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Frontiers in Endocrinology

Giovanni Vitale, Giuseppe Pellegrino, Maria Vollery, Leo J Hofland
Human aging is currently defined as a physiological decline of biological functions in the body with a continual adaptation to internal and external damaging. The endocrine system plays a major role in orchestrating cellular interactions, metabolism, growth, and aging. Several in vivo studies from worms to mice showed that downregulated activity of the GH/IGF-1/insulin pathway could be beneficial for the extension of human life span, whereas results are contradictory in humans. In the present review, we discuss the potential role of the IGF-1 system in modulation of longevity, hypothesizing that the endocrine and metabolic adaptation observed in centenarians and in mammals during caloric restriction may be a physiological strategy for extending lifespan through a slower cell growing/metabolism, a better physiologic reserve capacity, a shift of cellular metabolism from cell proliferation to repair activities and a decrease in accumulation of senescent cells...
2019: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Mia Husić, Dalia Barsyte-Lovejoy, David A Lovejoy
The teneurins are a family of four transmembrane proteins essential to intercellular adhesion processes, and are required for the development and maintenance of tissues. The Adhesion G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) subclass latrophilins (ADGRL), or simply the latrophilins (LPHN), are putative receptors of the teneurins and act, in part, to mediate intercellular adhesion via binding with the teneurin extracellular region. At the distal tip of the extracellular region of each teneurin lies a peptide sequence termed the teneurin C-terminal associated peptide (TCAP)...
2019: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Jinzhong Zhang, Jing He, Jennifer L Johnson, Farhana Rahman, Evripidis Gavathiotis, Ana Maria Cuervo, Sergio D Catz
Cystinosis is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by defects in CTNS , the gene that encodes the lysosomal cystine transporter cystinosin. Patients with nephropathic cystinosis are characterized by endocrine defects, defective proximal tubule cell (PTC) function, the development of Fanconi syndrome and, eventually, end-stage renal disease. Kidney disease is developed despite the use of cysteamine, a drug that decreases lysosomal cystine overload but fails to correct overload-independent defects. Chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA), a selective form of autophagy, is defective in cystinotic mouse fibroblasts, and treatment with cysteamine is unable to correct CMA defects in vivo , but whether the vesicular trafficking mechanisms that lead to defective CMA in cystinosis are manifested in human PTCs is not currently known and whether PTC-specific mechanisms are corrected upon CMA upregulation remains to be elucidated...
2019: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Jacqueline Jonklaas, Eshetu Tefera, Nawar Shara
Objective: Hypothyroid patients frequently request specific therapies from their physicians. Combination therapy is vigorously discussed at professional meetings. We wished to determine if physician prescribing patterns for hypothyroidism changed during 2017 after specific educational events. Methods: A survey addressing treatment of hypothyroidism was emailed to American Thyroid Association (ATA) members on three occasions in 2017. The Spring emails were sent prior to a satellite symposium addressing hypothyroidism, and prior to the annual Endocrine Society and ATA meetings; the December emails were sent after these events...
2019: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Céline Gérard, Hubert Vidal
Given that obesity and associated disorder type II diabetes mellitus have reached epidemic proportions worldwide, the development of efficient prevention and therapeutic interventions is a global public health interest. There is now a large body of evidence suggesting that the micro-organisms colonizing the human gut, known as gut microbiota, play a central role in human physiology and metabolism. Understanding how gut microbiota affects and regulates key metabolic functions such as glucose regulation and insulin resistance is an important health issue...
2019: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Lei Tu, Lijing Yang
As a cytokine in interleukin-1(IL-1) family, interleukin-33(IL-33) usually exists in the cytoplasm and cell nucleus. When the cells are activated or damaged, IL-33 can be secreted into extracellular and regulate the functions of various immune cells through binding to its specific receptor suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (ST2). Except regulating the function of immune cells including T cells, B cells, dendritic cells (DCs), macrophages, mast cells, and innate lymphoid cells, IL-33 also plays an important role in metabolic diseases and has received an increasing attention...
2019: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Anup Bhusal, Md Habibur Rahman, In-Kyu Lee, Kyoungho Suk
Diabetic encephalopathy is a severe diabetes-related complication in the central nervous system (CNS) that is characterized by degenerative neurochemical and structural changes leading to impaired cognitive function. While the exact pathophysiology of diabetic encephalopathy is not well-understood, it is likely that neuroinflammation is one of the key pathogenic mechanisms that cause this complication. Lipocalin-2 (LCN2) is an acute phase protein known to promote neuroinflammation via the recruitment and activation of immune cells and glia, particularly microglia and astrocytes, thereby inducing proinflammatory mediators in a range of neurological disorders...
2019: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Rishi Raj, Jon Hendrie, Aasems Jacob, Derick Adams
A 38-year-old female patient with well-controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with canagliflozin underwent ureteral stent placement for obstructive renal calculi. Ten days following ureteroscopy and ureteral stenting, she developed fevers and blood cultures grew Candida glabrata ( C. glabrata ). The patient was successfully treated with an extended course of broad-spectrum antibiotics and antifungal agents. The clinical presentation of candidemia is indistinguishable from bacteremia resulting in delay in diagnosis and treatment...
2019: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Terry F Davies, Rauf Latif
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2019: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Edward Narayan, Tayla Vanderneut
Koalas are rescued from the wild often with incidence of burns from bushfire, injury from animal attacks, vehicle collision, and diseases. Exposure to environmental stressors (trauma and disease) could generate physiological stress and potentially impact the outcomes of clinical management intervention and rehabilitation of rescued wild koalas. It is important to quantify the stress physiology of wild koalas upon registering into clinical care. This study demonstrates the first report of physiological stress assessment in rescued wild koalas ( n = 22) to determine the potential influences of habitat-specific demographics, stressor category, and clinical diagnosis...
2019: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Stella Campo, Luz Andreone, Verónica Ambao, Mariela Urrutia, Ricardo S Calandra, Susana B Rulli
The Follicle-Stimulating Hormone plays an important role in the regulation of gametogenesis. It is synthesized and secreted as a family of glycoforms with differing oligosaccharide structure, biological action, and half-life. The presence of these oligosaccharides is absolutely necessary for the full expression of hormone bioactivity at the level of the target cell. The endocrine milieu modulates the glycosylation of this hormone. During male sexual development a progressive increase in FSH sialylation and in the proportion of glycoforms bearing complex oligosaccharides are the main features in this physiological condition...
2019: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Jerrold J Heindel
The Obesogen field developed from two separate scientific research areas, endocrine disruptors and the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD). Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous chemicals or mixtures of chemicals that interfere with the action of hormones. Exposure to EDCs during early development (DOHaD) has been shown to increase susceptibility to a variety of diseases including infertility, asthma, breast and prostate cancer, early puberty, susceptibility to infections, heart disease, autoimmune disease, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder/learning disability...
2019: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Thomas Keith Cunningham, Victoria Allgar, Soha R Dargham, Eric Kilpatrick, Thozhukat Sathyapalan, Stephen Maguiness, Haira R Mokhtar Rudin, Nour M Abdul Ghani, Aishah Latiff, Stephen L Atkin
Objective: The relationship between fertilization rates and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2 D3 ), 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (25(OH)D2 ), 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3 ), 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (24,25(OH)2 D3 ), and 25-hydroxy-3epi-Vitamin D3 (3epi25(OH)D3 ) concentrations in age and weight matched women with and without PCOS was studied. Methods: Fifty nine non-obese women, 29 with PCOS, and 30 non-PCOS undergoing IVF, matched for age and weight were included. Serum vitamin D metabolites were taken the menstrual cycle prior to commencing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation...
2019: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Prashantha Hebbar, Jehad Ahmed Abubaker, Mohamed Abu-Farha, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Fahd Al-Mulla, Thangavel Alphonse Thanaraj
Despite dedicated nation-wide efforts to raise awareness against the harmful effects of fast-food consumption and sedentary lifestyle, the Arab population continues to struggle with an increased risk for metabolic disorders. Unlike the European population, the Arab population lacks well-established genetic risk determinants for metabolic disorders, and the transferability of established risk loci to this population has not been satisfactorily demonstrated. The most recent findings have identified over 240 genetic risk loci (with ~400 independent association signals) for type 2 diabetes, but thus far only 25 risk loci ( ADAMTS9 , ALX4, BCL11A, CDKAL1, CDKN2A/B , COL8A1, DUSP9, FTO, GCK, GNPDA2, HMG20A, HNF1A, HNF1B, HNF4A, IGF2BP2, JAZF1, KCNJ11, KCNQ1, MC4R, PPAR γ , SLC30A8, TCF7L2, TFAP2B, TP53INP1 , and WFS1 ) have been replicated in Arab populations...
2019: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Dylan J M Bergen, Erika Kague, Chrissy L Hammond
Osteoporosis is metabolic bone disease caused by an altered balance between bone anabolism and catabolism. This dysregulated balance is responsible for fragile bones that fracture easily after minor falls. With an aging population, the incidence is rising and as yet pharmaceutical options to restore this imbalance is limited, especially stimulating osteoblast bone-building activity. Excitingly, output from large genetic studies on people with high bone mass (HBM) cases and genome wide association studies (GWAS) on the population, yielded new insights into pathways containing osteo-anabolic players that have potential for drug target development...
2019: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Marisol Castillo-Castrejon, Theresa L Powell
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fendo.2017.00306.].
2019: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Shouhong Wang, Lusha Liu, Jiongyu Liu, Wei Zhu, Yuta Tanizaki, Liezhen Fu, Lingyu Bao, Yun-Bo Shi, Jianping Jiang
Thyroid hormone (T3) is essential for vertebrate development, especially during the so-called postembryonic development, a period around birth in mammals when plasma T3 level peaks and many organs mature into their adult form. Compared to embryogenesis, postembryonic development is poorly studied in mammals largely because of the difficulty to manipulate the uterus-enclosed embryos and neonates. Amphibian metamorphosis is independent of maternal influence and can be easily manipulated for molecular and genetic studies, making it a valuable model to study postembryonic development in vertebrates...
2019: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Fangfang Li, Dengfeng Li, Huadie Liu, Bei-Bei Cao, Fang Jiang, Dan-Na Chen, Jia-Da Li
RNF216 , encoding an E3 ubiquitin ligase, has been identified as a causative gene for Gordon Holmes syndrome, characterized by ataxia, dementia, and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. However, it is still elusive how deficiency in RNF216 leads to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. In this study, by using GN11 immature GnRH neuronal cell line, we demonstrated an important role of RNF216 in the GnRH neuron migration. RNA interference of RNF216 inhibited GN11 cell migration, but had no effect on the proliferation of GN11 cells or GnRH expression...
2019: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Fan Yang, Qi Zhong, Zhigang Huang, Meng Lian, Jugao Fang
Background: Considerable modifications have been introduced in the new edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer/Union for International Cancer Control (AJCC/UICC) TNM staging system. Based on the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database, this study aimed to compare the 7th and 8th editions of the AJCC/UICC TNM staging system for patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) and follicular variant papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (FVPTMC). Methods: A Data from 2004 to 2014 of 39,032 patients registered in the SEER database were included...
2019: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Robyn Lisa Butt, Helene Volkoff
The microorganisms within the intestinal tract (termed gut microbiota) have been shown to interact with the gut-brain axis, a bidirectional communication system between the gut and the brain mediated by hormonal, immune, and neural signals. Through these interactions, the microbiota might affect behaviors, including feeding behavior, digestive/absorptive processes (e.g., by modulating intestinal motility and the intestinal barrier), metabolism, as well as the immune response, with repercussions on the energy homeostasis and health of the host...
2019: Frontiers in Endocrinology
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