometric-scaling-of-weight-to-height-and-resulting-body-mass-index-thresholds-in-two-asian-populations
#14
Karoline Hood, Jacob Ashcraft, Krista Watts, Sangmo Hong, Woong Choi, Steven B Heymsfield, Rajesh K Gautam, Diana Thomas
BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI) represents a normalization of weight to height and is used to classify adiposity. While the capacity of BMI as an adiposity index has been experimentally validated in Caucasians, but there has been little testing Asian populations. METHODS: To determine whether weight scales to height squared in Asian Indians across the general population and in Asian Indian tribes an allometric analysis on the power law model, W = αHβ , where W is weight (kg) and H is height (m) was performed on cross-sectional weight and height data from India (N = 43,880) collected through the Anthropological Survey of India...
January 9, 2019: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30531821/effect-of-dried-fruit-on-postprandial-glycemia-a-randomized-acute-feeding-trial
#15
Effie Viguiliouk, Alexandra L Jenkins, Sonia Blanco Mejia, John L Sievenpiper, Cyril W C Kendall
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of dried fruit in modifying postprandial glycemia, we assessed the ability of 4 dried fruits (dates, apricots, raisins, sultanas) to decrease postprandial glycemia through three mechanisms: a glycemic index (GI) effect, displacement effect, or 'catalytic' fructose effect. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We conducted an acute randomized, multiple-crossover trial in an outpatient setting in 10 healthy adults. Participants received 3 white bread control meals and 12 dried fruit test meals in random order...
December 11, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30405108/a-plant-based-diet-in-overweight-individuals-in-a-16-week-randomized-clinical-trial-metabolic-benefits-of-plant-protein
#16
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Hana Kahleova, Rebecca Fleeman, Adela Hlozkova, Richard Holubkov, Neal D Barnard
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: A plant-based diet is an effective strategy in the treatment of obesity. In this 16-week randomized clinical trial, we tested the effect of a plant-based diet on body composition and insulin resistance. As a part of this trial, we investigated the role of plant protein on these outcomes. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Overweight participants (n = 75) were randomized to follow a plant-based (n = 38) or a control diet (n = 37). Dual X-ray Absorptiometry assessed body composition, Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA-IR) assessed insulin resistance, and a linear regression model was used to test the relationship between protein intake, body composition, and insulin resistance...
November 2, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30369599/wdr13-and-streptozotocin-induced-diabetes
#17
Arun Prakash Mishra, Komala Yedella, Jyothi B Lakshmi, Archana B Siva
Type I diabetes, though contributes to only 5-10% of total diabetes cases, is a rising concern in today's world. Our previous studies have shown that the absence of WDR13 in mouse results in pancreatic β-cell hyper-proliferation. Also, amelioration of the diabetic phenotype on introgression of Wdr13-null (Wdr13-/0 ) mutation in genetically diabetic mice (Leprdb/db ) [type II diabetes] was observed. It was thus, interesting to see the role of WDR13 in streptozotocin-mediated diabetes in mice, a model for type I diabetes...
October 29, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30348948/racial-and-ethnic-disparities-in-predictors-of-glycemia-a-moderated-mediation-analysis-of-inflammation-related-predictors-of-diabetes-in-the-nhanes-2007-2010
#18
Sarah Nowlin, Charles M Cleland, Niyati Parekh, Holly Hagan, Gail Melkus
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Racial/ethnic disparities in type 2 diabetes (T2D) outcomes exist, and could be explained by nutrition- and inflammation-related differences. The objective of this study is to identify associations between race/ethnicity and glucose control among participants from NHANES 2007-2010, as influenced by diet quality, body mass, and inflammation and grouped by T2D status. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The following is a cross-sectional, secondary data analysis of two NHANES data cycles spanning 2007-2010...
October 22, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30293998/glucose-homeostasis-dependency-on-acini-islet-acinar-aia-axis-communication-a-new-possible-pathophysiological-hypothesis-regarding-diabetes-mellitus
#19
Stefan G Pierzynowski, Peter C Gregory, Rafał Filip, Jarosław Woliński, Kateryna Goncharova Pierzynowska
Studies have highlighted the existence of two intra-pancreatic axes of communication: one involved in the regulation of enzyme production by insulin-the insular-acinar axis; and another involved in the regulation of insulin release by pancreatic enzymes-the acini-insular axis. Previous studies by our laboratory show that pancreatic enzymes can affect blood glucose homeostasis and insulin secretion independently of their digestive functions, both from the gut lumen and probably from the blood. As a result we would like to introduce here the concept of acini-islet-acinar (AIA) axis communication (feedback), which could play an important role in the development of obesity and diabetes type 2...
October 8, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30287811/sex-specific-correlation-of-igfbp-2-and-igfbp-3-with-vitamin-d-status-in-adults-with-obesity-a-cross-sectional-serum-proteomics-study
#20
Nasser M Al-Daghri, Antigoni Manousopoulou, Majed S Alokail, Sobhy Yakout, Amal Alenad, Diana J Garay-Baquero, Miltiadis Fotopoulos, Jie Teng, Omar Al-Attas, Yousef Al-Saleh, Shaun Sabico, George P Chrousos, Spiros D Garbis
OBJECTIVE: Subjects with low vitamin D levels are at risk of cardiometabolic disease. The aim of this study was to identify novel serological markers linking vitamin D status with cardiometabolic profile in non-diabetic adults with obesity. METHODS: For the discovery phase, we used quantitative serum proteomics in sex-matched, age-matched and BMI-matched subjects with obesity [BMI: 25-35 kg/m2 ] and low [25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L] vs. high vitamin D status [25(OH)D > 50 nmol/L] (n = 16)...
October 4, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
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