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AIDS Research and Treatment

Helina Abebe, Shegaye Shumet, Zebiba Nassir, Melkamu Agidew, Dessie Abebaw
Depression is most frequently and highly occurring common mental disorder in HIV/AIDS patients especially youth living with HIV/AIDS. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and associated factors of depressive symptoms among youth living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) attending Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) follow-up at public hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Objective . To assess the prevalence and associated factors of depressive symptoms among youth living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) attending Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) follow-up at public hospitals Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2016...
2019: AIDS Research and Treatment
Yitayih Kefale Gelaw, Boressa Adugna, Adino Tesfahun Tsegaye, Tadesse Melaku, Belayneh Kefale
Background: Adverse effects from antiretroviral therapy (ART) have an impact on quality of life and medication adherence. There is no clear understanding of how people manage the adverse effects of ART. The individual taking medications which cause serious adverse effects may choose to stop or reduce the medications to relieve the adverse effects. Hence, this study was aimed at assessing coping strategies for adverse effects of ART among adult human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients...
2018: AIDS Research and Treatment
Nurilign Abebe Moges, Habtamu Mellie Bizuayehu
Background: The major mode of HIV transmission in many resource-limited settings is via heterosexual intercourse, but the primary risk factor for youth is primarily through perinatal infection. With the maturing of the HIV epidemic, youth who acquired the virus perinatally are now reaching adolescence and becoming young adults. There is a paucity of data on the sexual practices of perinatally infected youth in Ethiopia. Methods: This a cross-sectional study among 343 HIV positive youths receiving HIV care and treatment in the two hospitals in northwest Ethiopia...
2018: AIDS Research and Treatment
Rajesh Meena, Alok Hemal, Shilpa Khanna Arora
Background: With improving standards of care of children living with HIV (CLHIV), pediatric HIV related mortality rates are declining. New challenges like HIV status disclosure are emerging which need to be addressed to ensure their smooth transition into adulthood. Poor disease disclosure rates are observed in CLHIV globally. Aims: This study was done to assess the prevalence of HIV disclosure in North Indian CLHIV, know the perceptions of caregivers regarding disclosure, and evaluate the impact of disclosure on CLHIV...
2018: AIDS Research and Treatment
Nooshin Zarei, Hassan Joulaei
Background: Suicidal ideation is considered a major health problem associated with HIV/AIDS. Suicide rates among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) are more than three times higher in the general population and that is a significant difference. This study aimed at investigating the related factors of suicidal ideations among HIV-positive patients in Southwest Iran. Study Design: A cross-sectional study. Methods: 351 adult volunteer HIV-infected patients that referred to the Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) center in the south of Iran were evaluated based on convenience sampling...
2018: AIDS Research and Treatment
Hamufare Mugauri, Owen Mugurungi, Addmore Chadambuka, Tsitsi Juru, Notion Tafara Gombe, Gerald Shambira, Mufuta Tshimanga
Background: In 2016, Mashonaland West Province had 7.4% (520) dried blood spot (DBS) samples for early infant diagnosis (EID) rejected by the Zimbabwe National Microbiology Reference Laboratory (NMRL). The samples were suboptimal, delaying treatment initiation for HIV-infected children. EID is the entry point to HIV treatment services in exposed infants. We determined reasons for DBS sample rejections and suggested solutions. Methods: A cause-effect analysis, modelled on Ishikawa, was used to identify factors impacting DBS sample quality...
2018: AIDS Research and Treatment
Judith G Rabkin, Martin C McElhiney, Mark Harrington, Tim Horn
Introduction: Our goal was to assess the long-term impact of AIDS activism of ACT UP/New York on the current adjustment of those who were members during its peak years (1987-1992), including assessment of trauma sequelae as well as posttraumatic growth. Methods: A 90-minute semistructured interview and 6 validated self-report scales were administered. We relied on purposive and snowball sampling to recruit potential participants. Areas covered include demographics, ACT UP participation, and psychiatric problems...
2018: AIDS Research and Treatment
Patrick Igulot, Monica A Magadi
Background: There is controversy on the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and HIV infection. Some evidence claims higher SES is negatively associated with HIV infection while others report the reverse. Objectives: To examine the association between SES and HIV infection in Uganda and to examine whether the SES-HIV relationship varies by gender, rural-urban place of residence, and time (2004-2005 and 2011) in Uganda. Methods: Multilevel analysis was applied to 39,766 individual cases obtained in 887 clusters of Uganda HIV/AIDS Indicators Survey conducted in 2004-2005 and 2011...
2018: AIDS Research and Treatment
Hannah N Gilbert, Monique A Wyatt, Stephen Asiimwe, Bosco Turyamureeba, Elioda Tumwesigye, Heidi Van Rooyen, Ruanne V Barnabas, Connie L Celum, Norma C Ware
Voluntary medical male circumcision (MMC) reduces risk of HIV infection, but uptake remains suboptimal among certain age groups and locations in sub-Saharan Africa. We analysed qualitative data as part of the Linkages Study, a randomized controlled trial to evaluate community-based HIV testing and follow-up as interventions promoting linkage to HIV treatment and prevention in Uganda and South Africa. Fifty-two HIV-negative uncircumcised men participated in the qualitative study. They participated in semistructured individual interviews exploring (a) home HTC experience; (b) responses to test results; (c) efforts to access circumcision services; (d) outcomes of efforts; (e) experiences of follow-up support; and (f) local HIV education and support...
2018: AIDS Research and Treatment
Vaidehi Mujumdar, Doris Berman, Katherine R Schafer
People living with HIV (PLWH) have distinct needs when it comes to reproductive health, specifically regarding fertility, family planning, and pregnancy, and these needs are often complicated by HIV status. While there is ample research that focuses on reproductive health in PLWH through a quantitative lens, there is a lack of research using qualitative methods, namely, the narrative interview model. We searched PubMed and relevant abstracts to identify 72 articles published from 1997 to 2016 that described a qualitative framework for exploring the behaviors and perceptions regarding family planning, abortion, pregnancy, parenthood, fertility, and forced sterility in PLWH...
2018: AIDS Research and Treatment
Tsegaye Bekele, Evan J Collins, Robert G Maunder, Sandra Gardner, Sergio Rueda, Jason Globerman, Thao Lan Le, Jon Hunter, Anita Benoit, Sean B Rourke, The Ohtn Cohort Study Team
We sought to estimate the prevalence of childhood adversity and examine its relationship with health outcomes among people living with HIV. Study participants included 1409 adults living with HIV and receiving care in Toronto, Canada. Data on childhood adversity, health behaviors, HIV outcome measures, depression, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) were collected through face-to-face interviews and medical records. Statistical analyses included multivariable linear and logistic regression modeling. The prevalence of any childhood adversity was 71% (individual types ranged from 11% to 44%) and higher prevalence was associated with younger age, Indigenous or African/Caribbean/Black ethnicity, lower socioeconomic status, and higher rates of cigarette smoking and nonmedicinal drug use...
2018: AIDS Research and Treatment
Tadele Amare, Wondale Getinet, Shegaye Shumet, Biksegn Asrat
Background: Depression is a substantial contributor to the global burden of disease and affects people in all communities across the globe. Depression is the most common psychiatric problem associated with HIV/AIDS and half of all PLWHIV with depression go underdiagnosed and untreated. Psychiatric complications of HIVAIDS delay mental health services in less affluent countries. However, there is lack of study with regard to the pooled estimation prevalence of depression in PLWHIV in Ethiopia...
2018: AIDS Research and Treatment
David W Pittman, Alexandra M Brantly, Alexandra L Drobonick, Hannah T King, Daniel C Mesta, Caroline G Richards, Manjari Lal, Manshun Lai
Negative hedonic sensory qualities of HIV antiretroviral drugs often reduce patient adherence particularly in pediatric populations requiring oral consumption. This study examines the palatability of an innovative delivery mechanism utilizing a freeze-drying-in-blister approach to create fast-dissolving tablets (FDTs) containing a fixed-dose combination of lopinavir and ritonavir (LPV/r). Consumption patterns of solutions during brief-access and long-term testing and baby foodstuff consumption were analyzed to evaluate the orosensory detection and avoidance of placebo FDTs containing no LPV/r (FDT-) and FDTs containing LPV/r (FDT+)...
2018: AIDS Research and Treatment
Cecilia T Costiniuk, Vikram Mehraj, Jean-Pierre Routy, Christina de Castro, Natale Wasef, Mohammad-Ali Jenabian, Syim Salahuddin, Bertrand Lebouché, Joseph Cox, Jason Szabo, Marina Klein, Larry Lands, Adam J Shapiro
Introduction: Low levels of nasal NO have been associated with increased propensity to rhinosinusitis and respiratory tract infections. Our objective was to describe nasal NO levels in HIV-infected individuals versus healthy controls and determine possible risk factors for reduced nasal NO levels. Materials and Methods: HIV-infected individuals and healthy controls were recruited. Participants underwent nasal NO testing by standardized methods using a CLD88 chemiluminescence analyzer and completed the Sinonasal Outcome Test-20 (SNOT-20) on symptoms of rhinosinusitis...
2018: AIDS Research and Treatment
Clifford O Odimegwu, Joshua O Akinyemi, Olatunji O Alabi
Nigeria has about 3.8 million people living with HIV, the second largest globally. Stigma and discrimination are major barriers to testing, treatment uptake, and adherence. In this review, we synthesized information on research studies, policies, and programmes related to HIV-stigma in Nigeria. This was with a view to identify critical areas that research and programmes must address in order to accelerate the progress towards zero (new infections, discrimination, and death) target by year 2030. Existing studies were mostly devoted to stigma assessment using varieties of measures...
2017: AIDS Research and Treatment
Michelle M Gill, Heather J Hoffman, Majoalane Mokone, Vincent J Tukei, Matsepeli Nchephe, Mamakhetha Phalatse, Appolinaire Tiam, Laura Guay, Lynne Mofenson
Very early infant diagnosis (VEID) (testing within two weeks of life), combined with rapid treatment initiation, could reduce early infant mortality. Our study evaluated turnaround time (TAT) to receipt of infants' HIV test results and ART initiation if HIV-infected, with and without birth testing availability. Data from facility records and national databases were collected for 12 facilities offering VEID, as part of an observational prospective cohort study, and 10 noncohort facilities. HIV-exposed infants born in January-June 2016 and any cohort infant diagnosed as HIV-infected at birth or six weeks were included...
2017: AIDS Research and Treatment
Barbara Castelnuovo, Frank Mubiru, Ivan Kalule, Shadia Nakalema, Agnes Kiragga
Since 2012, the WHO recommends lifelong ART with TDF+FTC/3TC+EFV for all HIV-positive pregnant and breastfeeding women (Option B-plus). In this analysis we describe the proportion of early and late transmission in mothers with high retention in Kampala, Uganda. We included 700 pregnant women from January 2012 to August 2014 with a follow-up extended to August 2016; the median age was 31 years (IQR: 26-35), 36.3% in WHO stage 3/4; median CD4 count was 447 cells/ μ L (IQR: 301-651) and 73.3% were already on ART for a median time of 28 (IQR: 10-57) months; 52% infants were male and median weight was 3...
2017: AIDS Research and Treatment
Henri Gautier Ouedraogo, Odette Ky-Zerbo, Adama Baguiya, Ashley Grosso, Sara Goodman, Benoît Cesaire Samadoulougou, Marcel Lougue, Nongoba Sawadogo, Yves Traore, Nicolas Barro, Stefan Baral, Seni Kouanda
Background: Female sex workers (FSWs) are considered a vulnerable population for HIV infection and a priority for HIV/AIDS response programs. This study aimed to determine HIV prevalence among FSWs in five cities in Burkina Faso. Methods: FSWs aged 18 and older were recruited using respondent driven sampling (RDS) in five cities (Ouagadougou, Bobo-Dioulasso, Koudougou, Ouahigouya, and Tenkodogo) in Burkina Faso from 2013 to 2014. HIV testing was performed using the HIV testing national algorithm...
2017: AIDS Research and Treatment
Ferdinand C Mukumbang, Joyce Chali Mwale, Brian van Wyk
Background: HIV remains a major public health challenge in Zambia. The roll-out of antiretroviral treatment (ART) has engendered new challenges in retention in care. Objective: To conceptualise the factors affecting retention in care of ART patients at three primary healthcare facilities using the ecological framework. Method: Qualitative data were collected through in-depth interviews with 45 ART patients and three focus group discussions with 20 healthcare providers from three primary healthcare facilities in Kabwe district, Zambia, and subjected to thematic content analysis...
2017: AIDS Research and Treatment
Mohammed Biset Ayalew
Background: Even though the benefit of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is well established, there is a regional variation in the extent of its benefit. The aim of this review is to highlight mortality and its predictors in Ethiopian adult HIV patients who were on ART. Methods: Relevant articles were searched on PubMed and Google Scholar databases. The search terms used in different combinations were predictor/determinant/factors, mortality/death/survival, HIV, ART/HAART, and Ethiopia...
2017: AIDS Research and Treatment
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