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Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation

Kathleen A Crapanzano, Rebecca Hammarlund, Bilal Ahmad, Natalie Hunsinger, Rumneet Kullar
Substance use disorders (SUDs) take a heavy toll on those who have them and on society more broadly. These disorders are often difficult to treat, and relapse is common. Perhaps, because of these factors, these disorders are highly stigmatized worldwide. The purpose of this study is to examine empirical work intended to determine the impact of perceived social stigma and self-stigma on the process of recovering from SUDs with the assistance of formal treatment services. Qualitative studies confirmed that stigma experiences are common among those with these disorders and that these experiences can negatively impact feelings and beliefs about treatment...
2019: Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation
Howard Padwa, Erick G Guerrero, Veronica Serret, Melvin Rico, Lillian Gelberg
Background: Brief interventions (BIs) have shown potential to reduce both alcohol and drug use. Although BIs for adults have been studied extensively, little is known about how to adapt them to meet the needs and preferences of adolescents. This article examines adolescents' preferences to consider when adapting BIs for use with adolescents. Methods: Eighteen adolescents (age 9-17 years) living in Los Angeles County with adults receiving substance use disorder treatment were interviewed and asked about their perspectives on how to adapt a BI originally developed for adults for use with adolescents...
2018: Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation
R Hammarlund, K A Crapanzano, L Luce, L Mulligan, K M Ward
Substance-use disorders are a public health crisis globally and carry with them significant morbidity and mortality. Stigma toward people who abuse these substances, as well as the internalization of that stigma by substance users, is widespread. In this review, we synthesized the available evidence for the role of perceived social stigma and self-stigma in people's willingness to seek treatment. While stigma may be frequently cited as a barrier to treatment in some samples, the degree of its impact on decision-making regarding treatment varied widely...
2018: Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation
Sarah E Priddy, Matthew O Howard, Adam W Hanley, Michael R Riquino, Katarina Friberg-Felsted, Eric L Garland
Substance use disorders (SUDs) are a pervasive public health problem with deleterious consequences for individuals, families, and society. Furthermore, SUD intervention is complicated by the continuous possibility of relapse. Despite decades of research, SUD relapse rates remain high, underscoring the need for more effective treatments. Scientific findings indicate that SUDs are driven by dysregulation of neural processes underlying reward learning and executive functioning. Emerging evidence suggests that mindfulness training can target these neurocognitive mechanisms to produce significant therapeutic effects on SUDs and prevent relapse...
2018: Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation
Ihsan Al-Zouabi, John M Stogner, Bryan Lee Miller, Elizabeth S Lane
The use of marijuana concentrates has escalated in recent years with butane extracts appearing particularly popular. The administration of butane hash oil, colloquially referred to as "dabbing," is distinct from traditional flower cannabis usage due to the THC content of samples and the presence of impurities such as unpurged butane. While this may confer heightened risk to the user, additional significant concerns are tied to fires and explosions. Using butane as a solvent in amateur "blasting" methods may result in a flammable vapor pooling in enclosed spaces and igniting when exposed to a spark...
2018: Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation
Naoto Tani, Tomoya Ikeda, Tomomi Michiue, Shigeki Oritani, Fumiya Morioka, Takaki Ishikawa
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of deaths due to psychotropic drugs in south Osaka during a 10-year period and discuss societal factors from a medical viewpoint. Methods: Psychotropic drug-related deaths were retrospectively investigated based on the forensic postmortem data of 1,746 decedents in 2005-2014, and we excluded cases in which stimulant drugs were detected. Of these, 133 cases (7.6%) were found to be psychotropic drug-related deaths and were analyzed...
2018: Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation
Naoko A Ronquest, Tina M Willson, Leslie B Montejano, Vijay R Nadipelli, Bernd A Wollschlaeger
Background: Treatment for opioid use disorder is important because of the negative health, societal and economic consequences of illicit opioid use, but treatment adherence can be a challenge. This study assessed the association between buprenorphine medication-assisted treatment (MAT) adherence and relapse, health care utilization and costs. Patients and methods: Patients with opioid use disorder who were newly initiating a buprenorphine MAT regimen were identified in the 2008-2014 MarketScan® Commercial and Medicaid Databases and followed for 12 months after their earliest outpatient pharmacy claim for buprenorphine...
2018: Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation
Sterling M McPherson, Ekaterina Burduli, Crystal Lederhos Smith, Jalene Herron, Oladunni Oluwoye, Katherine Hirchak, Michael F Orr, Michael G McDonell, John M Roll
This review of contingency management (CM; the behavior-modification method of providing reinforcement in exchange for objective evidence of a desired behavior) for the treatment of substance-use disorders (SUDs) begins by describing the origins of CM and how it has come to be most commonly used during the treatment of SUDs. Our core objective is to review, describe, and discuss three ongoing critical advancements in CM. We review key emerging areas wherein CM will likely have an impact. In total, we qualitatively reviewed 31 studies in a systematic fashion after searching PubMed and Google Scholar...
2018: Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation
Brigitte Bouchet-Benezech, Bernard Champanet, Pierre Rouzaud
Background: In comparison to other European countries, the number of smokers remains high in France. Approximately five million smokers wish to quit within the year and need support that is local, easily accessible, and efficient. As public health actors, pharmacists could provide this service. The Sevrage Tabagique à l'Officine: Smoking Cessation Program at the Pharmacy (STOP) study was carried out to explore the feasibility of a smoking cessation program provided at pharmacies. Materials and methods: Pharmacists participating in the study were trained to provide a smoking cessation program to smokers recruited at the pharmacy, which included five pharmaceutical interviews in six months, along with counseling and support, in addition to nicotine replacement therapy...
2018: Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation
Stefan Bender, Michael Specka, Angela Buchholz, Stefan Hölscher, Fred Rist, Thomas W Heinz, Fabrizio Schifano, Norbert Scherbaum
Background: In many national treatment systems, patients with alcohol use disorders (AUD) and those with drug use disorders (DUD) are treated separately, while other systems provide joint treatment for both kinds of substance use disorders (SUDs). Regarding long-term rehabilitation treatment of DUD and AUD patients, there is however a lack of empirical studies on the comparison between a separate versus joint treatment modality. Methods: Data were gathered from 2 rehabilitation units located in small towns from the same German region...
2018: Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation
Corinna Bolloni, Paola Badas, Giorgio Corona, Marco Diana
There is a common consensus in considering substance-use disorders (SUDs) a devastating chronic illness with social and psychological impact. Despite significant progress in understanding the neurobiology of SUDs, therapeutic advances have proceeded at a slower pace, in particular for cocaine-use disorder (CUD). Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is gaining support as a safe and cost-effective tool in the treatment of SUDs. In this review, we consider human studies that have investigated the efficacy of TMS in achieving therapeutic benefits in treating CUD...
2018: Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation
Anders Håkansson, Virginia Jesionowska
Aim: The present study aimed to study the associations between substance use patterns and types of crimes in prisoners with substance use problems, and specifically whether substance use patterns were different in violent offenders. Methods: Interview data of prisoners with substance use problems (N=4,202, mean age 33.5 years, SD 9.8), derived from the Addiction Severity Index, were run against criminal register data on main types of crimes in the verdict. Results: In binary analyses, compared to those with acquisitive and drug crimes, violent offenders had lower prevalence of illicit drugs and homelessness, but higher prevalence of binge drinking, and higher prevalence of sedative use than clients sentenced with drug crimes...
2018: Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation
Christa R Lewis, Hoa T Vo, Marc Fishman
Deaths due to prescription and illicit opioid overdose have been rising at an alarming rate, particularly in the USA. Although naloxone injection is a safe and effective treatment for opioid overdose, it is frequently unavailable in a timely manner due to legal and practical restrictions on its use by laypeople. As a result, an effort spanning decades has resulted in the development of strategies to make naloxone available for layperson or "take-home" use. This has included the development of naloxone formulations that are easier to administer for nonmedical users, such as intranasal and autoinjector intramuscular delivery systems, efforts to distribute naloxone to potentially high-impact categories of nonmedical users, as well as efforts to reduce regulatory barriers to more widespread distribution and use...
2017: Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation
Jenni B Teeters, Cynthia L Lancaster, Delisa G Brown, Sudie E Back
Substance use disorders (SUDs) are a significant problem among our nation's military veterans. In the following overview, we provide information on the prevalence of SUDs among military veterans, clinical characteristics of SUDs, options for screening and evidence-based treatment, as well as relevant treatment challenges. Among psychotherapeutic approaches, behavioral interventions for the management of SUDs typically involve short-term, cognitive-behavioral therapy interventions. These interventions focus on the identification and modification of maladaptive thoughts and behaviors associated with increased craving, use, or relapse to substances...
2017: Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation
Daniel D Maeng, John J Han, Michael H Fitzpatrick, Joseph A Boscarino
OBJECTIVE: To describe the longitudinal pattern of health care utilization and cost of care before and after opioid overdose (OD) over a 10-year period using health plan claims data. METHODS: Patients who had experienced opioid ODs between April 2005 and March 2015 were identified from Geisinger Health System's electronic health records. Among these patients, a subgroup of patients who were Geisinger Health Plan (GHP) members at any point between January 2006 and December 2015 were also identified...
2017: Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation
Li-Tzy Wu, Udi E Ghitza, Anne L Burns, Paolo Mannelli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation
Gabriella Svanberg, Ingrid Munck, Maria Levander
BACKGROUND: Individuals with substance-use disorder (SUD) often have co-occurring mental health disorders and decreased executive function, both of which are barriers to sustained rehabilitation. Clients with severe SUD can be institutionalized in The Swedish National Board of Institutional Care but are difficult to engage and dropout rates remain high. Recent studies suggest that acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is an effective treatment for mental health and SUD. OBJECTIVES: The overall aims of the present pilot study were to explore a manual-based ACT intervention for clients institutionalized for severe SUD and to describe the effects on mental health, psychological flexibility, and executive function...
2017: Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation
Stephan Arndt, Ethan Sahker, Suzy Hedden
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to determine whether the 50-item Assessment of Recovery Capital scale represents a single general measure or whether multiple domains might be psychometrically useful for research or clinical applications. METHODS: Data are from a cross-sectional de-identified existing program evaluation information data set with 1,138 clients entering substance use disorder treatment. Principal components and iterated factor analysis were used on the domain scores...
2017: Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation
Udo Bonnet, Ulrich W Preuss
The cannabis withdrawal syndrome (CWS) is a criterion of cannabis use disorders (CUDs) ( Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - Fifth Edition ) and cannabis dependence (International Classification of Diseases [ICD]-10). Several lines of evidence from animal and human studies indicate that cessation from long-term and regular cannabis use precipitates a specific withdrawal syndrome with mainly mood and behavioral symptoms of light to moderate intensity, which can usually be treated in an outpatient setting...
2017: Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation
Ethan Sahker, Donna A Lancianese, Stephan Arndt
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study is to explore the stability of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) in a clinical setting by comparing prescreening heavy drinking questions and AUDIT scores over time. Because instrument stability is equal to test-retest reliability at worst, investigating the stability of the AUDIT would help better understand patient behavior change in context and the appropriateness of the AUDIT in a clinical setting. METHODS: This was a retrospective exploratory analysis of Visit 1 to Visit 2 AUDIT stability (n=1,099; male [75...
2017: Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation
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