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European Journal of Psychotraumatology

Rachel Ashwick, David Turgoose, Dominic Murphy
Background : Research shows that veterans with mental health difficulties are reluctant to engage with treatment due to a number of practical and psychological barriers. Tele-therapy has been proposed as an alternative method of delivering therapy to ensure hard-to-reach groups receive the care they need. Objective : This study aimed to explore the acceptability of using tele-therapy for treating PTSD in a sample of UK veterans. Methods : Sixteen participants who had engaged with tele-therapy for PTSD were contacted following the cessation of their treatment, including those who had not completed the full course of therapy...
2019: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Brian J Hall, Paul S Y Yip, Melissa R Garabiles, Chao Kei Lao, Edward W W Chan, Brian P Marx
Migrant populations are at increased risk for exposure to traumatic life events. Presently, there are no reliable and valid screening instruments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among Filipino migrant workers, a population that numbers over 2.3 million worldwide. This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) in a sample of female Filipino migrant workers in Macao (SAR), China, in two studies. The first examined the reliability (internal and test-retest), convergent validity (with depression, anxiety, and rumination), and discriminant validity (with pain and social support) in a sample of 131 participants...
2019: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Bessel van Der Kolk, Julian D Ford, Joseph Spinazzola
Background : Developmental trauma disorder (DTD) has been proposed to describe the biopsychosocial sequelae of exposure to interpersonal victimization in childhood that extend beyond the symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Objective : To characterize the psychopathology comorbid with DTD and to determine whether this comorbidity is distinct from, and extends beyond, comorbidities of PTSD. Method : DTD was assessed by structured interview, and probable Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV) psychiatric disorders were identified with screening modules on the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia, Present/Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL), in a multi-site sample of 236 children (7-18 years old; 50% female) referred by paediatric or mental health providers...
2019: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Alexander Nissen, Marianne Bang Hansen, Morten Birkeland Nielsen, Stein Knardahl, Trond Heir
Terrorism at the workplace represents an extreme form of workplace violence potentially affecting large numbers of individuals. Evidence suggests that workplace violence adversely affects employees' health and work functioning by increasing perceived threat and decreasing perceived safety. The objective of this study was to explore longitudinal associations between perceived safety at work among employees exposed to a workplace terrorist attack and their views on security measures and emergency preparedness...
2019: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Paul A J M de Bont, Berber M van der Vleugel, David P G van den Berg, Carlijn de Roos, Joran Lokkerbol, Filip Smit, Ad de Jongh, Mark van der Gaag, Agnes van Minnen
Background : Co-occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in psychosis (estimated as 12%) raises personal suffering and societal costs. Health-economic studies on PTSD treatments in patients with a diagnosis of a psychotic disorder have not yet been conducted, but are needed for guideline development and implementation. This study aims to analyse the cost-effectiveness of guideline PTSD therapies in patients with a psychotic disorder. Methods : This health-economic evaluation alongside a randomized controlled trial included 155 patients with a psychotic disorder in care as usual (CAU), with comorbid PTSD...
2019: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Anja Greinacher, Cassandra Derezza-Greeven, Wolfgang Herzog, Christoph Nikendei
Background : Finding precise definitions of secondary traumatic stress, vicarious traumatization, and compassion fatigue is not easy. While some researchers define these terms differentially, others use them interchangeably. In the present review, we refer to all three phenomena as secondary traumatization. Objectives : This systematic review aims to provide an overview of prevalence rates of secondary traumatization in first responders and to shed light on corresponding resilience and risk factors. Methods : After identifying 219 studies within the searched databases and 2192 references via hand searching, 31 studies were included in this review...
2019: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
D Murphy, J Ross, W Busuttil, N Greenberg, C Armour
Background : Significant numbers of individuals leave the military and experience symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Veterans with PTSD symptoms rarely experience them in isolation, more commonly they are co-morbid with a range of other difficulties. Objective : Latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to explore the heterogeneity of PTSD symptom presentation. Following this, regression analysis was used to examine variables that predicted membership to the identified PTSD profiles. Methods : Data on childhood adversity, socio-demographic characteristics and mental health outcomes was collected from 386 male veterans who had engaged with mental health services in the UK...
2019: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Kagan Kircaburun, Mark D Griffiths, Joël Billieux
Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has been related to a wide range of detrimental psychological and health consequences. The purpose of the present pilot study was to test the direct and indirect relationships between IGD and emotional trauma, body image dissatisfaction, social anxiety, loneliness, depression, and self-esteem. A total of 242 online gamers completed a survey comprising a comprehensive battery of psychometric self-report scales concerning aforementioned variables. Results indicated that IGD was significantly correlated with all the variables except for body image dissatisfaction...
2019: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Victoria Williamson, Neil Greenberg, Dominic Murphy
Background : Moral injury has been found to adversely affect US veteran mental health, and the mental health difficulties resulting from moral injury can be particularly challenging to treat. Yet little is known about the impact of moral injury on the well-being of UK armed forces (AF) veterans and how moral injury is currently addressed in treatment. Objective : The aim of this study was to examine UK AF veterans' experiences of moral injury, and the perceptions and challenges faced by clinicians in treating moral injury-related mental health difficulties...
2019: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
S K Schäfer, N Becker, L King, A Horsch, T Michael
Background : Antonovsky's concept of sense of coherence (SOC) - as a global orientation reflecting an individual's feeling of confidence in both the predictability of their internal and external environment and their ability to cope with stressful and challenging situations in life - shows a negative association with symptoms of post-traumatic stress. However, single studies varying in study characteristics provide heterogeneous effect size estimations. Objective : The purpose of the current study is to investigate the relationship between SOC and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity for the first time on a meta-analytical level...
2019: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Brian J Hall, Ying Xin Xiong, Paul S Y Yip, Chao Kei Lao, Wei Shi, Elvo K L Sou, Kay Chang, Li Wang, Agnes I F Lam
Background : Direct exposure to natural disasters and related losses are associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It is less clear whether indirect media exposure is associated with PTSD. Objective : This study investigated key exposure-related risk factors for PTSD and examined the effect of media exposure on the prevalence of disaster-related PTSD. Method : Typhoon Hato directly hit Macao on 23 August 2017. It was one of the most serious natural disasters ever to strike southern China. One month after the event, 1876 Chinese university students in Macao were recruited into a cross-sectional study (mean age 20...
2019: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Kirsi Peltonen, Samuli Kangaslampi
Background and Objective : Millions of children and adolescents worldwide suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other problems due to prolonged exposure to traumatizing events. Forms of cognitive-behavioural therapy are the most commonly used treatment for PTSD, but evidence from sophisticated studies in clinical settings among children is limited. Method : This multicentre, parallel, non-blinded, pragmatic randomized controlled trial assessed the effectiveness of narrative exposure therapy (NET) in traumatized children and adolescents...
2019: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Maarten C Eisma, Lonneke I M Lenferink, Amy Y M Chow, Cecilia L W Chan, Jie Li
Background : Studies on mental health following disasters have primarily focused on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), yet severe, enduring, and disabling grief [i.e. complicated grief (CG)] also appears relevant. Objective : The present study examines symptom profiles of PTSD and CG among bereaved Sichuan earthquake survivors 1 year after the disaster. Method : Self-report measures of demographic, disaster, and loss-related characteristics and symptoms of PTSD and CG were administered among 803 survivors (63% women; mean age = 46...
2019: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Sasja Dorresteijn, Thomas Edward Gladwin, Iris Eekhout, Eric Vermetten, Elbert Geuze
Background : Childhood trauma and combat-related trauma are both associated with decreased psychosocial functioning. Coping strategies play an important role in the adjustment to traumatic events. Objective : The present study examined childhood trauma and the mediating role of coping strategies in adult psychological symptoms in a non-clinical military population after deployment to Afghanistan. Additionally, the moderating role of coping strategies in vulnerability to combat events was explored. Method : Participants ( N = 932) were drawn from a prospective study assessing psychological complaints (SCL-90), early trauma (ETISR-SF), combat-related events and coping strategies (Brief COPE)...
2019: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Sharon A M Stevelink, Norman Jones, Margaret Jones, Daniel Dyball, Charandeep K Khera, David Pernet, Shirlee MacCrimmon, Dominic Murphy, Lisa Hull, Neil Greenberg, Deirdre MacManus, Laura Goodwin, Marie-Louise Sharp, Simon Wessely, Roberto J Rona, Nicola T Fear
Background : UK armed forces personnel are at risk of occupational psychological injury; they are often reluctant to seek help for such problems. Objective : We aimed to examine and describe sources of support, prevalence and associates of help-seeking among UK serving and ex-serving personnel. Method : A total of 1450 participants who self-reported a stress, emotional or mental health problem in the past 3 years were sampled from a health and wellbeing study and subsequently completed a telephone interview comprising measures of mental disorder symptoms, alcohol misuse and help-seeking behaviour...
2019: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Annemarie I Luik, Lalitha Iyadurai, Isabel Gebhardt, Emily A Holmes
Background : Sleep disturbances are common after traumatic events and have been hypothesized to be a risk factor in the development of psychopathology such as that associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Objective : To assess the association between intrusive memories, a core clinical feature of PTSD, and self-reported sleep disturbance shortly after experiencing or witnessing a motor vehicle accident, and whether a brief behavioural intervention (trauma reminder cue and Tetris gameplay) reduced sleep disturbance post-trauma...
2019: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Juul Gouweloos-Trines, Hans Te Brake, Marit Sijbrandij, Paul A Boelen, Chris R Brewin, Rolf J Kleber
Background : In 2009, an aeroplane crashed near Amsterdam. To remedy unmet mental health needs, active outreach was used to identify victims at risk for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Objective : The active outreach strategy was evaluated by examining the accuracy of screening methods in predicting PTSD and depression, self-reported treatment needs, and the extent to which perceived treatment needs predict trajectories of PTSD. Method : In 112 adult survivors, semi-structured telephone interviews were held at 2 (T1, n  = 76), 9 (T2, n  = 77) and 44 months (T3, n  = 55) after the crash...
2019: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Hope Christie, Catherine Hamilton-Giachritsis, Filipa Alves-Costa, Mark Tomlinson, Sarah L Halligan
Background : Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a serious and debilitating disorder that can develop following exposure to a traumatic event. Where parents develop PTSD, it may have an impact on their parenting role. Objective : The objective was to review the existing evidence base on parental PTSD, examining whether parental PTSD has an impact on key parenting domains. Method : A comprehensive web-based search identified 27 quantitative studies that examined parental PTSD in relation to parenting domains...
2019: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Anthony M Battaglia, Alina Protopopescu, Jenna E Boyd, Chantelle Lloyd, Rakesh Jetly, Charlene O'Connor, Heather K Hood, Anthony Nazarov, Shawn G Rhind, Ruth A Lanius, Margaret C McKinnon
Background : There is increasing evidence that moral injuries (MIs) may affect the mental health of Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) members and veterans. Despite knowledge suggesting that MIs are related to multiple negative mental health outcomes, including the onset of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), it is unknown whether pre-traumatic variables, including the presence of childhood abuse, are related to MIs. Objective : This study seeks to investigate the potential relationship between adverse childhood experiences and later onset MI in military members...
2019: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Teddy J Akiki, Lynnette A Averill, Chadi G Abdallah
The societal burden of psychiatric disorders that result after exposure to psychological trauma is enormous. The study of trauma-related disorders using neurobiological and public health approaches is often disjointed. It is critical to emphasize the translational potential of neurobiological work and its relevance to the public health burden of psychological trauma. Applying a public health model to traumatology that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary levels, we highlight ways in which advancing the field of neurobiology can pave the way for scalable interventions that can improve outcomes and help to address the public health problem...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
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