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Journal of Biomedical Research

Huijeong Ahn, Hyuk Moo Kwon, Eunsong Lee, Pyeung-Hyeun Kim, Eui-Bae Jeung, Geun-Shik Lee
Inflammatory responses are essential in eliminating harmful substrates from damaged tissue and inducing recovery. Several cytokines participate in and facilitate this response. Certain cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 are initially produced in precursor form in response to toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands and undergo maturation by inflammasomes, which are cytosolic multi-protein complexes containing nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-containing protein 2-like receptors (NLRs). Immune modulators targeting inflammasomes have been investigated to control inflammatory diseases such as metabolic syndrome...
November 20, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Research
Archana G Venakatesh, Johann J Mathew, Scott Coleman, Longqiu Yang, Geoffrey L Liu, Marilyn M Li, Henry Liu
Congestive heart failure (CHF) is defined as a cardiac dysfunction leading to low cardiac output and inadequate tissue perfusion. Intravenous positive inotropes are used to increase myocardial contractility in hospitalized patients with advanced heart failure. Milrinone is a phosphodiesterase Ⅲ inhibitor and used most commonly for inotropic effect. The well-known PROMISE study investigated the effects of milrinone on mortality in patients with severe CHF, and concluded that long-term therapy with milrinone increased morbidity and mortality among patients with advanced CHF...
November 18, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Research
Hanadi A Lamfon, Ibrahim M Hamouda
This study was conducted to investigate the maxillary denture bases and occlusal discrepancies using the Vertex Thermosens in comparison with the conventional polymethyl-methacrylate materials. Twenty maxillary denture bases were prepared from the Vertex ThermoSens and a conventional heat-cured denture base materials. Acrylic maxillary second molars were arranged in their respective positions on the ridge. After curing of both types of denture bases, they were deflasked with their respective master casts. Reference points were prepared for measurements of the antero-posterior and cross-arch dimensions at the denture borders using caliper device...
November 12, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Research
Sary S Borzangy, Samah M Saker, Walid A Al-Zordk
This study was designed to compare the impact of post and core systems on resistance to fracture of endodontically treated anterior teeth with flared root canals and to assess their fracture pattern. Sixty central incisors were cut horizontally 2 mm coronal to the cementoenamel junction (CEJ). After root canal therapy, teeth were assigned into 6 groups (n=10 each) based on a post system and used as follows: Group C, non-flared root received size #1 glass fiber posts (Control); Group AP, flared root restored with anatomical post; Group RC, flared root restored with size #1 fiber post and cemented with thick layer of resin cement; Group CR, flared root restored with size #1 and reinforced with composite resin; Group CM, cast post-core; Group CP, CAD?/CAM polymer-infiltrated ceramic post and core...
November 12, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Research
Gi Young Park, Dong Rak Kwon, Yong Suk Moon
The purpose of this study was to investigate the intensity-specific regenerative effects of microcurrent therapy on gastrocnemius muscle atrophy induced by cast-immobilization in rabbits. Fifteen rabbits were randomly allocated to 3 groups after cast removal: cast-immobilization and sham microcurrent therapy for 2 weeks (group 1); cast-immobilization and microcurrent therapy (25 μA) for 2 weeks (group 2); cast-immobilization and microcurrent therapy (5,000 μA) for 2 weeks (group 3). Clinical parameters [calf circumference, compound muscle action potential (CMAP) of the tibial nerve, thickness of gastrocnemius muscle], cross sectional area of gastrocnemius muscle fibres, and immunohistochemistry was evaluated...
November 12, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Research
Jing-Dong Zhang, Xing-Long Yang, You Zhou, Howard Fox, Huangui Xiong
Over the recent years, it has been found that microglia pseudopodia contact synapses, detect sick ones and prune them, even in adult animals. Myelinated nerves also carry out plasticity in which microglia remove myelin debris by phagocytosis. However, it remains unknown whether microglia explore structures on nerve fibers, such as Ranvier's node (RN) or myelin sheath, before they become debris. By double or triple staining RNs or myelin sheathes and microglia in healthy rat corpus callosum, this study unveiled direct contacts of microglia pseudopodia with RNs and with para- and inter-nodal myelin sheathes, which was then verified by electron microscopic observations...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Research
Christopher J Danford, Zemin Yao, Z Gordon Jiang
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is now the most common cause of chronic liver diseases worldwide. It encompasses a spectrum of disorders ranging from isolated hepatic steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. One of the key challenges in NAFLD is identifying which patients will progress. Epidemiological and genetic studies indicate a strong pattern of heritability that may explain some of the variability in NAFLD phenotype and risk of progression...
October 24, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Research
Huan-Qiang Wang, Cong-Ying Yang, Si-Yuan Wang, Tian Wang, Jing-Ling Han, Kai Wei, Fu-Cun Liu, Ji-da Xu, Xian-Zhen Peng, Jian-Ming Wang
Identifying sensitive and specific biomarkers for early detection of cancer is immensely imperative for early diagnosis and treatment and better clinical outcome of cancer patients. This study aimed to construct a specific DNA methylation pattern of cancer suppressor genes and explore the feasibility of applying cell-free DNA based methylation as a biomarker for early diagnosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). We recruited early stage ESCC patients from Yangzhong County, China. The Illumina Infinium 450K Methylation BeadChip was used to construct a genome-wide DNA methylation profile...
October 24, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Research
Aravind Selvin Kumar Ramanathan, Balakrishnan Karuppiah, Murali Vijayan, Kamaraj Raju, Dhivakar Mani, Rathika Chinniah, Manikandan Thirunavukkarasu, Padma Malini Ravi, Jeyaram Illiayaraja Krishnan, Prabha Senguttuvan
Nephrotic syndrome is one of the most common childhood kidney diseases. It is mostly found in the age group of 2 to 8 years. Around 10%-15% of nephrotic syndrome cases are non-responders of steroid treatment (SRNS). Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) (I/D) gene association studies are important for detecting kidney disease and herein we assessed the association of ACE (I/D) polymorphism with nephrotic syndrome in South Indian children. We recruited 260 nephrotic syndrome (162 boys and 98 girls) and 218 (140 boys and 78 girls) control subjects...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Research
Min-Bo Zang, Qiao Zhou, Yun-Fei Zhu, Ming-Xi Liu, Zuo-Min Zhou
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is one of the most common cancers affecting men of reproductive age. The high response rate of bendamustine as first-line treatment for NHL, coupled with young age of patients, makes elucidation of the impact of treatment on male reproduction important. Our aim was to determine the effects of bendamustine on male reproduction by animal model. Male mice were treated with bendamustine (40 mg/kg) through tail vein injection while cisplatin was given as a standard (3 mg/kg) through intraperitoneal injection...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Research
Mei-Qing Sun, Zhan-Lin Ding, Hong Wang, Guang-Ping Yu, Bing-Zhi Li, Ming-Chun Li, Meng-Meng Zhen
BiOBr nanosheets are important photocatalytic nanomaterials. However, their biological effects remain to be explored. In this study, we investigated the antifungal effect of BiOBr nanosheets on Candida albicans. Strikingly, the nanosheets strongly inhibited the growth of C. albicans [IC50 =(96±4.7) mg/L], hyphal development and biofilm formation. Compareed to the antifungal effect of the cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, the inhibitory effect of the nanosheets on fungal pathogen was attributed to cetyltrimethylammonium bromide adsorbed by the nanosheets...
September 29, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Research
Yi Zhang, Jing Wu, Jun-Ya Liang, Xing Huang, Lei Xia, Da-Wei Ma, Xin-Yu Xu, Ping-Ping Wu
While obesity and fat intake have been associated with the risk and prognosis of epithelial ovarian cancer, the association between the lipid levels and epithelial ovarian cancer phenotype remains controversial. We conducted a retrospective study of 349 epithelial ovarian cancer patients who received treatment at Jiangsu Cancer Hospital, China between 2011 and 2017. We analyzed age at diagnosis, blood pressure, plasma glucose content, body mass index (BMI), lipid levels and clinical parameters. Severity of epithelial ovarian cancer was classified according to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) grading system...
September 29, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Research
Di-di Zhu, Jia-Min Yuan, Rui Zhu, Yao Wang, Zhi-Yong Qian, Jian-Gang Zou
Sleepiness affects normal social life, which attracts more and more attention. Circadian phenotypes contribute to obvious individual differences in susceptibility to sleepiness. We aimed to identify candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) which may cause circadian phenotypes, elucidate the potential mechanisms, and generate corresponding SNP-gene-pathways. A genome-wide association studies (GWAS) dataset of circadian phenotypes was utilized in the study. Then, the Identify Candidate Causal SNPs and Pathways analysis was employed to the GWAS dataset after quality control filters...
September 29, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Research
Jian-Ying Zhang, Qing-Ke Bai, Ying-Dong Zhang
Inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductases, collectively known as statins, have been shown to minimize cerebral ischemic events in patients. We assessed the mechanisms of simvastatin pretreatment in preventing cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats using a model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Rats were pretreated with simvastatin 14 days prior to MCAO induction. At 3, 24, and 48 hours after reperfusion, bradykinin levels in the ischemic penumbra were assayed by ELISA, mRNA levels of bradykinin B2 receptors (BK-2Rs) and CD11b were measured by fluorescent quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR), and co-expression of microglia and BK-2Rs was determined by immunofluorescence...
September 29, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Research
Li-Xing Wu, Yu-Yu Xu, Zhi-Jian Yang, Qing Feng
Myocardial infarction triggers massive biochemical changes, even cardiac cell death. Endoplasmic reticulum stress is involved in the pathology of myocardial infarction-mediated apoptosis. In the present study, myocardial cell line H9c2 cells were treated with cobalt chloride (CoCl2 ) to induce hypoxia. Isoproterenol was used for two successive days to induce myocardial infarction in SD rats. The cardioprotective effect of olive leaf extract (OLE) and its main constituent hydroxytyrosol and the underlying mechanisms were evaluated...
September 29, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Research
Eika S Webb, Peng Liu, Renato Baleeiro, Nicholas R Lemoine, Ming Yuan, Yao-He Wang
In recent years immune checkpoint inhibitors have garnered attention as being one of the most promising types of immunotherapy on the horizon. There has been particular focus on the immune checkpoint molecules, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) which have been shown to have potent immunomodulatory effects through their function as negative regulators of T cell activation. CTLA-4, through engagement with its ligands B7-1 (CD80) and B7-2 (CD86), plays a pivotal role in attenuating the activation of naïve and memory T cells...
September 29, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Research
Chao-Yun Li, Ping Meng, Ben-Zheng Zhang, Hong Kang, Han-Li Wen, Hermann Schluesener, Zhi-Wei Cao, Zhi-Yuan Zhang
Natural polyphenols are a large class of phytochemicals with neuroprotective effects. Four polyphenolic compounds: hesperidin, icariin, dihydromyricetin and baicalin were selected to evaluate their effects on Alzheimer's disease (AD). We analyzed by an inverse docking procedure (INVDOCK) the potential protein targets of these polyphenols within the KEGG AD pathway. Consequently, their therapeutic effects were evaluated and compared in a transgenic APP/PS1 mouse model of AD. These polyphenols were docked to several targets, including APP, BACE, PSEN, IDE, CASP, calpain and TNF-α, suggesting potential in vivo activities...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Research
Dao-Kuo Yao, Xiang-Yu Gao, Hui-Qiang Zhao, Hui Chen, Le-Xin Wang
Multivessel coronary artery ectasia with severe calcification is rare among patients with coronary artery disease. A 74-year-old Chinese woman suffered from acute myocardial infarction on a background of 50 years of poorly controlled hypertension secondary to pheochromocytoma, which was surgically removed in June 2012 prior to the presentation. Coronary angiography revealed total occlusion of the proximal left anterior descending artery, and multiple ectasias with severe calcification in the left main, circumflex and right coronary artery...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Research
Kee D Kim, Huy Duong, Aditya Muzumdar, Mir Hussain, Mark Moldavsky, Bandon Bucklen
In this study, we sought to assess the safety and accuracy of sacropelvic fixation performed with image-guided sacroiliac screw placement using postoperative computed tomography and X-rays. The sacroiliac screws were placed with navigation in five patients. Intact specimens were mounted onto a six-degrees-of-freedom spine motion simulator. Long lumbosacral constructs using bilateral sacroiliac screws and bilateral S1 pedicle and iliac screws were tested in seven cadaveric spines. Nine sacroiliac screws were well-placed under an image guidance system (IGS); one was placed poorly without IGS with no symptoms...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Research
Haibo Tong, Chunlin Zou, Siyuan Qin, Jie Meng, Evan T Keller, Jian Zhang, Yi Lu
Prostate cancer preferentially metastasizes to the bone. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are still unclear. To explore the effects of a bone-mimicking microenvironment on PC3 prostate cancer cell growth and metastasis, we used osteoblast differentiation medium (ODM; minimal essential medium alpha supplemented with L-ascorbic acid) to mimic the bone microenvironment. PC3 cells grown in ODM underwent epithelial-mesenchymal transition and showed enhanced colony formation, migration, and invasion abilities compared to the cells grown in normal medium...
September 6, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Research
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