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International Journal of Paleopathology

Elizabeth W Uhl, Charles Kelderhouse, Jane Buikstra, Jeffrey P Blick, Brad Bolon, Robert J Hogan
OBJECTIVE: Canine distemper virus (CDV), human measles virus (HMV), and rinderpest virus (RPV) of cattle are morbilliviruses that have caused devastating outbreaks for centuries. This paper seeks to reconstruct the evolutionary history of CDV. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An interdisciplinary approach is adopted, synthesizing paleopathological analysis of 96 Pre-Columbian dogs (750-1470 CE) from the Weyanoke Old Town, Virginia site, with historical reports, molecular analysis and morbilliviral epidemiology...
February 8, 2019: International Journal of Paleopathology
Christine Jones
OBJECTIVE: This project is a case study discussing the differential diagnosis of multiple osteolytic vertebral lesions typical of brucellosis from an adult female from Fate Bell Rock Shelter in the Lower Pecos, Texas (4000-1300 BP). MATERIALS: One middle to late adult female with exceptional preservation of the vertebrae. METHODS: All skeletal remains were observed with low power magnification and the vertebrae were examined in greater detail using computed tomography (CT)...
January 30, 2019: International Journal of Paleopathology
Tracy K Betsinger, Maria O Smith
OBJECTIVE: Documentation of an advanced case of tertiary stage treponemal disease. MATERIALS: The well-preserved cranium and mandible of an adult male (Burial G) from the Early Woodland period (900 BCE-200 CE) Wilhoite site (40GN10) from east Tennessee. METHODS: Macroscopic examination of the cranio-facial periostosis on Burial G for pathognomonic indicators of treponemal disease. RESULTS: There are extensive contiguous nodular lesions on the frontal, parietals, temporals, and occipital bones...
January 23, 2019: International Journal of Paleopathology
Dorthe Dangvard Pedersen, George R Milner, Hans Jørn Kolmos, Jesper Lier Boldsen
Sensitivity and specificity estimates for 18 skeletal lesions were generated from modern skeletons for future paleoepidemiological analyses of tuberculosis prevalence in archaeological samples. A case-control study was conducted using 480 skeletons from 20th century American skeletal collections. One-half of the skeletons were documented tuberculosis cases (Terry Collection). The remaining age and sex-matched skeletons were controls (Bass Collection). The association between 18 candidate skeletal lesions and tuberculosis was established by comparing lesion distributions in case and control groups...
January 17, 2019: International Journal of Paleopathology
Kenji Okazaki, Hirofumi Takamuku, Shiori Yonemoto, Yu Itahashi, Takashi Gakuhari, Minoru Yoneda, Jie Chen
The earliest evidence of human tuberculosis can be traced to at least the early dynastic periods, when full-scaled wet-rice agriculture began or entered its early developmental stages, in circum-China countries (Japan, Korea, and Thailand). Early studies indicated that the initial spread of tuberculosis coincided with the development of wet-rice agriculture. It has been proposed that the adaptation to agriculture changed human social/living environments, coincidentally favoring survival and spread of pathogenic Mycobacterial strains that cause tuberculosis...
January 16, 2019: International Journal of Paleopathology
Richard Donat, Fatima-Zohra Mokrane, Hervé Rousseau, Fabrice Dedouit, Norbert Telmon, Éric Crubézy
In humans, little is yet known about the origins of the inflammatory rheumatisms of the spondyloarthritides group, especially regarding the period of their emergence. However, a better knowledge of their history would help to clarify their aetiology. We report a paleopathological case of European origin, dated from the late Neolithic (3621-3023 cal BC), consisting of an isolated vertebral block combining erosion, ossification and severe anterior and posterior ankylosis. The lesional presentation is very suggestive of a severe form of axial spondyloarthritis...
December 28, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
A B Scott, R D Hoppa
The Little Ice Age, beginning in Europe in the 14th century, saw a period of climatic cooling and increased precipitation where food sources dwindled and famine became rampant, particularly in urban city centers. This study focuses on the Black Friars population (13th-17th centuries) to explore changes in stress in Denmark at the onset of the Little Ice Age. This study specifically explores the periods before and after the turn of the 14th century. Forty-five adult individuals were analyzed for cribra orbitalia, porotic hyperostosis, and enamel hypoplastic lesions...
December 27, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
George A Lyras, Aggeliki Giannakopoulou, Theodoros Lillis, Alexandra A E van der Geer
PURPOSE: This communication reports skeletal pathology in a Pleistocene endemic deer from the Mavromouri caves of Crete. MATERIALS: 287 bones and bone fragments from Mavromouri caves are compared to 2986 bones from Liko Cave. METHODS: Bones were evaluated macroscopically, and measurements were made of morphometric characteristics of limb long bones. Representative bone specimens were examined radiographically and histologically. RESULTS: Macroscopic hallmarks were loss of bone mass and increased porosity...
December 17, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Giulia Riccomi, Gino Fornaciari, Valentina Giuffra
This paper provides a critical literature review concerning paleopathological evidence of multiple myeloma discovered both in the Old and in the New World. A critical assessment of the bioarchaeological and paleopathological documentary sources permitted to identify a total of 25 ascertained cases of multiple myeloma from different geographical areas in the world ranging from Prehistoric times up to the Contemporary age. The distribution of multiple myeloma findings in past times shows that the majority of cases have been discovered in the Old World (n = 18) and extend back to the Middle Ages, while the evidences in the New World (n = 7) seems to date back to the pre-Columbian era...
December 6, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Dorthe Dangvard Pedersen, George R Milner, Hans Jørn Kolmos, Jesper Lier Boldsen
Millions of people worldwide have sickened and died from tuberculosis in recent centuries. Yet for most of human existence, the impact of tuberculosis on society is largely unknown. It is, indeed, unknowable without methods suitable for estimating disease prevalence in skeletal samples. Here such a procedure is applied to medieval and early modern Danish skeletons, and it shows how disease prevalence varied with differences in socioeconomic conditions. The approach is based on sensitivity and specificity estimates from modern skeletons...
December 3, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Emily Banfield, Alexander Stoll, Richard Thomas
Trauma associated with slaughter is identified occasionally archaeologically in the cranial remains of domesticated animals, with evidence for pole-axing occurring in Europe, especially from the Roman period onwards. The injury typically extends through the frontal bone and sinuses to penetrate the braincase, causing haemorrhage, loss of consciousness, brain damage, and death. Evidence for slaughter methods in the British Neolithic, however, is lacking. We report such evidence from a healed blunt-force impact trauma to the frontal bone of a domestic cattle skull from Beckhampton Road Neolithic long barrow, Wiltshire...
December 3, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Jane E Buikstra, Anne L Grauer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Kateřina Kalová, Kateřina Boberová, Renáta Přichystalová, Jan Nováček, Ivana Jarošová, Tomáš Zikmund, Jozef Kaiser, Klaudia Kyselicová, Lukáš Šebest, Marián Baldovič, Adam Frtús, Martin Sikora, Morten E Allentoft
The skeletal remains of the young female (20-24 years) from Grave JP/106, discovered in the Southern Suburb of the Břeclav - Pohansko Stronghold (Early Middle Ages, 9th century-beginning of the 10th century, present day Czech Republic) display several noteworthy pathologies. The first is deformation of the mandible, which was most probably caused by a fracture of the ramus in combination with a subcondylar fracture. The spine of this young woman also exhibits a probable traumatic injury of the cervical spine in combination with a slowly growing structure situated inside the spinal canal, which caused deformation centered upon C7...
November 26, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Luc A A Janssens, Ivo K A Verheijen, Jordi Serangeli, Thijs van Kolfschoten
Evaluation of a right ventral scapula fragment from a mature Homotherium latidens from Schöningen, Germany (337-300 ka before present - MIS 9) revealed lesions consisting of an osteophyte at the caudal border of the glenoid cavity, and a large, multilobular, cystic feature in the medio-caudal glenoid cavity. Based on the type of lesions, their localization, their severity, and exclusion of several nutritional and other etiologies such as immune mediated disease, joint infection (septic arthritis), and joint tumors, we conclude that the lesion was caused by trauma or age-related shoulder osteoarthritis (or possibly both)...
March 2019: International Journal of Paleopathology
Glenville Jones
Although vitamin D deficiency was first recognized as rickets/osteomalacia in the early 1600s, it was only a century ago that vitamin D, the nutritional factor responsible, was discovered. This discovery was made difficult by the fact that the substance could be synthesized in human skin by exposure to UV light and could also be present in the diet in animal-derived (D3 ) and plant-derived forms (D2 ). Prior to 1920, the frequency of vitamin D deficiency in the general population of industrialized cities was high...
December 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
S Mays
This article considers the nature of written sources on the epidemiology of rickets in the post-Mediaeval period, and examines the value of these sources for palaeopathologists. There is a progression from 17th-18th century sources, which generally make ex cathedra, qualitative statements on rickets frequency to, in the 19th century, semi-quantitative geographical surveys of its occurrence, through to reports of percentage prevalence in various groups. Of course, even these latter cannot be directly compared with prevalences calculated from excavated skeletal remains, but there are also considerable difficulties in comparing them with one another, and this effectively precludes synthesis to provide reliable information on geographic and temporal trends at anything more than a very broad-brush level...
December 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Rachel Ives
Growing evidence suggests that vitamin D supports immune responses to infections, autoimmune conditions and cancers, although evidence from large-scale studies is limited. There is scope to better understand how vitamin D deficiency interacted with other diseases to affect health in past groups. This study investigated paleopathological evidence and documentary records of individual cause of death to examine disease co-occurrence in a group of mid-19th century child burials from London, UK. Twenty-one percent of children had vitamin D deficiency rickets (138/642) and 36 children with rickets had an identified cause of death...
December 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Barbara Veselka, Alie E van der Merwe, Menno L P Hoogland, Andrea L Waters-Rist
The most common cause of vitamin D deficiency is inadequate dermal exposure to sunlight. Residual rickets is nonadult vitamin D deficiency still evident in an adult individual, whereas osteomalacia occurs in adulthood. Previous research on the Beemster population, a 19th century rural community in the Netherlands, identified rickets in 30.4% of the nonadults between the ages of two and four years (n=7/23). Because the sex of these nonadults was not known it was not possible to determine if there were differences between boys and girls...
December 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Rebecca Watts, Sascha-Ray Valme
Vitamin D deficiency rickets was considered endemic in the industrialized cities of 19th century England, but was rarely reported in more rural and suburban areas. The commercial excavation of St. John's Church, Redhill, Surrey, UK provided an opportunity to examine to what extent suburban children were affected by rickets and the factors responsible for its development. Seventy-nine non-adults (0-17 years) from St. John's Church were subjected to macroscopic and radiographic analysis to identify skeletal manifestations of vitamin D deficiency...
December 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Laura Lockau, Stephanie A Atkinson
While the role of vitamin D in supporting bone homeostasis during growth and maintenance is well substantiated, emerging evidence from ecological and observational studies suggests that a deficiency of vitamin D is associated with some cancers, immune disorders, cardiovascular disease, abnormal glucose metabolism, and neurodegenerative diseases. Biological plausibility for extraskeletal functions originated with the discovery of the vitamin D receptor in many body tissues and knowledge that the conversion of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) to its active metabolite 1,25(OH)2 D occurs in many cell types in addition to the kidney...
December 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
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