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Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle

Susan L Ziolkowski, Jin Long, Joshua F Baker, Glenn M Chertow, Mary B Leonard
BACKGROUND: Conventional definitions of sarcopenia based on lean mass may fail to capture low lean mass relative to higher fat mass, that is, relative sarcopenia. The objective of this study is to determine the associations of sarcopenia and relative sarcopenia with mortality independent of co-morbidities, and whether chronic kidney disease (CKD) and adiposity alter these associations. METHODS: Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry-derived appendicular lean mass index (ALMI, kg/m2 ) and fat mass index (FMI, kg/m2 ) were assessed in 14 850 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey participants from 1999 to 2006 and were linked to death certificate data in the National Death Index with follow-up through 2011...
February 19, 2019: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Debora Basile, Annamaria Parnofiello, Maria Grazia Vitale, Francesco Cortiula, Lorenzo Gerratana, Valentina Fanotto, Camilla Lisanti, Giacomo Pelizzari, Elena Ongaro, Michele Bartoletti, Silvio Ken Garattini, Victoria Josephine Andreotti, Anna Bacco, Donatella Iacono, Marta Bonotto, Mariaelena Casagrande, Paola Ermacora, Fabio Puglisi, Nicoletta Pella, Gianpiero Fasola, Giuseppe Aprile, Giovanni G Cardellino
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer (PC) patients have multiple risk factors for sarcopenia and loss of skeletal muscle mass (LSMM), which may cause greater treatment toxicities, reduced response to cancer therapy, prolonged hospitalization, impaired quality of life, and worse prognosis. METHODS: This is a retrospective study on advanced PC patients treated at the Department of Oncology of Udine, Italy, from January 2012 to November 2017. Among 162 patients who received chemotherapy, 94 consecutive patients with an available computed tomography (CT) scan were retrospectively analyzed...
February 4, 2019: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Bumsoo Ahn, Rojina Ranjit, Pavithra Premkumar, Gavin Pharaoh, Katarzyna M Piekarz, Satoshi Matsuzaki, Dennis R Claflin, Kaitlyn Riddle, Jennifer Judge, Shylesh Bhaskaran, Kavithalakshmi Satara Natarajan, Erika Barboza, Benjamin Wronowski, Michael Kinter, Kenneth M Humphries, Timothy M Griffin, Willard M Freeman, Arlan Richardson, Susan V Brooks, Holly Van Remmen
BACKGROUND: Excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) and muscle weakness occur in parallel in multiple pathological conditions. However, the causative role of skeletal muscle mitochondrial ROS (mtROS) on neuromuscular junction (NMJ) morphology and function and muscle weakness has not been directly investigated. METHODS: We generated mice lacking skeletal muscle-specific manganese-superoxide dismutase (mSod2KO) to increase mtROS using a cre-Lox approach driven by human skeletal actin...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Zhenhui Li, Bolin Cai, Bahareldin Ali Abdalla, Xuenong Zhu, Ming Zheng, Peigong Han, Qinghua Nie, Xiquan Zhang
BACKGROUND: Recent studies indicate important roles for long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the regulation of gene expression by acting as competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs). However, the specific role of lncRNAs in skeletal muscle atrophy is still unclear. Our study aimed to identify the function of lncRNAs that control skeletal muscle myogenesis and atrophy. METHODS: RNA sequencing was performed to identify the skeletal muscle transcriptome (lncRNA and messenger RNA) between hypertrophic broilers and leaner broilers...
January 30, 2019: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Jian-Zi Lin, Jin-Jian Liang, Jian-Da Ma, Qian-Hua Li, Ying-Qian Mo, Wan-Mei Cheng, Xiao-Ling He, Nan Li, Ming-Hui Cao, Dan Xu, Lie Dai
BACKGROUND: The link between body mass index (BMI) and disease characteristics in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) remains controversial. Body composition (BC) has been more frequently recommended to be used instead of BMI for more accurate assessment. Our study aimed to investigate the characteristics of BC in RA patients and their associations with disease characteristics. METHODS: Body composition was assessed in consecutive Chinese RA patients and control subjects by bioelectric impedance analysis...
January 30, 2019: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Julien Aniort, Alexandre Stella, Carole Philipponnet, Anais Poyet, Cécile Polge, Agnès Claustre, Lydie Combaret, Daniel Béchet, Didier Attaix, Stéphane Boisgard, Marc Filaire, Eugénio Rosset, Odile Burlet-Schiltz, Anne-Elisabeth Heng, Daniel Taillandier
BACKGROUND: Loss of muscle mass worsens many diseases such as cancer and renal failure, contributes to the frailty syndrome, and is associated with an increased risk of death. Studies conducted on animal models have revealed the preponderant role of muscle proteolysis and in particular the activation of the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS). Studies conducted in humans remain scarce, especially within renal deficiency. Whether a shared atrophying programme exists independently of the nature of the disease remains to be established...
January 29, 2019: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Brian C Clark, Dallin Tavoian, Bret H Goodpaster, Peggy M Cawthon, Ross D Hansen, Todd M Manini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 24, 2019: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Fabrizio Pin, Rafael Barreto, Marion E Couch, Andrea Bonetto, Thomas M O'Connell
BACKGROUND: Cancer cachexia is a metabolic disorder involving perturbed energy balance and altered mitochondrial function. Chemotherapy is a primary treatment option for many types of cancer, but there is substantial evidence that some chemotherapeutic agents can also lead to the development and progression of cachexia. In this study, we apply a comprehensive and systems level metabolomics approach to characterize the metabolic perturbations in murine models of cancer-induced and chemotherapy-induced cachexia...
January 24, 2019: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Nadja Scherbakov, Charlotte Pietrock, Anja Sandek, Nicole Ebner, Miroslava Valentova, Jochen Springer, Joerg C Schefold, Stephan von Haehling, Stefan D Anker, Kristina Norman, Karl Georg Haeusler, Wolfram Doehner
BACKGROUND: Body weight loss is a frequent complication after stroke, and its adverse effect on clinical outcome has been shown in several clinical trials. The purpose of this prospective longitudinal single-centre observational study was to investigate dynamical changes of body composition and body weight after ischemic stroke and an association with functional outcome. METHODS: Sixty-seven consecutive patients (age 69 ± 11 years, body mass index 27.0 ± 4...
January 24, 2019: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Willemieke P M Dijksterhuis, Maarten J Pruijt, Stephanie O van der Woude, Remy Klaassen, Sophie A Kurk, Martijn G H van Oijen, Hanneke W M van Laarhoven
BACKGROUND: Palliative systemic treatment in patients with advanced or metastatic esophagogastric cancer may result in improved overall survival and quality of life but can also lead to considerable toxicity. In various cancer types, severe muscle mass depletion (sarcopenia) and poor muscle strength are associated with decreased survival and increased chemotherapy-related toxicity. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of body composition on survival and chemotherapy toxicity in esophagogastric cancer patients treated with first-line palliative chemotherapy...
January 21, 2019: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Xinxia Zhu, Kevin G Burfeind, Katherine A Michaelis, Theodore P Braun, Brennan Olson, Katherine R Pelz, Terry K Morgan, Daniel L Marks
BACKGROUND: Up to 80% of pancreatic cancer patients suffer from cachexia, a devastating condition that exacerbates underlying disease, reduces quality of life, and increases treatment complications and mortality. Tumour-induced inflammation is linked to this multifactorial wasting syndrome, but mechanisms and effective treatments remain elusive. Myeloid differentiation factor (MyD88), a key component of the innate immune system, plays a pivotal role in directing the inflammatory response to various insults...
January 21, 2019: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Anita E M Kneppers, Roy A M Haast, Ramon C J Langen, Lex B Verdijk, Pieter A Leermakers, Harry R Gosker, Luc J C van Loon, Mitja Lainscak, Annemie M W J Schols
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) is a cornerstone in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), targeting skeletal muscle to improve functional performance. However, there is substantial inter-individual variability in the effect of PR on functional performance, which cannot be fully accounted for by generic phenotypic factors. We performed an unbiased integrative analysis of the skeletal muscle molecular responses to PR in COPD patients and comprehensively characterized their baseline pulmonary and physical function, body composition, blood profile, comorbidities, and medication use...
January 18, 2019: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Katherine M Flegal, John P A Ioannidis, Wolfram Doehner
Guideline recommendations and health policy decisions rely on evidence from clinical and epidemiological studies. Adequate methodology and appropriate conclusions are essential to support healthcare and health policy decisions. An analysis of body mass index and mortality by the Global BMI Mortality Collaboration (GBMC) concluded that the association of excess body weight with higher mortality was similar worldwide and that overweight and obesity should be combated everywhere. To reach this conclusion, the GBMC used highly selected data, rather than a systematic approach...
January 17, 2019: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Nadja Scherbakov, Wolfram Doehner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 13, 2019: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Justin C Brown, Elizabeth M Cespedes Feliciano, Bette J Caan
There is growing interest from the oncology community to understand how body composition measures can be used to improve the delivery of clinical care for the 18.1 million individuals diagnosed with cancer annually. Methods that distinguish muscle from subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue, such as computed tomography (CT), may offer new insights of important risk factors and improved prognostication of outcomes over alternative measures such as body mass index. In a meta-analysis of 38 studies, low muscle area assessed from clinically acquired CT was observed in 27...
January 13, 2019: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Junting Liu, Yinkun Yan, Bo Xi, Guimin Huang, Jie Mi
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle as an essential body composition component plays an important role in maintenance of normal growth and development as well as systemic glucose metabolism in children. No nationwide reference data for skeletal muscle mass for Chinese youths are available in China. We aimed to establish the sex-specific and age-specific percentile reference values of skeletal muscle mass for Chinese children and adolescents. METHODS: This study consisted of 10 818 children and adolescents aged 3-17 years in Chinese urban area during 2013-15...
November 30, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Francesca Riuzzi, Guglielmo Sorci, Cataldo Arcuri, Ileana Giambanco, Ilaria Bellezza, Alba Minelli, Rosario Donato
Primary sarcopenia is a condition of reduced skeletal muscle mass and strength, reduced agility, and increased fatigability and risk of bone fractures characteristic of aged, otherwise healthy people. The pathogenesis of primary sarcopenia is not completely understood. Herein, we review the essentials of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of skeletal mass maintenance; the alterations of myofiber metabolism and deranged properties of muscle satellite cells (the adult stem cells of skeletal muscles) that underpin the pathophysiology of primary sarcopenia; the role of the Ca2+ -sensor protein, S100B, as an intracellular factor and an extracellular signal regulating cell functions; and the functional role of S100B in muscle tissue...
November 30, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
John E Morley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Fanny Buckinx, Francesco Landi, Matteo Cesari, Roger A Fieding, Marjolein Visser, Klaus Engelke, Stefania Maggi, Elaine Dennison, Nasser M Al-Daghri, Sophie Allepaerts, Jurgen Bauer, Ivan Bautmans, Maria-Luisa Brandi, Olivier Bruyère, Tommy Cederholm, Francesca Cerreta, Antonio Cherubini, Cyrus Cooper, Alphonso Cruz-Jentoft, Eugene McCloskey, Bess Dawson-Hughes, Jean-Marc Kaufman, Andrea Laslop, Jean Petermans, Jean-Yves Reginster, René Rizzoli, Sian Robinson, Yves Rolland, Ricardo Rueda, Bruno Vellas, John A Kanis
However, semantics aside, we think that DXA can indeed serve as a reference standard for measuring muscle mass. Obviously, CT and MRI are advanced techniques that can and have been used to obtain important information such as muscle size/volume and more recently amount and distribution of intra- and intermuscular adipose tissue. Also individual muscles can be assessed separately. However, with respect to muscle mass, the comparison of DXA with CT/MRI is rather difficult because DXA and QCT/MRI measure different physical parameters...
December 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Tsuyoshi Suzuki, Jochen Springer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
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