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EJNMMI Research

Tetsuya Tsujikawa, Toshiki Tasaki, Naoko Hosono, Tetsuya Mori, Akira Makino, Yasushi Kiyono, Paolo Zanotti-Fregonara, Takahiro Yamauchi, Hidehiko Okazawa
BACKGROUND: Bone marrow failure syndrome (BMFS) is a heterogeneous group of disorders associated with single- or multiple-lineage cytopenia and failure of normal hematopoiesis. We assessed the feasibility of integrated PET/MRI with 3'-deoxy-3'-18 F-fluorothymidine (18 F-FLT) to assess the pathophysiology of whole-body bone marrow for the diagnosis and monitoring of BMFS. Twenty-five consecutive patients with BMFS underwent a pre-treatment 18 F-FLT PET/MRI scan. They included 7 patients with aplastic anemia (AA), 16 with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and 2 with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), primary myelofibrosis (MF), and secondary [post-essential thrombocythemia (post-ET)] MF...
February 15, 2019: EJNMMI Research
Irina Velikyan, Torsten Haack, Martin Bossart, Andreas Evers, Iina Laitinen, Philip Larsen, Oliver Plettenburg, Lars Johansson, Stefan Pierrou, Michael Wagner, Olof Eriksson
The glucagon receptor (GCGR) is emerging as an important target in anti-diabetic therapy, especially as part of the pharmacology of dual glucagon-like peptide-1/glucagon (GLP-1/GCG) receptor agonists. However, currently, there are no suitable biomarkers that reliably demonstrate GCG receptor target engagement. METHODS: Two potent GCG receptor peptide agonists, S01-GCG and S02-GCG, were labeled with positron emission tomography (PET) radionuclide gallium-68. The GCG receptor binding affinity and specificity of the resulting radiopharmaceuticals [68 Ga]Ga-DO3A-S01-GCG and [68 Ga]Ga-DO3A-S02-GCG were evaluated in HEK-293 cells overexpressing the human GCG receptor and on frozen hepatic sections from human, non-human primate, and rat...
February 15, 2019: EJNMMI Research
David A Pattison, Lisa L MacFarlane, Jason Callahan, Emma L Kane, Timothy Akhurst, Rodney J Hicks
BACKGROUND: Hyperglycaemia can influence 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake due to competition for glucose transport and phosphorylation by hexokinase. Major international nuclear medicine societies recommend blood glucose level (BGL) < 11.1 mmol/L (200 mg/dL) prior to performing FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). However, there is no consensus approach and complications of previously proposed insulin guidelines included significant hypoglycaemia, inconvenience and skeletal muscle uptake...
February 8, 2019: EJNMMI Research
Guilherme D Kolinger, David Vállez García, Gerbrand M Kramer, Virginie Frings, Egbert F Smit, Adrianus J de Langen, Rudi A J O Dierckx, Otto S Hoekstra, Ronald Boellaard
BACKGROUND: Total metabolic active tumour volume (TMATV) and total tumour burden (TTB) are increasingly studied as prognostic and predictive factors in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. In this study, we investigated the repeatability of TMATV and TTB as function of uptake interval, positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) image reconstruction settings, and lesion delineation method. We used six lesion delineation methods, four direct PET image-derived delineations and two based on a majority vote approach, i...
February 7, 2019: EJNMMI Research
Madhav Prasad Yadav, Sanjana Ballal, Chandrasekhar Bal
BACKGROUND: The role of concomitant peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) and capecitabine therapy has shown benefit in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. However, data reporting its role in paraganglioma (PGL) patients is lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of combined capecitabine and 177 Lu-DOTATATE in malignant PGL patients. METHODS: In this retrospective, single-institutional, single-arm, observational study, data of consecutive advanced stage PGL patients treated with concomitant 177 Lu-DOTATATE-capecitabine therapy, between July 2009 and March 2017, were collected and analyzed...
February 6, 2019: EJNMMI Research
M C F Cysouw, S V S Golla, V Frings, E F Smit, O S Hoekstra, G M Kramer, R Boellaard
BACKGROUND: Partial-volume effects generally result in an underestimation of tumor tracer uptake on PET-CT for small lesions, necessitating partial-volume correction (PVC) for accurate quantification. However, investigation of PVC in dynamic oncological PET studies to date is scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate PVC's impact on tumor kinetic parameter estimation from dynamic PET-CT acquisitions and subsequent validation of simplified semi-quantitative metrics. Ten patients with EGFR-mutated non-small cell lung cancer underwent dynamic 18 F-fluorothymidine PET-CT before, 7 days after, and 28 days after commencing treatment with a tyrosine kinase inhibitor...
February 4, 2019: EJNMMI Research
John P Bois, Chris Scott, Panithaya Chareonthaitawee, Raymond J Gibbons, Martin Rodriguez-Porcel
BACKGROUND: Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is commonly used to assess patients with cardiovascular disease. However, in certain scenarios, it may have limited specificity in the identification of hemodynamically significant coronary artery disease (e.g., false positive), potentially resulting in additional unnecessary testing and treatment. Phase analysis (PA) is an emerging, highly reproducible quantitative technology that can differentiate normal myocardial activation (synchrony) from myocardial scar (dyssynchrony)...
January 31, 2019: EJNMMI Research
Masatoshi Hotta, Ryogo Minamimoto, Kazuhiko Yamada, Kyoko Nohara, Daisuke Soma, Kazuhiko Nakajima, Jun Toyohara, Kei Takase
BACKGROUND: 4'-[Methyl-11C] thiothymidine (4DST) has been introduced as a new cell proliferation imaging PET tracer that incorporates into DNA directly. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the efficacy of 4DST PET/CT for predicting responses to neoadjuvant therapy in patients with esophageal cancer comparing with FDG PET/CT. METHODS: Twenty-six patients who had pre- and post-therapeutic 4DST and FDG PET/CT and underwent esophagectomy following neoadjuvant therapy were used for the analysis...
January 30, 2019: EJNMMI Research
Magnus Schou, Pär Ewing, Zsolt Cselenyi, Markus Fridén, Akihiro Takano, Christer Halldin, Lars Farde
BACKGROUND: Positron emission tomography (PET) is a non-invasive molecular imaging technique that traces the distribution of radiolabeled molecules in experimental animals and human subjects. We hypothesized that PET could be used to visualize the binding of the bronchodilator drug ipratropium to muscarinic receptors (MR) in the lungs of living non-human primates (NHP). The objectives of this study were two-fold: (i) to develop a methodology for quantitative imaging of muscarinic receptors in NHP lung and (ii) to estimate and compare ipratropium-induced MR occupancy following drug administration via intravenous injection and inhalation, respectively...
January 29, 2019: EJNMMI Research
Lucas Goldfarb, Boris Duchemann, Kader Chouahnia, Laurent Zelek, Michael Soussan
BACKGROUND: Immunotherapy represents a new therapeutic approach in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) with the potential for prolonged benefits. Because of the systemic nature and heterogeneity of tumoral diseases, as well as the immune restoration process induced by immunotherapy, the assessment of therapeutic efficacy is challenging, and the role of FDG PET is not well established. We evaluated the potential of FDG PET to monitor NSCLC patients treated with a checkpoint inhibitor...
January 29, 2019: EJNMMI Research
Yu Iwabuchi, Tadaki Nakahara, Masashi Kameyama, Yoshitake Yamada, Masahiro Hashimoto, Yohji Matsusaka, Takashi Osada, Daisuke Ito, Hajime Tabuchi, Masahiro Jinzaki
BACKGROUND: We sought to assess the machine learning-based combined diagnostic accuracy of three types of quantitative indices obtained using dopamine transporter single-photon emission computed tomography (DAT SPECT)-specific binding ratio (SBR), putamen-to-caudate ratio (PCR)/fractal dimension (FD), and asymmetry index (AI)-for parkinsonian syndrome (PS). We also aimed to compare the effect of two different types of volume of interest (VOI) settings from commercially available software packages DaTQUANT (Q) and DaTView (V) on diagnostic accuracy...
January 28, 2019: EJNMMI Research
Samuli Arvola, Ivan Jambor, Anna Kuisma, Jukka Kemppainen, Sami Kajander, Marko Seppänen, Tommi Noponen
BACKGROUND: Despite recent technological advances allowing for quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), quantitative SPECT has not been widely used in the clinical practice. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of quantitative SPECT for measuring metastatic bone uptake in breast and prostate cancer by comparing standard uptake values (SUVs) measured with 99m Tc-HDP SPECT/CT and 18 F-NaF PET/CT. METHODS: Twenty-six breast and 27 prostate cancer patients at high risk of bone metastases underwent both 99m Tc-HDP SPECT/CT and 18 F-NaF PET/CT within 14 days of each other...
January 24, 2019: EJNMMI Research
Zohreh Varasteh, Sarajo Mohanta, Yuanfang Li, Nicolás López Armbruster, Miriam Braeuer, Stephan G Nekolla, Andreas Habenicht, Hendrik B Sager, Geert Raes, Wolfgang Weber, Sophie Hernot, Markus Schwaiger
BACKGROUND: Rupture-prone atherosclerotic plaques are characterized by heavy macrophage infiltration, and the presence of certain macrophage subsets might be a sign for plaque vulnerability. The mannose receptor (MR, CD206) is over-expressed in several types of alternatively activated macrophages. In this study, our objective was to evaluate the feasibility of a Gallium-68 (68 Ga)-labelled anti-MR nanobody (68 Ga-anti-MMR Nb) for the visualization of MR-positive (MR+ ) macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques of apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE-KO) mice...
January 21, 2019: EJNMMI Research
Ryogo Minamimoto, Yuichiro Takeda, Masatoshi Hotta, Jun Toyohara, Kazuhiko Nakajima, Go Naka, Haruhito Sugiyama
BACKGROUND: 4'-[Methyl-11 C] thiothymidine (4DST) PET/CT provides DNA synthesis imaging, which represented a higher correlation with the proliferation in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) than that from imaging with FDG. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the potential of 4DST in early therapy monitoring for advanced NSCLC, and to compare the results with those from CT and FDG PET/CT. RESULTS: Patients who had been pathologically diagnosed with advanced NSCLC and were scheduled to receive platinum-doublet chemotherapy (PT-DC) were eligible...
January 16, 2019: EJNMMI Research
Sun Young Chae, Tae-Won Kwon, Soyoung Jin, Sun U Kwon, Changhwan Sung, Seung Jun Oh, Sang Ju Lee, Jungsu S Oh, Youngjin Han, Yong-Pil Cho, Narae Lee, Ji Young Kim, Norman Koglin, Mathias Berndt, Andrew W Stephens, Dae Hyuk Moon
BACKGROUND: 18 F-GP1 is a novel positron emission tomography (PET) tracer that targets glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptors on activated platelets. The study objective was to explore the feasibility of directly imaging acute arterial thrombosis (AAT) with 18 F-GP1 PET/computed tomography (PET/CT) and to quantitatively assess 18 F-GP1 uptake. Safety, biodistribution, pharmacokinetics and metabolism were also evaluated. METHODS: Adult patients who had signs or symptoms of AAT or had recently undergone arterial intervention or surgery within 14 days prior to 18 F-GP1 PET/CT were eligible for inclusion...
January 7, 2019: EJNMMI Research
Matthew D Walker, Andrew J Morgan, Kevin M Bradley, Daniel R McGowan
BACKGROUND: We aimed to evaluate the clinical robustness of a commercially developed data-driven respiratory gating algorithm based on principal component analysis, for use in routine PET imaging. METHODS: One hundred fifty-seven adult FDG PET examinations comprising a total of 1149 acquired bed positions were used for the assessment. These data are representative of FDG scans currently performed at our institution. Data were acquired for 4 min/bed position (3 min/bed for legs)...
January 3, 2019: EJNMMI Research
Jing-Ren Tseng, Yu-Han Chang, Lan-Yan Yang, Chen-Te Wu, Szu-Yuan Chen, Chih-Hsing Wan, Ing-Tsung Hsiao, Tzu-Chen Yen
BACKGROUND: Prosthetic joint infections may lead to failures of total joint arthroplasty. Radionuclide imaging can play a diagnostic role in identifying such infections, which require two-stage exchange arthroplasty (instead of simple revision surgery performed in non-infected cases). Although 18 F-FDG PET/CT has emerged as a novel diagnostic tool in this setting, the clinical usefulness of 68 Ga-citrate PET/CT has not been previously investigated. This single-center prospective study was designed to address this issue...
January 3, 2019: EJNMMI Research
Nicolas Aide, Thibault Salomon, Cécile Blanc-Fournier, Jean-Michel Grellard, Christelle Levy, Charline Lasnon
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to determine if the choice of the 18 F-FDG-PET protocol, especially matrix size and reconstruction algorithm, is of importance to discriminate between immunohistochemical subtypes (luminal versus non-luminal) in breast cancer with textural features (TFs). PROCEDURES: Forty-seven patients referred for breast cancer staging in the framework of a prospective study were reviewed as part of an ancillary study. In addition to standard PET imaging (PSFWholeBody ), a high-resolution breast acquisition was performed and reconstructed with OSEM and PSF (OSEMbreast /PSFbreast )...
December 29, 2018: EJNMMI Research
Mahabuba Jahan, Peter Johnström, Ram K Selvaraju, Marie Svedberg, Maria Sörhede Winzell, Jenny Bernström, Lee Kingston, Magnus Schou, Zhisheng Jia, Stanko Skrtic, Lars Johansson, Olle Korsgren, Lars Farde, Christer Halldin, Olof Eriksson
BACKGROUND: The G-protein-coupled receptor 44 (GPR44) is a beta cell-restricted target that may serve as a marker for beta cell mass (BCM) given the development of a suitable PET ligand. METHODS: The binding characteristics of the selected candidate, AZ12204657, at human GPR44 were determined using in vitro ligand binding assays. AZ12204657 was radiolabeled using 11 C- or 3 H-labeled methyl iodide ([11 C/3 H]CH3 I) in one step, and the conversion of [11 C/3 H]CH3 I to the radiolabeled product [11 C/3 H]AZ12204657 was quantitative...
December 27, 2018: EJNMMI Research
Igor Fagner Vieira, Dieter Ory, Cindy Casteels, Fernando R A Lima, Koen Van Laere, Guy Bormans, Michel Koole
METHOD: Aim of this study was to automatically select a suitable pseudo-reference brain region for the accurate, non-invasive quantification of neuroinflammation in a rat brain using dynamic [18 F]DPA-714 PET imaging. PROCEDURES: A supervised clustering analysis approach considering three kinetic classes (SVCA3) was used to select an appropriate pseudo-reference brain region. This pseudo-reference region was determined by selecting only brain regions with low specific tracer uptake (SVCA3low ) or by taking into account all brain regions and weighting each brain region with the corresponding fraction of low specific binding (SVCA3wlow )...
December 27, 2018: EJNMMI Research
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