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Journal of Oral Microbiology

Haifeng Lu, Zhigang Ren, Ang Li, Jinyou Li, Shaoyan Xu, Hua Zhang, Jianwen Jiang, Jiezuan Yang, Qixia Luo, Kai Zhou, Shusen Zheng, Lanjuan Li
Background: The microbiota plays a critical role in the process of human carcinogenesis. Pancreatic head carcinoma (PHC)-associated tongue coating microbiome dysbiosis has not yet been clearly defined. Objective: Our aim is to reveal the bacterial composition shifts in the microbiota of the tongue coat of PHC patients. Design: The tongue coating microbiota was analyzed in 30 PHC patients and 25 healthy controls using 16S rRNA gene sequencing technology. Results: The microbiome diversity of the tongue coat in PHC patients was significantly increased, as shown by the Shannon, Simpson, inverse Simpson, Obs and incidence-based coverage estimators...
2019: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Sim K Singhrao, Ingar Olsen
Chronic periodontitis of 10 years' duration is reported to become a twofold risk factor for the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Periodontitis is modifiable, and this fits with the current action plan for preventing AD. However, until periodontitis, becomes acknowledged as a firm risk factor for AD, this risk will continue. Here, we put forward our own argument based on the current literature for in vivo infection-mediated periodontal disease models supporting the antimicrobial protection hypothesis of AD and interventional studies supporting the causal links...
2019: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Matthew L Brewer, David Dymock, R Leo Brady, Bernhard B Singer, Mumtaz Virji, Darryl J Hill
Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae , and Moraxella catarrhalis are pathogenic bacteria adapted to reside on human respiratory mucosal epithelia. One common feature of these species is their ability to target members of the carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule (CEACAM) family, especially CEACAM1, which is achieved via structurally distinct ligands expressed by each species. Beside respiratory epithelial cells, cells at the dentogingival junction express high levels of CEACAM1. It is possible that bacterial species resident within the oral cavity also utilise CEACAM1 for colonisation and invasion of gingival tissues...
2019: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Ingar Olsen, Özlem Yilmaz
There is increasing evidence for an association between periodontitis/tooth loss and oral, gastrointestinal, and pancreatic cancers. Periodontal disease, which is characterized by chronic inflammation and microbial dysbiosis, is a significant risk factor for orodigestive carcinogenesis. Porphyromonas gingivalis is proposed as a keystone pathogen in chronic periodontitis causing both dysbiosis and discordant immune response. The present review focuses on the growing recognition of a relationship between P. gingivalis and orodigestive cancers...
2019: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Nezar Noor Al-Hebshi, Divyashri Baraniya, Tsute Chen, Jennifer Hill, Sumant Puri, Marisol Tellez, Nur A Hasan, Rita R Colwell, Amid Ismail
Studies of the microbiome associated with dental caries have largely relied on 16S rRNA sequence analysis, which is associated with PCR biases, low taxonomic resolution, and inability to accurately study functions. Here, we employed whole metagenome shotgun sequencing, coupled with high-resolution analysis algorithm, to analyze supragingival microbiomes from 30 children with or without dental caries. A total of 726 bacterial strains belonging to 406 species, in addition to 34 bacteriophages were identified...
2019: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Tracy Munthali Lunde, Adam P Roberts, Mohammed Al-Haroni
Background: Tn916 and Tn1545 are paradigms of a large family of related, broad host range, conjugative transposons that are widely distributed in bacteria and contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Variation in the copy number (CN) of Tn916-Tn1545 elements and the circularization ratio (CR) may play an important role in propagation of ARGs carried by these elements. Objectives and Design: In this study, the CN and CR of Tn916-Tn1545 elements in oral streptococci were determined using droplet digital PCR (ddPCR)...
2019: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Fabian Cieplik, Egija Zaura, Bernd W Brandt, Mark J Buijs, Wolfgang Buchalla, Wim Crielaard, Marja L Laine, Dong Mei Deng, Rob A M Exterkate
Objective : Periodontal diseases are triggered by dysbiotic microbial biofilms. Therefore, it is essential to develop appropriate biofilm models. Aim of the present study was to culture microcosm biofilms inoculated from different niches in periodontitis patients and compare their microbial composition to those inoculated from subgingival plaque. Methods : Saliva, subgingival plaque, tongue and tonsils were sampled in five periodontitis patients to serve as inocula for culturing biofilms in vitro in an active attachment model...
2019: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Samira Elmanfi, Jie Zhou, Herman O Sintim, Eija Könönen, Mervi Gürsoy, Ulvi Kahraman Gürsoy
BACKGROUND: Cyclic dinucleotides (cyclic di-guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) and cyclic di-adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP)) and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Individual impacts of PAMPs on immune system have been evaluated, but simultaneous actions of multiple PAMPs have not been studied. OBJECTIVE: Examination the effects of cyclic dinucleotides and Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS on gingival epithelial cytokine response...
2019: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Gordon Ramage, Lindsay O'Donnell, Leighann Sherry, Shauna Culshaw, Jeremy Bagg, Marta Czesnikiewicz-Guzik, Clare Brown, Debbie McKenzie, Laura Cross, Andrew MacInnes, David Bradshaw, Roshan Varghese, Paola Gomez Pereira, Anto Jose, Susmita Sanyal, Douglas Robertson
Objective : Robust scientific and clinical evidence of how to appropriately manage denture plaque is lacking. This two-part study (i) developed an in vitro model of denture plaque removal, and (ii) assessed effectiveness of these approaches in a randomised clinical trial. Method : (i) a complex denture plaque model was developed using the dominant microbial genera from a recent microbiome analyses. Biofilms formed on polymethylmethacrylate were brushed daily with a wet toothbrush, then either treated daily for 5 days or only on Days 1 and 5 with Polident® denture cleanser tablets (3 min soaking)...
2019: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Katarzyna Garbacz, Tomasz Jarzembowski, Ewa Kwapisz, Agnieszka Daca, Jacek Witkowski
We used flow cytometry to compare the phagocytic activity of monocytes against Staphylococcus aureus strains (both biofilm and planktonic cells) isolated from denture wearers and non-wearers. Staphylococcal strains were cultured in Brain Heart Infusion broth in both planktonic and biofilm form and were stained with a fluorescent reporter (propidium iodide) and incubated with monocytes. The fluorescence of the monocytes containing phagocytized bacteria was determined by flow cytometry and normalized to that of the bacterial strains used in the experiment...
2019: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Mark Lindholm, Kyaw Min Aung, Sun Nyunt Wai, Jan Oscarsson
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Aggregatibacter aphrophilus belong to the HACEK group of fastidious Gram-negative organisms, a recognized cause of infective endocarditis. A. actinomycetemcomitans is also implicated in aggressive forms of periodontitis. We demonstrated that A. aphrophilus strains, as A. actinomycetemcomitans are ubiquitously serum resistant. Both species encode two Outer membrane protein A paralogues, here denoted OmpA1 and OmpA2. As their respective pangenomes contain several OmpA1 and OmpA2 alleles, they represent potential genotypic markers...
2019: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Jacquelyn M Fechney, Gina V Browne, Neeta Prabhu, Laszlo Irinyi, Wieland Meyer, Toby Hughes, Michelle Bockmann, Grant Townsend, Hanieh Salehi, Christina J Adler
Children's oral health is in a dire state, with dental decay (caries) being one of the most common chronic diseases. While the role of bacteria in the oral microbiome and dental caries is established, the contribution of fungi is relatively unknown. We assessed the oral mycobiome in childhood ( n = 17), to determine if the composition of fungi varies between children with and without caries. Oral mycobiome composition was assessed by using Illumina MiSeq to sequence the ITS2 region, which was amplified from dental plaque...
2019: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Reisha Rafeek, Christine V F Carrington, Andres Gomez, Derek Harkins, Manolito Torralba, Claire Kuelbs, Jonas Addae, Ahmed Moustafa, Karen E Nelson
Chewing gum containing xylitol may help prevent caries by reducing levels of mutans streptococci (MS) and lactobacilli in saliva and plaque. Very little is known about other species which are possibly beneficial to oral health. In this study, we employed high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to profile microbial communities of saliva and plaque following short-term consumption of xylitol and sorbitol containing chewing gum. Participants ( n  = 30) underwent a washout period and were randomly assigned to one of two groups...
2019: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Amina Basic, Hanna Enerbäck, Sara Waldenström, Emma Östgärd, Narong Suksuart, Gunnar Dahlen
Objective : To investigate oral diseases and microbiological conditions, such as the presence of ureolytic bacteria in dental plaque, in relation to experience of stomach pain in a remote adult Asian population. Methods : Ninety-three adults, 40-60-years old, from the Karen Hill tribe in Northern Thailand with no regular access to dental care were examined. Clinical registrations were performed and interproximal gingival plaque samples were collected and analyzed with the checkerboard (CKB) method for the presence of 14 oral bacterial species...
2018: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Talita Castro, Maite Sabalza, Cheryl Barber, William Abrams, Antonio Charlys Da Costa, Flavio Augusto De Pádua Milagres, Paulo Henrique Braz-Silva, Daniel Malamud, Marina Gallottini
Background : Zika virus (ZIKV) is a single-stranded RNA virus and member of the Flaviviridae family. Recent studies have reported that saliva can be an important alternative to detect ZIKV. Saliva requires less processing than blood greatly simplifying the assay. Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) is a rapid assay that detects nucleic acids, including ZIKV RNA. Aim : The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of saliva and urine to diagnose ZIKV infection in subjects during the acute phase, through ZIKV RNA detection by LAMP...
2018: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Inmaculada Tomás, Isabel Prada-López, Victor Quintas, Maria José Carreira, Áurea Simón-Soro, Alejandro Mira, Carlos Balsa-Castro
This study aimed to compare the bacterial viability and diversity of a substrate-formed biofilm (SF-biofilm) in situ to a supragingival tooth-formed biofilm (TF-biofilm) in the same group of individuals. The impact of the device/disc position and toothbrushing during the formation of SF-biofilm was also assessed. Two tests were run. In test 1, 15 volunteers wore two hemi-splints carrying six discs of human enamel, glass, and hydroxyapatite for 2 days, and were instructed to not perform any oral hygiene measure...
2018: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Tim Schmitter, Bernd L Fiebich, Joerg T Fischer, Max Gajfulin, Niklas Larsson, Thorsten Rose, Marcus R Goetz
Background : Probiotic bacteria with anti-inflammatory properties have the potential to be of therapeutic benefit in gingivitis. Objective : To evaluate the effects of potential probiotic strains on inflammatory mediators involved in early gingivitis using an ex vivo inflammation model. Methods : Strains were screened in viable and attenuated forms for effects on bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated release of interleukins (IL)-1β, -6 and -8, tumor necrosis factor-α, prostaglandin E2 and 8-isoprostane from human primary monocytes, and then, if anti-inflammatory effects were shown, on IL-1β-stimulated release of inflammatory mediators from primary gingival fibroblasts...
2018: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Christine A Kressirer, Tsute Chen, Kristie Lake Harriman, Jorge Frias-Lopez, Floyd E Dewhirst, Mary A Tavares, Anne Cr Tanner
Background : Dental caries results from a dysbiosis of tooth-associated biofilms and frequently extends through enamel into dentin which has a different structure and composition. Objective : To evaluate the metatranscriptome of caries to determine the metabolic potential of caries communities compared with health. Design : Samples from children, caries-free (CF: n  = 4) or with coronal (CC: n  = 5) or dentin (DC: n  = 5) caries were examined for gene expression potential. Functional profiling was performed using HUMAnN2 (HMP Unified Metabolic Analysis Network)...
2018: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Shigeyuki Yokoyama, Kenji Takeuchi, Yukie Shibata, Shinya Kageyama, Rie Matsumi, Toru Takeshita, Yoshihisa Yamashita
Background : Neisseria has been reported to be a high producer of acetaldehyde (ACH), a carcinogen, from ethanol in vitro , but no information exists regarding whether the ACH production depends on oral microbiota profiles. Objective and Design: To explore the salivary microbiota profiles with respect to ACH production ability in the oral cavity using a cross-sectional design. Results: Using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, we classified 100 saliva samples into two types of communities (I and II). Salivary ACH production ability from ethanol was measured using gas chromatography and was found to vary over a 30-fold range...
2018: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Alessandra Lucchese, Lars Bondemark, Marta Marcolina, Maurizio Manuelli
Background : Oral microbiota has been at the center of cultural attention in recent years. In daily clinical practice, orthodontic appliances may be associated with an increased cariogenic risk and a worsening of preexisting periodontal diseases. Objective : The purpose of this review is to investigate the available evidence regarding the association between orthodontic appliances and changes in the quality and quantity of the oral microbiota. Design : The research included every article published up to October 2017 featuring the keywords 'Orthodontic appliance* AND (microbiological colonization OR periodontal pathogen* OR Streptococcus mutans OR Lactobacillus spp...
2018: Journal of Oral Microbiology
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