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ISRN Cardiology

Ingar Seemann, Johannes A M Te Poele, Saske Hoving, Fiona A Stewart
Background. Radiotherapy is commonly used to treat breast and thoracic cancers but it also causes delayed microvascular damage and increases the risk of cardiac mortality. Endothelial cell proliferation and revascularization are crucial to restore microvasculature damage and maintain function of the irradiated heart. We have therefore examined the potential of bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (BM-derived EPCs) for restoration of radiation-induced microvascular damage. Material & Methods. 16 Gy was delivered to the heart of adult C57BL/6 mice...
2014: ISRN Cardiology
Dustin M Thomas, Edward A Hulten, Shane T Ellis, David M F Anderson, Nathan Anderson, Fiora McRae, Jamil A Malik, Todd C Villines, Ahmad M Slim
Background. We evaluated the incidence of mortality and myocardial infarction (MI) in endovascular repair (EVAR) as compared to open aneurysm repair (OAR) in both elective and ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA ) setting. Methods. We analyzed the rates of 30-day mortality, 30-day MI, and hospital length of stay (LOS) based on comparative observation and randomized control trials involving EVAR and OAR. Results. 41 trials compared EVAR to OAR with a total pooled population of 37,781 patients. Analysis of elective and ruptured AAA repair favored EVAR with respect to 30-day mortality with a pooled odds ratio of 0...
2014: ISRN Cardiology
Jason Saucedo, Shaun Martinho, Dianne Frankel, Ahmad M Slim, Robert E Eckart
Background. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is used for the evaluation of the presence of left atrial appendage (LAA) thrombus prior to pulmonary vein isolation (PVI), while coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is used for anatomic mapping during PVI. Methods. We compared the diagnostic performance of single phase CCTA to TEE in excluding the presence of LAA thrombus in patients undergoing PVI in 172 subjects performed during index hospitalization. Results. The mean age was 51 ± 13 years, a median CHADS2 score of 1 [IQR25,75 0,1, range 0-3] and a mean periprocedural INR of 2...
2014: ISRN Cardiology
Hassan Al-Thani, Ayman El-Menyar
We aimed to evaluate the frequency, clinical profiles and outcomes of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), and their association with coronary artery disease (CAD) in a small country with high cardiovascular burden. Methods. Data were collected for all adult patients who underwent abdominal computed tomography scans at Hamad General Hospital in Qatar between 2004 and 2008. Results. Out of 13,115 screened patients for various reasons, 61 patients (0.5%) had abdominal aneurysms. The majority of AAA patients were male (82%) with a mean age of 67 ± 12 years...
2014: ISRN Cardiology
Basheir Hassan, Saed Morsy, Ahmed Siam, Al Shaymaa Ali, Mohamed Abdo, Mona Al Shafie, Ahmad Hassaneen
Objectives. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of myocardial injury in critically ill children through assessment of cardiac troponin T levels and whether levels are associated with disease severity and myocardial dysfunction measured by echocardiography. Methods. Over a 6-month period, this case control study included 50 patients admitted to Pediatric Intensive Care Unit of Zagazig University Children's Hospital. Twenty-five healthy children were included as a control group. Demographic and clinical data including the pediatric index of mortality II score were recorded...
2014: ISRN Cardiology
María Del Carmen Baez, Mariana Tarán, Candelaria Llorens, Ariel Balceda, María de La Paz Scribano, Patricia Pons, Mónica Moya
In an experimental model of atherogenesis induced by hyperfibrinogenemia (HF), the pharmacological response of vitamin E was studied in order to assess its antioxidant effect on the mitochondrial morphofunctional alterations in aortic smooth muscle cells. Three groups of male rats were used: (Ctr) control, (AI) atherogenesis induced for 120 days, and (AIE) atherogenesis induced for 120 days and treated with vitamin E. HF was induced by adrenalin injection (0.1 mg/day/rat) for 120 days. AIE group was treated with the administration of 3...
2014: ISRN Cardiology
Pietro Francia, Francesca Palano, Giuliano Tocci, Carmen Adduci, Agnese Ricotta, Lorenzo Semprini, Massimo Caprinozzi, Cristina Balla, Massimo Volpe
International guidelines recommend ICD implantation in patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction of any origin only after careful optimization of medical therapy. Indeed, major randomized clinical trials suggest that suboptimal use of fundamental drugs, such as ACE inhibitors (ACE-i) and beta-blockers, may affect ICD shock-free survival, sudden cardiac death (SCD), and overall mortality. While solid evidence in favour of pharmacological therapy based on ACE-i with or without beta-blockers is available, data on SCD in HF patients treated with angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are limited...
2014: ISRN Cardiology
Bruno Ramos Nascimento, Marcos Roberto de Sousa, Fábio Nogueira Demarqui, Antonio Luiz Pinho Ribeiro
Objectives. Assess the impact of associating thrombolytics, anticoagulants, antiplatelets, and primary angioplasty (PA) on death, reinfarction (AMI), and major bleeding (MB) in STEMI therapy. Methods. Medline search was performed to identify randomized trials comparing these classes in STEMI treatment, at least 500 patients, providing death, AMI, and MB rates. Similar arms were grouped. Correlation between number of drugs and PA and the outcomes was evaluated, as well as correlation between the year of the study and the outcomes...
2014: ISRN Cardiology
Julianna M Czum, Anne M Silas, Morgan C Althoen
The pericardium plays an important role in optimizing cardiac motion and chamber pressures and serves as a barrier to pathology. In addition to pericardial anatomy and function, this review article covers a variety of pericardial conditions, with mention of potential pitfalls encountered during interpretation of diagnostic imaging. Normal and abnormal appearance of pericardium on CT and MR imaging is emphasized, including dynamic imaging correlates of pericardial pathophysiology.
2014: ISRN Cardiology
Shota Oikawa, Hiroko Nomura, Miki Nishio, Rina Nagata, Tadayoshi Hata
Objectives. Doxapram hydrochloride is a respiratory stimulant that has an inhibitory effect on myocardial IK1 potassium channels and is thought to increase membrane instability and excitability in myocardial cells. We examined the arrhythmogenic effects of doxapram hydrochloride in a rat model of halothane adrenaline-induced arrhythmia. Methods. Thirteen female Wistar rats (12-14 weeks old) were used in the study. Animals were anesthetized with inhalation of halothane to permit observation of the effects of doxapram hydrochloride on halothane adrenaline-induced arrhythmia...
2014: ISRN Cardiology
Nektarios D Pilatis, Zacharias-Alexandros Anyfantakis, Kyriakos Spiliopoulos, Dimitrios Degiannis, Antigoni Chaidaroglou, Georgia Vergou, Konstantina Kimpouri, Dennis V Cokkinos
Objective. To evaluate the association of BNP and CRP with the development of postoperative atrial fibrillation following coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. Methods. The series consists of 125 patients (aged 65 ± 9 years), who underwent isolated CABG-surgery. BNP and CRP levels were measured pre- and 24 hours postoperatively and their correlation to the development of postoperative AF was analyzed. Results. Forty-four patients (35%) developed AF postoperatively. They were significantly older (68 ± 8 versus 63 ± 9, P = 0...
December 25, 2013: ISRN Cardiology
Tsuyoshi Kaneko, Sary F Aranki
Advances in surgery for atrial fibrillation from cut and sew technique to thoracoscopy and new energy source have enabled minimally invasive approach which avoids median sternotomy and cardiopulmonary bypass. However, minimally invasive approach is unable to match the outcome of classic surgical technique due to difficulty in creating some of linear ablation lines. Hybrid procedure using catheter mapping and ablation in addition to minimally invasive surgical ablation has gained interest to combine the advantages of both procedures...
December 16, 2013: ISRN Cardiology
Hean Teik Ong, Loke Meng Ong, Jacqueline Judith Ho
Context. Whether angiotensin converting-enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARB) are useful in high risk patients without heart failure is unclear. We perform a meta-analysis of prospective randomized placebo-controlled ACEI or ARB trials studying patients with a combination of risk factors to assess treatment impact on all cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. Method. A PubMed search was made for placebo-controlled trials recruiting at least 1,200 high risk patients randomized to either ACEI or ARB, with follow-up of at least 2 years...
November 6, 2013: ISRN Cardiology
Darryl A Elmouchi, Nagib Chalfoun, Andre Gauri
Modern cardiac rhythm management systems have become increasingly complex. The decision on which specific system to implant in a given patient often rests with the implanting physician. We conducted a multiple-choice survey to assess the opinions and preferences of cardiologists and electrophysiologists who implant and follow cardiac rhythm management systems. Reliability and battery longevity were viewed as the most important characteristics in device selection. Patient characteristics which most affected device choice were pacing indication and life expectancy...
2013: ISRN Cardiology
Amit Mittal, Mohit D Gupta, Girish Meennahalli Palleda, Aniruddha Vyas, Sanjay Tyagi
Adiponectin is an adipocyte specific cytokine which, in contrast to other adipokines, has been described to have antiinflammatory, antithrombotic, and anti-atherogenic properties. This study evaluates the association between plasma adiponectin levels with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and angiographic coronary lesion severity in Indian population. Ninety patients included in the study were divided in two groups in 1 : 1 ratio-patients admitted with a diagnosis of ACS and those without ACS. Adiponectin and other risk markers are measured in forty-five consecutive patients in each group undergoing coronary angiography...
2013: ISRN Cardiology
Carlos Garza-García, Sánchez-Santillán Rocío, Arturo Orea-Tejeda, Lilia Castillo-Martínez, Canseco Eduardo, José Luis López-Campos, Candace Keirns-Davis
Objective. The aim of the study was to describe echocardiographic abnormalities in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, concurrent systemic comorbidities, rheumatologic clinical activity, serologic markers of rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory activity. Methods. In an observational, cross-sectional study, rheumatoid arthritis outpatients were included (n = 105). Conventional transthoracic echocardiographic variables were compared between patients with arthritis and non-RA controls (n = 41). For rheumatoid arthritis patients, articular activity and rheumatologic and inflammatory markers were obtained...
2013: ISRN Cardiology
Verónica Crisóstomo, Juan Maestre, Manuel Maynar, Fei Sun, Claudia Báez-Díaz, Jesús Usón, Francisco M Sánchez-Margallo
Our aim was to develop an easy-to-induce, reproducible, and low mortality clinically relevant closed-chest model of chronic myocardial infarction in swine using intracoronary ethanol and characterize its evolution using MRI and pathology. We injected 3-4 mL of 100% ethanol into the mid-LAD of anesthetized swine. Heart function and infarct size were assessed serially using MRI. Pigs were euthanized on days 7, 30, and 90 (n = 5 at each timepoint). Postoperative MRI revealed compromised contractility and decreased ejection fraction, from 53...
2013: ISRN Cardiology
Aibek E Mirrakhimov, Alaa M Ali, Aram Barbaryan, Suartcha Prueksaritanond
Human immunodeficiency virus- (HIV-) related pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare complication of HIV infection. The pathophysiology of HIV-related PAH is complex, with viral proteins seeming to play the major role. However, other factors, such as coinfection with other microorganisms and HIV-related systemic inflammation, might also contribute. The clinical presentation of HIV-related PAH and diagnosis is similar to other forms of pulmonary hypertension. Both PAH-specific therapies and HAART are important in HIV-related PAH management...
2013: ISRN Cardiology
Mitalee P Christman, Margarita Castro-Zarraga, Doreen Defaria Yeh, Richard R Liberthson, Ami B Bhatt
Adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD) face noncardiac healthcare challenges as the population ages. We assessed whether women with ACHD have comparable cancer screening rates to non-ACHD women in a cardiac practice and to the general population. We performed a retrospective review of 175 adult women seen in a cardiac care center in 2009-2011. Data on Pap tests, mammography, and colonoscopies, were collected through electronic medical records and primary care provider records. Adequate documentation was available for 100 individuals with ACHD and 40 comparator cardiac patients...
2013: ISRN Cardiology
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