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Cell & Bioscience

Fatemeh Safari, Khadijeh Zare, Manica Negahdaripour, Mazyar Barekati-Mowahed, Younes Ghasemi
CRISPR and CRISPR-associated (Cas) protein, as components of microbial adaptive immune system, allows biologists to edit genomic DNA in a precise and specific way. CRISPR-Cas systems are classified into two main classes and six types. Cpf1 is a putative type V (class II) CRISPR effector, which can be programmed with a CRISPR RNA to bind and cleave complementary DNA targets. Cpf1 has recently emerged as an alternative for Cas9, due to its distinct features such as the ability to target T-rich motifs, no need for trans-activating crRNA, inducing a staggered double-strand break and potential for both RNA processing and DNA nuclease activity...
2019: Cell & Bioscience
Namarta Kalia, Jatinder Singh, Sujata Sharma, Manpreet Kaur
Background: Human mannose binding lectin (MBL) and dendritic cell-associated C-type lectin-1 (Dectin-1) are the two prototypical PRRs of innate immunity, whose direct role in recurrent vulvovaginal infections (RVVI) defense has been defined. Previously, MBL insufficiency was proposed as a possible risk factor for the rapid progression of RVVI while, Dectin-1 was found to be playing an active role in the defense. However, the complete genetic bases for the observed low MBL levels are still lacking as our previous studies in harmony with others demonstrated the un-expected genotype-phenotype patterns...
2019: Cell & Bioscience
Zhangjing Ma, Huiyuan Shi, Yi Shen, Huixia Li, Yu Yang, Jiange Yang, Hui Zhao, Gang Wang, Jingqiang Wang
Background: Previous studies have shown that in myogenic precursors, the homeoprotein Msx1 and its protein partners, histone methyltransferases and repressive histone marks, tend to be enriched on target myogenic regulatory genes at the nuclear periphery. The nuclear periphery localization of Msx1 and its protein partners is required for Msx1's function of preventing myogenic precursors from pre-maturation through repressing target myogenic regulatory genes. However, the mechanisms underlying the maintenance of Msx1 and its protein partners' nuclear periphery localization are unknown...
2019: Cell & Bioscience
Ying Liu, Tianrui Zhang, Dong Sun, Guangzuo Luo
Background: Cell polarity refers to spatial difference in morphology, structure, and function within different parts of a single cell, which plays important roles in a wide range of cellular processes. In eukaryotic cells, the small GTPase Cdc42 and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2 ) are critical components for cell polarity and required for polarized exocytosis and cell growth. Previous data showed that the GTPase-interacting components, Gic1 and Gic2, control cell polarity through its binding with Cdc42 and PtdIns(4,5)P2 in the plasma membrane in budding yeast...
2019: Cell & Bioscience
Xin Zhou, MengMeng Xu, Joseph L Bryant, Jianjie Ma, Xuehong Xu
Physical exercise is well known to benefit human health at every age. However, the exact mechanism through which physical exercise improves health remains unknown. Recent studies into exercise-induced myokine FNDC5/irisin, a newly discovered hormone, have begun to shed light on this mystery. Exercise-induced myokine FNDC5/irisin have been shown to be protective against cardiovascular damage post ischemic event, improve function in the neurons of Alzheimer's disease patients, and have been implicated in macrophage and adipocyte regulation...
2019: Cell & Bioscience
Xiaoli Huang, Yang Feng, Guanqing Xiong, Shona Whyte, Jing Duan, Yucen Yang, Kaiyu Wang, Shiyong Yang, Yi Geng, Yangping Ou, Defang Chen
Pyroptosis, a type of programmed cell death that along with inflammation, is mainly regulated by two main pathways, cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase (caspase)-1-induced canonical inflammatory pathway and caspase-11-induced non-canonical inflammatory pathway. The non-canonical inflammatory pathway-induced pyroptosis is a unique immune response in response to gram-negative (G- ) bacteria. It is induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the surface of G- bacteria. This activates caspase-11 which, in turn, activates a series of downstream proteins eventually forming protein pores on the cell membrane and inducing cell sacrificial processes...
2019: Cell & Bioscience
Ayda Pouyafar, Milad Zadi Heydarabad, Jalal Abdolali Zade, Reza Rahbarghazi, Mehdi Talebi
Cancer stem cells obtain energy demand through the activation of glycolysis and lipolysis. It seems that the use of approached targeting glycolysis and lipolysis could be an effective strategy for the inhibition of cancer stem cells. In the current experiment, we studied the potential effect of glycolysis and lipolysis inhibition on cancer stem cells differentiation and mesenchymal-epithelial-transition capacity. Cancer stem cells were enriched from human ovarian cells namely SKOV3 by using MACS technique. Cells were exposed to Lonidamine, an inhibitor of glycolysis, and TOFA, a potent inhibitor of lipolysis for 7 days in endothelial differentiation medium; EGM-2 and cell viability was studied by MTT assay...
2019: Cell & Bioscience
Anna Katarzyna Wrońska, Mieczysława Irena Boguś
Background: Although the β-carboline alkaloids harman and norharman are considered as plant metabolites, they can also be secreted by fungi such as the entomopathogen Conidiobolus coronatus . Norharman and harman are also known to be reversible competitive monamine oxidase inhibitors, which increase serotonin concentrations in tissues. In addition, these alkaloids are able to bind to serotonin receptors, an important immune regulatory molecule in both vertebrates and invertebrates. In insects, serotonin modulates hemocyte phagocytosis, nodule formation and the populations of hemocyte classes...
2019: Cell & Bioscience
Dongfeng Cheng, Juanjuan Fan, Yang Ma, Yiran Zhou, Kai Qin, Minmin Shi, Jingrui Yang
Background: Small nucleolar RNA host gene 7 (SNHG7) is a novel identified oncogenic gene in tumorigenesis. However, the role that SNHG7 plays in pancreatic cancer (PC) remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the functional effects of SNHG7 on PC and the possible mechanism. Methods: The expression levels of SNHG7 in tissues and cell lines were measured by RT-qPCR. Cell viability, apoptosis, migration and invasion were examined to explore the function of SNHG7 on PC...
2019: Cell & Bioscience
MengFang Xia, YaZhuo Zhang, Ke Jin, ZiTong Lu, Zhaoyang Zeng, Wei Xiong
Mitochondria are energy factories of cells and are important pivots for intracellular interactions with other organelles. They interact with the endoplasmic reticulum, peroxisomes, and nucleus through signal transduction, vesicle transport, and membrane contact sites to regulate energy metabolism, biosynthesis, immune response, and cell turnover. However, when the communication between organelles fails and the mitochondria are dysfunctional, it may induce tumorigenesis. In this review, we elaborate on how mitochondria interact with the endoplasmic reticulum, peroxisomes, and cell nuclei, as well as the relation between organelle communication and tumor development ...
2019: Cell & Bioscience
Xue Wang, Gui-Liang Hao, Bo-Ya Wang, Chen-Chen Gao, Yue-Xiu Wang, Li-Sheng Li, Jing-Dong Xu
As the main player in humoral immunity, antibodies play indispensable roles in the body's immune system. Plasma cells (PCs), as antibody factories, are important contributors to humoral immunity. PCs, recognized by their unique marker CD138, are always discovered in the medullary cords of spleen and lymph nodes and in bone marrow and mucosal lymphoid tissue. This article will review the origin and differentiation of PCs, characteristics of short- and long-lived PCs, and the secretion of antibodies, such as IgA, IgM, and IgG...
2019: Cell & Bioscience
Juliann G Kiang, Ayodele O Olabisi
The range of radiation threats we face today includes everything from individual radiation exposures to mass casualties resulting from a terrorist incident, and many of these exposure scenarios include the likelihood of additional traumatic injury as well. Radiation injury is defined as an ionizing radiation exposure inducing a series of organ injury within a specified time. Severity of organ injury depends on the radiation dose and the duration of radiation exposure. Organs and cells with high sensitivity to radiation injury are the skin, the hematopoietic system, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, spermatogenic cells, and the vascular system...
2019: Cell & Bioscience
Yanmei Wu, Ping Wu, Quan Zhang, Wenjin Chen, Xishui Liu, Weiqiang Zheng
Purpose: Human basal-like breast cancer (BLBC) is an aggressive malignancy with poor prognosis. Since most current treatments are ineffective, there is an urgent need to identify therapeutic targets for BLBC. Microfibrillar-associated protein 5 (MFAP5) plays an important role in the integration of elastic microfibers and the regulation of endothelial cell behaviors. We previously demonstrated that MFAP5 was significantly overexpressed in BLBC tissues and associated with poor metastasis-free survival of patients with BLBC...
2019: Cell & Bioscience
Wenjing Zou, Chao Niu, Zhou Fu, Caihui Gong
Dexamethasone (Dex) are widely used for the treatment of asthma. However, they may cause apoptosis of bronchial epithelial cells and delay the recovery of asthma. Therefore, it is an urgent problem to find effective drugs to reduce this side effects. Panax notoginseng saponins R1 (PNS-R1) is known to exhibit anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic properties in many diseases. We aim to investigate whether PNS-R1 can reduce Dex-induced apoptosis in bronchial epithelial cells. In this study, the anti-apoptotic effects of PNS-R1 were investigated by conducting in vitro and in vivo...
2019: Cell & Bioscience
Lei Huo, Wenxin Wei, Zhenlin Yan, Zhengqing Lei, Yanting Xie, Renyan Gong, Shengyu Huang, Ningyang Jia, Yong Xia
Background: Portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a sign of advanced stage disease, which is associated with poor prognosis. Liver resection (LR) may provide better prognosis in selected patients. In the present study, we aimed to assess information from HCC patients with PVTT who died within 3 months or 2 years after LR in order to identify preoperative factors correlated to short-term or long-term survival, by which inappropriate selection of patients for LR might be avoided in the future...
2019: Cell & Bioscience
Tatsuo Kido, Yun-Fai Chris Lau
Background: Liver cancer is one of the major causes of cancer death worldwide, with significantly higher incidence and mortality among the male patients. Although sex hormones and their receptors could contribute to such sex differences, the story is incomplete. Genes on the male-specific region of the Y chromosome could play a role(s) in this cancer. TSPY is the putative gene for the gonadoblastoma locus on the Y chromosome (GBY) that is ectopically expressed in a subset of male hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs)...
2019: Cell & Bioscience
Katarzyna I Szczerkowska, Silvia Petrezselyova, Jiri Lindovsky, Marcela Palkova, Jan Dvorak, Peter Makovicky, Mingyan Fang, Chongyi Jiang, Lingyan Chen, Mingming Shi, Xiao Liu, Jianguo Zhang, Agnieszka Kubik-Zahorodna, Bjoern Schuster, Inken M Beck, Vendula Novosadova, Jan Prochazka, Radislav Sedlacek
Zinc finger 644 (Zfp644 in mouse, ZNF644 in human) gene is a transcription factor whose mutation S672G is considered a potential genetic factor of inherited high myopia. ZNF644 interacts with G9a/GLP complex, which functions as a H3K9 methyltransferase to silence transcription. In this study, we generated mouse models to unravel the mechanisms leading to symptoms associated with high myopia. Employing TALEN technology, two mice mutants were generated, either with the disease-carrying mutation ( Zfp644 S673G ) or with a truncated form of Zfp644 ( Zfp644 Δ8 )...
2019: Cell & Bioscience
Huaming Cao, Dongsheng Yu, Xueyun Yan, Bing Wang, Zhiming Yu, Yu Song, Liang Sheng
Background: Endothelial cells (EC) are sensitive to changes in the microenvironment, including hypoxia and ischemia. Disruption of the microtubular network has been reported in cases of ischemia. However, the signaling pathways involved in hypoxia-induced microtubular disruption are unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in hypoxia-induced microtubular disassembly in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Results: HUVECs were cultured under normoxic or hypoxic conditions and pretreated with or without colchicine or paclitaxel...
2019: Cell & Bioscience
Yuan Zhang, Yunfeng Liu, Haiying Liu, Wai Ho Tang
Exosomes are nano-sized biovesicles released into surrounding body fluids upon fusion of multivesicular bodies and the plasma membrane. They were shown to carry cell-specific cargos of proteins, lipids, and genetic materials, and can be selectively taken up by neighboring or distant cells far from their release, reprogramming the recipient cells upon their bioactive compounds. Therefore, the regulated formation of exosomes, specific makeup of their cargo, cell-targeting specificity are of immense biological interest considering extremely high potential of exosomes as non-invasive diagnostic biomarkers, as well as therapeutic nanocarriers...
2019: Cell & Bioscience
Chongyang Shen, Chuan Yang, Shijun Xu, Hai Zhao
Background: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been extensively explored as a promising therapeutic agent in the field of bone tissue engineering due to their osteogenic differentiation ability. In this study, the osteogenic differential ability and the effect of fibronectin and laminin on the osteogenic differentiation in four types of MSCs derived from placental tissue are compared to determine the ideal source for bone reconstruction tissue engineering. Results: The present study examines the osteogenic differentiation levels of four types of MSCs using alizarin red staining and quantifies the calcium levels and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity...
2019: Cell & Bioscience
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