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Frontiers in Psychology

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30774618/effects-of-valence-and-emotional-intensity-on-the-comprehension-and-memorization-of-texts
#1
Olga Megalakaki, Ugo Ballenghein, Thierry Baccino
In the present study, we independently manipulated valence (positive, negative, or neutral) and emotional intensity (low, medium, or high), asking what impact they have on text comprehension (via surface, paraphrase, and inference questions) and memorization (via Remember/Know test) in adults. Results show that emotional contents, including valence and intensity affects comprehension. Emotional valence had a significant effect on text comprehension, with higher scores for positive and neutral texts than for negative ones...
2019: Frontiers in Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30774617/how-can-on-road-hazard-perception-and-anticipation-be-improved-evidence-from-the-body
#2
Mariaelena Tagliabue, Michela Sarlo, Evelyn Gianfranchi
The present research is aimed at investigating processes associated with learning how to drive safely. We were particularly interested in implicit mechanisms related to the automatic processing system involved in decision making in risky situations (Slovic et al., 2007). The operation of this system is directly linked to experiential and emotional reactions and can be monitored by measuring psychophysiological variables, such as skin conductance responses (SCRs). We focused specifically on the generalization of previously acquired skills to new and never before encountered road scenarios...
2019: Frontiers in Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30774616/psychopathy-and-decision-making-antisocial-factor-associated-with-risky-decision-making-in-offenders
#3
Xiaoqiang Yao, Fenghua Zhang, Tingting Yang, Tao Lin, Ling Xiang, Fuming Xu, Guanrui He
Psychopathy is a personality development disorder increasing the risk of antisocial behavior. Studies on the relationship between psychopathy and decision-making have received limited attention and the result of studies is mixed. A present study examines whether or not the different factors of psychopathy are related to decision-making under risk and ambiguity in offenders and how they are related. Also, the study investigates whether general intelligence is associated with decision-making or moderates the relationship between psychopathy and decision-making...
2019: Frontiers in Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30774615/social-modeling-of-food-intake-no-evidence-for-moderation-by-identification-with-the-norm-referent-group
#4
Jinyu Liu, Suzanne Higgs
Normative information has a powerful effect on food intake and food selection. People tend to use the eating behavior of others as a reference for their own eating behaviors and match their intake to an eating partner. This is known as social modeling. There is some evidence to suggest that people are more likely to model a norm when it comes from an in-group than when it comes from an out-group, but whether the strength of identification with a norm referent group moderates modeling of intake has yet to be examined...
2019: Frontiers in Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30774614/compassion-focused-approaches-to-working-with-distressing-voices
#5
Charles Heriot-Maitland, Simon McCarthy-Jones, Eleanor Longden, Paul Gilbert
This paper presents an outline of voice-hearing phenomenology in the context of evolutionary mechanisms for self- and social- monitoring. Special attention is given to evolved systems for monitoring dominant-subordinate social roles and relationships. These provide information relating to the interpersonal motivation of others, such as neutral, friendly or hostile, and thus the interpersonal threat, versus safe, social location. Individuals who perceive themselves as subordinate and dominants as hostile are highly vigilant to down-rank threat and use submissive displays and social spacing as basic defenses...
2019: Frontiers in Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30774613/the-role-of-prior-achievement-as-an-antecedent-to-student-homework-engagement
#6
Isabel Piñeiro, Iris Estévez, Carlos Freire, Ana de Caso, Alba Souto, Mercedes González-Sanmamed
The benefits of homework on student learning and academic achievement, to a large extent, depend on the degree of student engagement. Motivational engagement (my intention or why I do the homework), cognitive engagement (how I get involved in homework), and behavioral engagement (how much homework I do, how much time I devote to it, how I manage that time) are key aspects that condition the quality of the process of doing homework, learning, and academic achievement. Prior academic achievement is one of the variables that seems to be positively related to student engagement (both due its motivational component and to the training to do homework)...
2019: Frontiers in Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30774612/homework-and-academic-achievement-in-latin-america-a-multilevel-approach
#7
Rubén Fernández-Alonso, Pamela Woitschach, Marcos Álvarez-Díaz, Andrea M González-López, Marcelino Cuesta, José Muñiz
The relationship between homework and academic results has been widely researched. Most of that research has used English-speaking, European or Asian samples, and to date there have been no detailed studies into that relationship in Latin America and the Caribbean. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of quantitative homework characteristics on achievement in science. The sample comprised 61,938 students at 2,955 schools in the 15 Latin American countries (plus the Mexican state of New Leon) which participated in the Third Regional Comparative and Explanatory Study (TERCE), carried out by the Latin American Laboratory for Educational Quality (LLECE) in 2013...
2019: Frontiers in Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30774611/emotion-in-context-how-sender-predictability-and-identity-affect-processing-of-words-as-imminent-personality-feedback
#8
Sebastian Schindler, Ria Vormbrock, Johanna Kissler
Recent findings suggest that communicative context affects the timing and magnitude of emotion effects in word processing. In particular, social attributions seem to be one important source of plasticity for the processing of affectively charged language. Here, we investigate the timing and magnitude of ERP responses toward positive, neutral, and negative trait adjectives during the anticipation of putative socio-evaluative feedback from different senders (human and computer) varying in predictability. In the first experiment, during word presentation participants could not anticipate whether a human or a randomly acting computer sender was about to give feedback...
2019: Frontiers in Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30774610/flexible-emotion-regulation-how-situational-demands-and-individual-differences-influence-the-effectiveness-of-regulatory-strategies
#9
REVIEW
Dorota Kobylińska, Petko Kusev
The number of studies and theoretical contributions on emotion regulation has grown rapidly. In this article we describe the concept of flexible emotion regulation. We argue that the effectiveness of specific emotion regulation strategies depends on the interaction of the features of a situation and personality characteristics of the individual regulating his/her emotions. We review a few recent theoretical contributions and studies that have attempted to capture some aspects of the flexibility of emotion regulation rather than distinguish between overly adaptive and maladaptive strategies...
2019: Frontiers in Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30774609/engaging-with-contemporary-dance-what-can-body-movements-tell-us-about-audience-responses
#10
Lida Theodorou, Patrick G T Healey, Fabrizio Smeraldi
In live performances seated audiences have restricted opportunities for response. Some responses are obvious, such as applause and cheering, but there are also many apparently incidental movements including posture shifts, fixing hair, scratching and adjusting glasses. Do these movements provide clues to people's level of engagement with a performance? Our basic hypothesis is that audience responses are part of a bi-directional system of audience-performer communication. This communication is part of what distinguishes live from recorded performance and underpins live performers' moment-to-moment sense of how well a performance is going...
2019: Frontiers in Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30774608/awareness-of-emotional-expressions-in-cannabis-users-an-event-related-potential-study
#11
Robert D Torrence, Donald C Rojas, Lucy J Troup
Cannabis use has been associated with anxiogenic effects when used in low frequency for a short duration, but cannabis can also have anxiogenic effects when used heavily for a long duration. Animal studies have indicated the neurobiological mechanisms related to cannabis and anxiety; however, research has been limited on the related neurocognitive mechanisms. Previous research has indicated that cannabis use is associated with alterations in event-related potentials (ERPs). The purpose of the current study was to examine anxiety related attentional processing of emotional expressions using ERP methods...
2019: Frontiers in Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30774607/the-relationship-between-morphological-awareness-and-reading-comprehension-among-chinese-children
#12
Ruibo Xie, Jie Zhang, Xinchun Wu, Thi Phuong Nguyen
The present study examined the developmental relationship between morphological awareness and reading comprehension, using a 1-year longitudinal study with a sample of 439 Chinese-speaking students in Grades 1, 3, and 5, respectively. Children's text reading and three components of morphological awareness: homophone awareness, homograph awareness and compounding awareness were measured. After controlling for word reading, vocabulary knowledge, IQ, rapid automatized naming and phonological awareness measured at the initial level, the structural equation modeling results indicated that children's compounding awareness made a significant direct contribution to reading comprehension only from Grade 5 to 6...
2019: Frontiers in Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30774606/time-is-not-more-abstract-than-space-in-sound
#13
Alexander Kranjec, Matthew Lehet, Adam J Woods, Anjan Chatterjee
Time is talked about in terms of space more frequently than the other way around. Some have suggested that this asymmetry runs deeper than language. The idea that we think about abstract domains (like time) in terms of relatively more concrete domains (like space) but not vice versa can be traced to Conceptual Metaphor Theory. This theoretical account has some empirical support. Previous experiments suggest an embodied basis for space-time asymmetries that runs deeper than language. However, these studies frequently involve verbal and/or visual stimuli...
2019: Frontiers in Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30774605/ethnic-cultural-bullying-versus-personal-bullying-specificity-and-measurement-of-discriminatory-aggression-and-victimization-among-adolescents
#14
Antonio J Rodríguez-Hidalgo, Juan Calmaestra, José A Casas, Rosario Ortega-Ruiz
The present study contrasts personal bullying with ethnic-cultural bullying. A representative pluricultural sample from a Spanish adolescent population of Secondary Education took part in the study ( N = 27369). The sample filled in the EBIPQ to measure personal bullying. Additionally, they filled in an adaptation of this questionnaire to measure the ethnic-cultural bullying: the EBIPQ-ECD. The EBIPQ-ECD validation showed optimal psychometric properties and a bidimensional structure: ethnic-cultural victimization and ethnic-cultural aggression...
2019: Frontiers in Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30766506/puzzle-solving-activity-as-an-indicator-of-epistemic-confusion
#15
Amaël Arguel, Lori Lockyer, Kevin Chai, Mariya Pachman, Ottmar V Lipp
When students perform complex cognitive activities, such as solving a problem, epistemic emotions can occur and influence the completion of the task. Confusion is one of these emotions and it can produce either negative or positive outcomes, according to the situation. For this reason, considering confusion can be an important factor for educators to evaluate students' progression in cognitive activities. However, in digital learning environments, observing students' confusion, as well as other epistemic emotions, can be problematic because of the remoteness of students...
2019: Frontiers in Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30766505/brief-metacognitive-therapy-for-emotional-distress-in-adult-cancer-survivors
#16
Peter L Fisher, Angela Byrne, Louise Fairburn, Helen Ullmer, Gareth Abbey, Peter Salmon
Background: Adult cancer survivors often experience substantial psychological morbidity following the completion of acute cancer treatment. Unfortunately, current psychological interventions are of limited efficacy. This study explored if metacognitive therapy (MCT); a brief transdiagnostic psychological intervention was potentially efficacious and could be delivered effectively to adult cancer survivors with psychological morbidity. Methods: An open trial with 3- and 6-month follow-up evaluated the treatment effects of MCT in 27 consecutively referred individuals to a clinical psychology health service specializing in psycho-oncology...
2019: Frontiers in Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30766504/toward-a-new-approach-to-cross-cultural-distinctiveness-and-typicality-of-human-faces-the-cross-group-typicality-distinctiveness-metric
#17
Karel Kleisner, Šimon Pokorný, S Adil Saribay
In the present research, we took advantage of geometric morphometrics to propose a data-driven method for estimating the individual degree of facial typicality/distinctiveness for cross-cultural (and other cross-group) comparisons. Looking like a stranger in one's home culture may be somewhat stressful. The same facial appearance, however, might become advantageous within an outgroup population. To address this fit between facial appearance and cultural setting, we propose a simple measure of distinctiveness/typicality based on position of an individual along the axis connecting the facial averages of two populations under comparison...
2019: Frontiers in Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30766503/the-relationship-between-assistance-satisfaction-and-negative-affect-in-long-term-social-assistance-recipients-in-china-the-moderating-role-of-self-acceptance
#18
Xinru Huang, Hong Chen, Shanshan Li
Public welfare in China is less universal, comprehensive, and generous when compared with other welfare regimes, especially for individuals with occupational disease. The assistance satisfaction of Chinese pneumoconiosis patients, a typical group of long-term social assistance recipients, has been linked to diminished health and psychological well-being. Self-acceptance is theorized to promote well-being, which may buffer the negative consequences of negative emotion on assistance satisfaction. This research was conducted based on the survey data of 1,345 patients in typical mining areas of China...
2019: Frontiers in Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30766502/corrigendum-development-of-an-online-and-offline-integration-hypothesis-for-healthy-internet-use-theory-and-preliminary-evidence
#19
Xiaoyan Lin, Wenliang Su, Marc N Potenza
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00492.].
2019: Frontiers in Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30766501/psychometric-properties-of-the-sas-bai-and-s-ai-in-chinese-university-students
#20
Zhanyu Pang, Dongbo Tu, Yan Cai
Three widely-used self-report anxiety scales, including the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and the State Anxiety Inventory (S-AI), were used to simultaneously compare the psychometric properties via an item response theory (IRT) model with Chinese university students as the sample. Although these scales were probably to measure the same underlying construct, namely, anxiety, their psychometric properties were different. Results showed that the BAI's measurement error was fewer than that of the other scales, with their anxiety severity ranging approximately from the 0...
2019: Frontiers in Psychology
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