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Journal of Lipids

Richard K D Ephraim, Emmanuel Acheampong, Swithin M Swaray, Enoch Odame Anto, Hope Agbodzakey, Prince Adoba, Bright Oppong Afranie, Emmanuella Nsenbah Batu, Patrick Adu, Linda Ahenkorah Fondjo, Samuel Asamoah Sakyi, Beatrice Amoah
Despite the availability of several homogenous LDL-C assays, calculated Friedewald's LDL-C equation remains the widely used formula in clinical practice. Several novel formulas developed in different populations have been reported to outperform the Friedewald formula. This study validated the existing LDL-C formulas and derived a modified LDL-C formula specific to a Ghanaian population. In this comparative study, we recruited 1518 participants, derived a new modified Friedewald's LDL-C (M-LDL-C) equation, evaluated LDL-C by Friedewald's formula (F-LDL-C), Martin's formula (N-LDL-C), Anandaraja's formula (A-LDL-C), and compared them to direct measurement of LDL-C (D-LDL-C)...
2018: Journal of Lipids
Xochitl Niehus, Leticia Casas-Godoy, Francisco J Rodríguez-Valadez, Georgina Sandoval
Oils from yeasts have emerged as a suitable alternative raw material to produce biodiesel, due to their similar composition to common raw materials such as vegetable oils. Additionally, they have the advantage of not competing with human or animal feed, and, furthermore, they do not compete for arable land. In this work, a carbon and energy balance was evaluated for Yarrowia lipolytica as a model yeast, using crude glycerol from biodiesel as the only carbon source, which improves biodiesel overall yield by 6%...
2018: Journal of Lipids
Mousa Abujbara, Anwar Batieha, Yousef Khader, Hashem Jaddou, Mohammed El-Khateeb, Kamel Ajlouni
Background: Dyslipidemia is one of the major modifiable risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease and type two diabetes mellitus. Knowing the current prevalence of dyslipidemia is an important step for increasing awareness of the problem and for proper planning of health programs for prevention of its negative clinical effects. Methods: A national population based household sample was selected from north, middle, and south regions of Jordan in 2017...
2018: Journal of Lipids
Philip W Wertz
The primary purpose of the epidermis of terrestrial vertebrates is to produce the stratum corneum, which serves as the interface between the organism and the environment. As such, the stratum corneum provides a permeability barrier which both limits water loss through the skin and provides a relatively tough permeability barrier. This provides for a degree of resistance to mechanical trauma and prevents or limits penetration of potentially harmful substances from the environment. The stratum corneum consists of an array of keratinized cells embedded in a lipid matrix...
2018: Journal of Lipids
Ekaterina Fock, Vera Bachteeva, Elena Lavrova, Rimma Parnova
The effect of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on eukaryotic cell could be accompanied by a significant metabolic shift that includes accumulation of triacylglycerol (TAG) in lipid droplets (LD), ubiquitous organelles associated with fatty acid storage, energy regulation and demonstrated tight spatial and functional connections with mitochondria. The impairment of mitochondrial activity under pathological stimuli has been shown to provoke TAG storage and LD biogenesis. However the potential mechanisms that link mitochondrial disturbances and TAG accumulation are not completely understood...
2018: Journal of Lipids
Andrea Goldson Barnaby, Jesse Clarke, Dane Warren, Kailesha Duffus
Blighia sapida aril oil is rich in monounsaturated fatty acids but is however currently not utilized industrially. The oil was characterized utilizing nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). A spectrophotometric assay was conducted to determine the free radical scavenging properties and carotenoid content of the oil. Chemical shifts resonating between δ 5.30 and 5.32 in the 1 H NMR are indicative of olefinic protons present in ackee aril oil which are due to the presence of oleic acid...
2018: Journal of Lipids
Dmitry Y Litvinov, Eugeny V Savushkin, Alexander D Dergunov
Cholesterol transport between intracellular compartments proceeds by both energy- and non-energy-dependent processes. Energy-dependent vesicular traffic partly contributes to cholesterol flux between endoplasmic reticulum, plasma membrane, and endocytic vesicles. Membrane contact sites and lipid transfer proteins are involved in nonvesicular lipid traffic. Only "active" cholesterol molecules outside of cholesterol-rich regions and partially exposed in water phase are able to fast transfer. The dissociation of partially exposed cholesterol molecules in water determines the rate of passive aqueous diffusion of cholesterol out of plasma membrane...
2018: Journal of Lipids
Xochitl Niehus, Leticia Casas-Godoy, Marcos Vargas-Sánchez, Georgina Sandoval
Finding new oleaginous yeasts is of great interest due to their many important applications. Currently available screening procedures are time-consuming, and most of these require liquid cultures. In this work, a new, fast, economical, and simple qualitative method for screening oleaginous yeasts was developed. The fluorescent dye, Rhodamine B, was selected because its fluorescence is directly correlated to lipid content, and no additional steps or special equipment are needed. This method only requires growing the yeasts on dyed agar plates...
2018: Journal of Lipids
Anthony P Morise, Jennifer Tennant, Sari D Holmes, Danyel H Tacker
Background: Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors have demonstrated significant effects on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and nonhigh density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. To date, there have been limited reports on the effect of PCSK9 inhibitors on remnant cholesterol. Objectives: Assess the effect of PCSK9 inhibitors on nonfasting remnant cholesterol in a real world population. Identify whether pretreatment triglyceride levels are associated with PCSK9 inhibition success as indicated by changes in remnant cholesterol levels...
2018: Journal of Lipids
Mohamadreza Haeri, Mahmoud Parham, Neda Habibi, Jamshid Vafaeimanesh
Background: Some studies suggest a significant relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and atherogenesis; but the mechanism of the relationship is almost unknown. The current study aimed at evaluating the relationship between H. pylori infection and serum lipid profile. Patients and Methods: The current study was conducted on 2573 patients, from 2008 to 2015. The serum anti- Helicobacter pylori antibody titer and serum lipid profile were assessed in the study population; data were statistically analyzed by SPSS version 16...
2018: Journal of Lipids
Fortunate Laker, Arnold Agaba, Andrew Akatukunda, Robert Gazet, Joshua Barasa, Sarah Nanyonga, Deborah Wendiro, Alex Paul Wacoo
The overwhelming demand of oil and fats to meet the ever increasing needs for biofuel, cosmetics production, and other industrial purposes has enhanced a number of innovations in this industry. One such innovation is the use of microorganisms as alternative sources of oil and fats. Organic solid waste that is causing a big challenge of disposal worldwide is biodegradable and can be utilized as substrate for alternative oil production. The study evaluated the potential of isolated yeast-like colonies to grow and accumulate oil by using organic solid waste as substrate...
2018: Journal of Lipids
Zewdie Mekonnen, Abrha Gebreselema, Yohannes Abere
Background: Different types of dietary lipids have been shown to affect lipid metabolism and lipid profile differently. Objective: This study aims to assess the effect of local niger seed oil on serum lipid profile compared to palm oil and sunflower oil in rats. Methods: The effect of the 15% plant oils on serum lipid profile, body weight gain percentage, and feed efficiency ratio was assessed after 8 weeks of experimental period. Results and Conclusion: The 15% niger seed oil showed decrease and increase in the level of lipid profile as compared to rats fed with 15% palm oil and sunflower oil (except Triacylglycerol), respectively...
2018: Journal of Lipids
Dhrubajyoti Bandyopadhyay, Arshna Qureshi, Sudeshna Ghosh, Kumar Ashish, Lyndsey R Heise, Adrija Hajra, Raktim K Ghosh
The risk of cardiovascular disease has been reported to have a linear relationship with LDL levels. Additionally, the currently recommended LDL target goal of 70 mg/dl does not diminish the CV risk entirely leaving behind some residual risk. Previous attempts to maximally lower the LDL levels with statin monotherapy have met dejection due to the increased side effects associated with the treatment. Nevertheless, with the new advancements in clinical medicine, it has now become possible to bring down the LDL levels to as low as 15 mg/dl using PCSK9 monoclonal antibodies alone or in combination with statins...
2018: Journal of Lipids
L E Gutiérrez-Pliego, B E Martínez-Carrillo, A A Reséndiz-Albor, I M Arciniega-Martínez, J A Escoto-Herrera, C A Rosales-Gómez, R Valdés-Ramos
Background: Diabetes mellitus is considered a chronic noncommunicable disease in which inflammation plays a main role in the progression of the disease and it is known that n -3 fatty acids have anti-inflammatory properties. One of the most recent approaches is the study of the fatty acids of microalgae as a substitute for fish oil and a source rich in fatty acids EPA and DHA. Objective: To analyze the effect of supplementation with n -3 fatty acids extracted from microalgae on the inflammatory markers from two different strains of mice...
2018: Journal of Lipids
Moshrik Abd Alamir, Michael Goyfman, Adib Chaus, Firas Dabbous, Leslie Tamura, Veit Sandfort, Alan Brown, Mathew Budoff
Background: The extent of coronary artery calcium (CAC) improves cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk prediction. The association between common dyslipidemias (combined hyperlipidemia, simple hypercholesterolemia, metabolic Syndrome (MetS), isolated low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and isolated hypertriglyceridemia) compared with normolipidemia and the risk of multivessel CAC is underinvestigated. Objectives: To determine whether there is an association between common dyslipidemias compared with normolipidemia, and the extent of coronary artery involvement among MESA participants who were free of clinical cardiovascular disease at baseline...
2018: Journal of Lipids
Dhrubajyoti Bandyopadhyay, Kumar Ashish, Adrija Hajra, Arshna Qureshi, Raktim K Ghosh
PCSK9 inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies, are novel antihypercholesterolemic drugs. FDA first approved them in July 2015. PCSK9 protein (692-amino acids) was discovered in 2003. It plays a major role in LDL receptor degradation and is a prominent modulator in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) metabolism. PCSK9 inhibitors are monoclonal antibodies that target PCSK9 protein in liver and inhibiting this protein leads to drastically lowering harmful LDL-C level in the bloodstream. Despite widespread use of the statin, not all the high-risk patients were able to achieve targeted level of LDL-C...
2018: Journal of Lipids
Alexander M Wathne, Hanne Devle, Carl Fredrik Naess-Andresen, Dag Ekeberg
Fatty acid (FA) profiles of the species Tettigonia viridissima , Chorthippus biguttulus , and Chorthippus brunneus were determined and quantitated. Extracted lipids were derivatized into FA methyl esters (FAMEs) prior to analysis by GC-MS. A total of 37 different FAs were identified in T. viridissima , yielding a total FA content of 10.4 g/100 g of dry matter. The contents of saturated FAs, monounsaturated FAs, and polyunsaturated FAs were 31.1, 35.9, and 33.0%, respectively. Lipids from T. viridissima were also fractioned into neutral lipids, free fatty acids, and polar lipids by offline solid phase extraction...
2018: Journal of Lipids
Ahmad Firdaus B Lajis
For decades, microbial lipases are notably used as biocatalysts and efficiently catalyze various processes in many important industries. Biocatalysts are less corrosive to industrial equipment and due to their substrate specificity and regioselectivity they produced less harmful waste which promotes environmental sustainability. At present, thermostable and alkaline tolerant lipases have gained enormous interest as biocatalyst due to their stability and robustness under high temperature and alkaline environment operation...
2018: Journal of Lipids
L R Rivera-Rangel, K I Aguilera-Campos, A García-Triana, J G Ayala-Soto, D Chavez-Flores, L Hernández-Ochoa
Two different extraction processes, Soxhlet and ultrasound, were used to obtain the oil extracts of Western Schley, Wichita, and Native pecan nuts cultured in Chihuahua, Mexico. The aspects evaluated in this study were the extraction yield of the processes and fatty acids' profile of the resulting extracts. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to identify and determine the composition percentage of fatty acids present in pecan nuts oils extracted. The results obtained show that higher oil extraction yields were obtained by Soxhlet method with hexane (69...
2018: Journal of Lipids
Xingxuan He, Edward H Schuchman
Ceramide, a bioactive membrane sphingolipid, functions as an important second messenger in apoptosis and cell signaling. In response to stresses, it may be generated by de novo synthesis, sphingomyelin hydrolysis, and/or recycling of complex sphingolipids. It is cleared from cells through the activity of ceramidases, phosphorylation to ceramide-1-phosphate, or resynthesis into more complex sphingolipids. Ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury occurs when oxygen/nutrition is rapidly reintroduced into ischemic tissue, resulting in cell death and tissue damage, and is a major concern in diverse clinical settings, including organ resection and transplantation...
2018: Journal of Lipids
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